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58 15, 

IHsirict of JKe:p-Yovlcj ss. 

BE IT REMEMBEilED, Thai; on \.he fifteenth day of De- 
cember, in the thirty-niiith year of the Independence of iLe United 
States of Anjei'ica, 'Evert Duyckinck, of the said district, hath de- 
posited in tiiis office the title of a book, the right whereof he claims 
as proprietor in the words following, to wit : 

" The Dyer's Con^.panion. In two parts. Part first, containing a 
General plan of dying Wool and \\ oollen^ Cotton and Lii»en Cloths, 
Yarn and Thread. Also, directions for iSIilling and Finishing, 
Stamping and Bleaching Cloths. Part Second, contains ntiany use- 
ful receipts on Dying, Staining, Painting, &c. By Elijah Bemis?. 
Second Edition, enlaiged and improved." 

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, en- 
titled, ** An act for the encouragement oi learning, by securing tlie 
,C0Y)ies of maps, charts, and books, to the antliors and proprietors of 
such copies, during the times therein mentioned." And also to an 
act, entitled, " An act, sii]>])lementJiry to an act, entitled, An act for 
the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, 
charts, and book i, to the antliors and proprietors of such copies, dur- 
ing the times tlierein mentioned^ and extending the benefits thereof to 
the arts of desigmnir, engraving, acd etching historical and other 

CVr/^ of the Southe7'7i District of Mn'-Yorkr 


I IN D E :?i Jatnn^ 


To set aBlae Vat of 12 Barrels, 5 
Vut anrl Utensils for Dying, 
To nt Cloths tor D\i no;, . . . 7 
Other meiliods for Blue, . 9, 10 
i>ireciioiis to be observed in 

common Colouring, . . .11 
To cie^n a Copper, .... 12 
A General Rule, .... ibio 

London Brown, . . 
G For Redfiish Brown, 
For Spanish Brown, 
For London Smoke, 
Cinnamon Brown, 
For Smoke Brown, 
For Liver Brown, 
For Olive Brown, 

For Blue, ibid i For Liij^lit SnufT Bro^vn, 

For Xavy Blae, 13 

Prussian Bluc.--Compound or 

Chymick, 14 

Another method for Blueing ^ 

or Compound, ibid 

Pinissiau Blue, 15 

For- Green, .... 15, 16, 17 For Li;,rlit Brow 
Fo^' Boule Green, 18 For Ash B own, 

. 5G 
. ibid 
. .3r 

. ss 

. ibid 
. ibtd 
. SD 
39, 40 
. . 4i> 
. . 41 
41, 42, 4o 

For Dark Snuff Brown, 

For Snuff Brown, 

For Bat-wine: Brown, . . . 43 

For Sia(e Brown, 44 

For Dove or Lead Brown, . ibid 

Fo)' Pc^arl or Silver Grev, • • ^ 

- ' " ■ ibid 


For Olive Green, 19 For Drjd) Brown, 

For Y.l!()w, .... 19, ^20, 2' ^ ^ ^ 

Bwif Yellow, 21 

To take the Colour out of 

Cloth, 21,22 

Scarlet Rf-d, 22, 23 

Crin^OH Re«l, 24 

For Red with Redwood or 

Nicaragua, ...... 25 

CrimsoH Rvd with Redwood, ibid 
For Red with ^ladrler, . . . ~" 
For Morroon Red. . . . 

Polished Red with Madder, . 
Fo!' Portable Red, ^ . . . 

For Claret Red, 

For Claret, 

For Madder Red to be dyed a 


For Scarlet to be dyed Claret 

or any dark Colour, 

„. _ , . . . . ibid 

'For Drab, ...... 46,47 

For Forest Cloth, 47 

For Liver Drab, 48 

For Xi5;ht Liver Drab, . . .ibid 
For a Madder Drab, .... ibid 
For a Green Drab, .... 49 
For a Redd is!) Drab, .... ibid 

For Light Drab, 50 

For Yellow Drab, ibid 

For a Dark Wllow Drab, . . ibid 

27j For a Forest Brown, . . . .ibid 

ibid For a D^^rk Forest Brown, . 51 

2SiFor Paris Mdd, ibid 

For a Raven Colour, . . . .ibid 
For Crow with Copperas, . . 52^ 
For Crow with Blueing Com- 

]>ounfl-, ibiti 

For Crow M'ith Blue Vitriol, . 53 




For Black, . . . 5.-, 54, 55, 56 
For Cherry Colour, .... ibid Blue, on Cotton and Linen, . 57 
Fo'- A'iolet Colours, .... SliBlue, ondo — "old, .... 58 

For Pink ColnU!-, ibid; 'Mue, on <lo. — Wot, . . . .ibid 

For Flcsli Colour, .... 32jTo take Ute ('olour out of Silk, 
For Orange Colour, .... ibidj Cotton and Liuen. — ^Tiot, 

For Brown, 33jFor Green on Silk.— Hot, 

For Loudon Brown, or Cor- iGreen, on Cotton and Lineri.» — 

beau with C ana wood, . . . ibid I Hot, 

For London Brown, or Cor- Y* How, on do.— -Hot, .... 

be-nj with Nicaragua, ... 35 Orange ^ 'olour, on do.* — Hot,. 
London Brown, or Coibeau Flesh Colour, on do. — Hot, 

Trills Redwood, ..... ibidlRed, cu do.--Cold, .... 





Heddish Brown, on Cotton 

and Linen. — Hot, . . . 
yiuinb olour or Purple, oi 

Silks. — ilol, .... 
JPurpIfc, on Colton or Lin en. — 


Brown, on do. — Cold, . 
f)ove or Lend Coioup, on do. 


Olive, »m do. — Cold, . . . 
©live, on Silk, Cotton or Lin 

en. — Hot, 

Light Olive, on Cotton and 

Linen. — Hot, .... 
ShUj Colon. , on »lo. — Hot, 
ill .ck on da — Hot, ... 
Black, on do. — Cold, . . , 
ii^eneial observations, . . 
Direclions for dressing Cloth 
For Fulling Cloths, . . 
Por tlM!i Cloths, . . . 
7'o dress Silk and Cotlon, he, 
Observatioii.s on Colours and 
Dyr-StufTs, . . 
Prussian Bhie, . . 
— — jj')r'?e Green, . . 
— — Yeiiiiw, .... 
Scarlet Red, . , . 
■ 'rim son, .... 

—Madder Red, . . 

Polished Rc<l, . . 

Orange Colour, 
Cherry Colour, 

Violet Colours, . , 

Pink Colours, . . 

Flesh Colour, . . 
Brown, .... 
— Corheau with Camwoo<], 
— Corheau with Nicaragua, 
—Corheau with Redwood, 
—•London Smoke, 
—Cinnamon Brown, 

Olive Brown, . . 

SnufF Brown, . . 

—Bat-win?, Slate, Dore, or 
Lead, Pearl or Silv 
Grey and Drab, . . 


—Crow, with Coj)peras, 
—(J row, with Compound of 

Blueing, .... 
.—"row, wtli Blue Vitriol 


«— Colouring Silk, . . . , 

—Dying Cotton and Linen, 

,«— Jic ;' SHut situation of 

the Dyer's Business, . 

Observations on Mantifactur- 

61 ingLioth, 90 


Introduction, 91 

BiueDymg, IQ5 

Preparing goods for Blue, and 
an explanation of the Dye- 
Stuffs, 10$ 

Pit i>aration of Lime, ... 133 

—of Sour Liquors, , . . ibid 
To set a Vat of *24 Barrels, as 

practised in Ameiica, . . 134 
To know when a Dye has 

coiiie to work, 135 

rUt VVoad or Pastel Vat, . 139 
Another method for Blue, as 

practised in America, . . 148 
Of Setting and working a A' at 
as practised at Paris in 

France, .15^ 

The Cold Vat with Urine, . 154 

''ot Vat with Urine, . . - 155 
R-4i eating of the Vat with 

Urine, : . . 158 

Bl'ie Vat with Garden- Woad 

or Pastel-Woad, .... 160 
The Vat stt to work, . . . ibid 
To set a Field Woad Vat, . 163 
Tiie Manufacturing of Pastel 
or Garden-Woad as prac- 
tised in Fraiice, .... 166 
Powder of Woad, .... 169 
Of makmg Indigoin America, 171 
On Yellow Dying, .... 173 

Of Weld, 17r 

Of Turmeric, 179 

Of Fustic, 180 

OfRoMcou, 182 

Of tlie Grains of Avignon, . 183 

Of Red, 184 

Of Flame-Coloured Scarlet, . 186 
For Scarlet as practised iu 

America, 188 

Composition for Scarlet, . . ibid 
To prepare or Granulate the 

I Tin, ISg 

ibid Of Scarlet of Grain, ; . . 190 

85 ! Prepa?'ation of the Wool for 

ibid' Scarlet of Grain, .... 191 

Liquor for the Kermes, . . 1D2 
86 Flame-Coloured Scarlet as 
ih (i practised at Leeds and in 

ib(' France, COO 

S^ Water for the preparation of 

ihli Scarlet, 202 

Reddening, 203^ 

8G Scarlet of Gum-Laccjue, . . 216^ 





















. 220 


. 232 



Of the Red of Madder, 

For Crimson, 

For Lauguedoc Crimson, . . 
The uaturalCrimson in Grain, 
Scarlet, of the Dying of Flock 

or Goat's Hair, .... 
The Theory of the Dissolu- 
tion of Flock, 240 

Scarlet of Archil, and the 

manner of using it, . . • 2i3 
Bastard Scarlet by Archil, . 246 
Ite6 of Brazil or Redwood, . 247 

Of Brown, 252 

Of Black, 253 

For Black, 254 

Another method for Black, . 255 
On the Mixture of Colours, . 
On Mixing Colours three by 


Of Purple, 260 

Of Orange, ibid 

Of the Mixture of Colours 

three by three 

For Fawn Colour and Silver 


For SiTvcr Grey, 

For Tobacco or Snuff Colour, 
Of Colours which will endure 

Milling, ibid 





Remarks on Indigo, . , . 262 

Of Camwood, 263 

Of Cochiiseal, ibid 

Of Brazil or R4?dwood, . . ibid 

Of Nicaragua Wcod, . . . ibid 

OfBarwood, 264 

Chymical History of Saun- 
ders, ibid 

Of Yellow Woods and Drugs, ibid 

Of Fustic, 265 

Of Logwood as a Colouring 

Drug, ibid 

OfBarks in General, ... 267 
To preserve Dye-Stuffs from 

Injury, 268 

The Cultivation of Teasles, . ibid 

Of Sorting Wool, .... 269 
Of Scouring or Washing of 

Wool, 271 

Of Manufacturing Cloth, . . 272 
Of Mining Cloth, .... ibid 
Another method for Scour- 
ing, 273 

Of Finishing Cloth, .... 274 
Of Suli)huring and Whiten- 
ing Woollen Cloth, ... 275 
To know when Cloth has been 
well Milled, Finished and 


To Jack or harden Leather, 
for Horseman's Caps, Hol- 
sters, &c 279 

To make Varnish for Leather, ibid 

To make Liquid Blacking for 
Boots and Shoes, .... ibid 

To prepare Feathers, Fur, 
and Hair, to receive Red, 
Yellow or Green, .... ibid 

To Colour Fenthers, Fur, kc^ 
Red, 280 

To Dye Brussels Red, . . . ibid 

To Colour Fey (hers. Fur, 
Iljxir, and Woollen or Silk, 
Blue of any shade, . . . ibid 

For Blue on Btussels, . . . ibid 

To Colour Feathers, &c. Yel- 
low and Green, .... 281 

For Gr^en on Brussels and 
Feathers, ibid 

For Light Green on Woollen, ibid 

To Colour Hats Green on 
the under side, ibid 

To Colour Feuthers, he. 
Blacky ^ . , iUidj 

To L^kcr Brass and Tin- 

To jsoften Steel — for engrav- 
'"g» &c 

To make Oil-Cloth for Hats, 
Umbrellas, he 

To make Oil -Cloth for Car- 

The Chinese method for ren- 
dering Cloth M'Hter-proof, . 

To boil Oil for Pointing, . . 

To make Stone Colour, . . 

To make Pearl Colour, . . 

To make deep Blue, . . . 

To make Sea Green, . . . 

Verdigrease Green, .... 

Orange Ccjlour for Carpets, . 

To Sli^ck Verdignase, . . . 

To I. ake ^ ermillion, . . . 

Of Rosr Lake, commonly 
called Rose Pink, .... 

For Prussian Blue, .... 

To lay Gold Leaf on Carved 
or Monlf'iiv Work, 

Paiating witli Milk, . ♦ . , 











riesmoTis Milk Pair.t, . . . 
To Staiu Cherry a Mahogany 


To make Cfieny-woml the 

Colour (U' Mahojfaay, . . 
Vor a dark Mihoi^auv Colour, 
To Stain Wii'te Wood Ma- 

hogarvj Col4)'ir, .... 
To Stain any kind of White 

Wood a Dark lla], of 

Light Mahog;iiny Colour, . 
To make a Cht ny Rod on 

Wliite Wood of ai^y kind. 
Red Stain for Wood, . . . 
To make (ireeii oa any kind 

of Wiiite Wood, .... 

To Stain Givcii, 

To Stain a Light O aage Co- 

loiu', . 

To Slain WoojI Black, . . 
Varnish- for Wood either 

Stained or Painted, . . . 
Varnislk, ....... 

To mnkt* Ambar or Copul 


A Polish for Mah'igany Fai^ 


To prepare Glue t'>r Use, . 
To make Rl;»<;k I'lk Powder, 
To juake Black luk, . . . 
For Ret I Ink, 8cc. . .• , . 
Cure for the Dropsy, . $90, 
Cure for Cance:s, . ' . . ^1 . 
Ciire for the Vfydrophobia, C9.3, 
Cu e for the Dysentery, 29^ 
Por the Dvsen'tary and Cho- 

ler.'*, or Vomituig, . . . 
Cure for St. Anthony's Fire, 
Recipe for a Consumption, . 
Core for the Heart Burn, . . 

Cure for the Stoae 

Indiaii method of Curing Spit- 

tino; of Blood 

A Receipt forRitters, to pre- 
vent the Fever and Agife, 

and all other fall fevers, 

Cure-fon orns, 

To make anRh^ctric Vlaehine, 
To Cure Children in the worst 

stagfe of r»to\ication, . . 

Cwre for the A.u:u^ 

Cure for Almonds of the Ears 

fallen loun, 

A care tor Frost Bitten Feet, 



Cure for the Asthm.i, . . . 

A ceiHatn Ckne for the Itch, . 
ibid Cure for the Sah Rheum, . 

Cure for tlie Rheumatism, . 
ibiil Good Cider as easily made as 

ibiii bad, . . . . \ . . , ibid 

For inakinp; Apple Brandy, . ibid 

ibid To )iiakc American Wine, . 300 

Cum ant W'ine, ibid 

A* tiflcial Claret, 301 

286; Gooseberry Wine, .... ibid 

j ltagi>bcrrr Wine, ibid 

ibkli Damson W^iPie, ..... ibid 

ibid:Wi!»e of Grape^^ ibid 

Wine 6f Strawberries ot 

ibid! R;;spberries, ibid 

ibidj A sh<r»'t way for' herry Wine, 302 

I Black Cherry Wine, . . . ibid 

ibid Meau, . . ." . . .• . . . ibid 

ibid Beer without Malt, . . . . ibid 

'.Good common Beer, . . . ibid 
ibid For preserving Apples thro' 

-89^ t!»e Winter, 

To F^ickle Cu cumbers — green, ibid 

ibi<! To Pickle French Beans, . ibid 

JT. Pickle Walnuts, . . . . 503 

jbM To Pickle Mushrooms, . . ibid 

ibidJLetnon andOran}^* Peel, . . ibid 

ibitl! To ])reserve Fruit Green, . ibid 

290; Raspberries, . . . 

ibidj— T^irberries, .... 



urrants, 304 

-Walnuts, green. 




•294' (nien ies, 7 . i . . . ibid 

295 ! To Candy Cherries, . . . . ibid 

i To Candv Pears, Plumbs, 

295 1 AptNcots, &c 

ibid! Of Jellies, • 

ib'd: To make Butter, .... 
296, To nreserve Fggs, .... 
ibidiTo Cure Hams, 305 

;To Destrov Buijs, Flies, Ants, 
297i K-c. on tender plants, . . ibid 

JTo kill Lice on Cattle, . . . 306 

I To rid Houses of Bujrs, . . ibid 
ibid To preserve Wheat and Kye 
ibid" from the Weavil, .... ibid 
ibid, To preserve I'ldianCorn fix)ra 

j Binls, ibid 

2QR For Inoeulatinjr Fi'uit Trees, ibid 
ibid; To take a Film off a Horse's 

! Fve, ....... r;or 

ilH'lV C!r.> for Sheep BithijT, . ibid 
ibid 'To find due Norti and Soatb, ibid 


THE design of *' The Dyer s Companion^'^ 
is to furnish an easy and uniform system of dy- 
ing for the use of pr>ciitioners, and those who 
wish to be benefitted by that and other arts in- 
troduced in this work. During an employment 
of several years m the clothier's business, 1 had 
to combat with m^my difFiculiies for the Avant of 
an assistant of this kind: and I am well per- 
suaded the greater part of my fellow-functioners 
have laboured under the same embarrass- 
ments, as there has not been to my know- 
ledge, any book of this nature ever before pub- 
lished in the United States — a work which I 
humbly conceive will not only be serviceable to 
the practitioners, but to the country at large. 

The author's attempt to improve the useful 
arts, and to promote manufactures, he hopes 
will meet the approbation and encouragement 
of his fellow-citizens ; and that the plainness of 
his plan, will be excused, as he is an unlettered 
country dyer. His long practise in dying and 
dressing cloth, &c. has given him great oppor- 
tunity for making improvements therein. These 
arts admit of still greater improvement, if proper 
attention is paid to recordin.g and securing our 
discoveries; but otherwise it must be expected 
that they will remain with us in a state of in- 

The art of dying is still far from having arriv- 
ed at a state of perfection even in Europe, and 
probably will not in our age. This coit^idera- 
tion ought not to discourage us, but to increase 
our ambition ; for it must be acknowkdged 
that ptreat improvem.ents have been made and 
are still making in this countrj . 

Those to whom the author is in the small- 
est degree indebted for promoting the usefulness 
of this work, will please to accept his thanks ; 
their future favors are requested, with a hope 
Ihat we may continue to live in brotherly loyCo 

viii PREFACE. 

By contributing our mutual aid towards gain'- 
ing and supporting our independence of Great- 
Britain, and other foreign countries, to whom in 
arts and manufactures we have too long bowed 
the knee ; we shall promote our own interests 
and our country's welfare and glory. 

In the First Part it is attempted to have the 
Receipts for dying woollen, silk, cotton and linen 
goods, arranged in the best order ; which isfol- 
lowed by directions for the management of co- 
louring, &c. The different operations of dye- 
stuff are then attempted to be shewn, together 
with directions for dressing cloth ; closing with 
some observations on the present situation of 
our business. 

The Second Part contains several useful arts 
and discoveries, collected from various sourc- 
es, which will be found to be extremely bene- 
ficial to the public in general. 

The author having for several years practised 
in the greatest part of the arts inserted in this 
work, pledges himself for the truth of his asser. 
lions. He has endeavoured to use the plainest 
language, and to point out every part of the pro- 
cesses, so that no one should be disappointed 
who attempts to follow his directions. 

Many master mechanicks refuse to give re- 
ceipts to their apprentices unless they will pay 
for them, and at a high price. There are many 
receipts in this book, v/hich, to the personal 
knoA'ledge of the author, have been sold for 
twenty and thirty dollars each ; and the pur- 
chaser prohibited from communicating the re- 
ceipt to any other person* Ey this means, 
useful discoveries are sometimes wholly lost; 
and our improvement in arts and manufactures 
make but slow progress. 

Sliould this attempt meet with reasonable 
encouragement the work will be enlarged and 
amended, \a future editions, as ihe author may 
find time and ineaas for the purp jse^ 




1. To set a blue Vat of twelve Barrel's. 

FOR a vat of twelve barrels ; fill the vat about 
half full of water, scaldii^g hot ; dissolve 
eight pounds of potash in eight gallons of warm 
water ; fill the copper \vith water ; add one half 
of the potash lie, with five pounds of madder, 
and four quarts of wheat bran ; heat this with a 
moderate fire, nearly to boiling ^hcat, often stir- 
ring it — turn this into the vat. Take fivepounds 
of indigo, wet it with one gallon of the potash lie, 
and grind it well : then fill your copper with wa- 
ter, and add the remainder of your potash lie, 
when cool, (being careful in pouring it off, as 
the sediment is injurious to the dye) ; add 
this compound of indigo, &c- and four pounds 
of woad ; stir this continually over a moderate 
fire, until it boils ; then turn it into the vat, and 
stir, rake or plunge vvcU, until well mixed toge- 
ther ; cover it close and let it stand two hours ; 
then add four ounces of borax, rake well, and 
let it stand twelve hours. 

If it does not come to work, then take two 
quarts of unslacked lime, and six quarts of wa- 
ter, putting them into a vessel proper for the 
purpose, and stirring well ; after standing till 
well settled, take the lie of the lime, and rake 
again, cover close, and let it stand two hours. 
The symptoms of the dye being fit to v/ork;- 


may be known by the rising of a fine coppdi'- 
coloured scum, on top of the dye, and hkewisc, 
a fine froth rising, called the head ; your dye 
will look green, and your cloth dipt in it, before 
it comes to the air, ^vill look green also. 

Form of a Vat and other Utensils necessary for 
Blue Dying. 

1st. The Fat ought to be made of pine plank, 
at least two inches thick : it should be five feet 
long, and the width sufficient for containing the 
quantity required \ the largest end down, and 
about three feet in the ground ; hooped with 
large iron hoops as far as it stands in the ground ; 
and all above ground covered with v;ooden 
hoops ; the top covered tight with a thick cover 
so as to exclude the cold air. A small lid should 
be made to open and shut at pleasure for the 
purpose of admitting the dye into the vat, stir- 
ring, raking, &c. It is absolutely necessary to 
cover close, so as to confine the heat and steam 
from the time you begin to empty your liquor, 
imtil your vat is full. The liquor should be con^ 
veyed from the copper to the vat by a spout or 
trunk, and after stirring, be immediately cover- 
ed close. 

2d. The Rake is of an oval form, with a 
handle through the middle, of sufficient length 
to reach the bottom of the vat with ease. 

3d. The Screen or Raddle^ to prevent the 
goods from sinking upon the sediment. This 
utensil is placed about ten or twelve inches from 
the bottom of the vat. It should be as large a^ 
the top of the vat will admit, and filled with net- 
ting or splinters ; it should be hung by three 
cords from the top, so as to be easily taken out 
when necessary, and a weight in the middle suf- 
>ficient to keep it down* 


4th. The Cross- Bar, or stick across the vat. 
This should be about one inch in diameter, and 
placed about six inches from the top, and across 
the middle of the vat. 

5th. The Handlers, Claws or Hooks, 7\x^ for 
managing the cloth in the dye, (for no air must 
come to the cloth while in the dye). The claws 
are made with wooden handles ; the hooks of 
iron in an oval form, half round, and notches in 
the hooks like saw teeth, for the purpose pf 
catching hold of the cloth. 

To fit Cloths for Dying. 

In the first place scour tlie grease well out of 
the cloths. Take about thirty yards of cloth to 
a fold or draft, having prepared, in your copper^ 
about two burrels of water, with four ounces ot 
pearlash therein ; in this liquor run and prepare 
yourcloth for the vat abouteight ortenminutes; 
then roll it out and let it drain. Then fold it up 
smooth on the side of the vat, that it may go in 
open ; toss the end over the cross-bar, and let a 
person on the other side with his handlers be 
ready to poke it dov/n, and let it be done quick 
and liveljv When the cloth is all in the vat, 
take the other end back again, by pulling it hand 
over hand, very lively, till you arrive at the 
other. Then shift sides, and manage in this 
manner till ready for taking out ; which will be 
in ten or twelve minutes, if the dye is ripe and 
hot. But judgment must be used in this case ; 
when the dye is weak and cool, it is necessary to 
keep the cloth in an hour or more : 

In taking the cloth out of the vat, it is neces* 
sary to use dispatch. The utensils for this pur- 
pose are tv/o crooked irons passed just above 
the vat, so that two mtn may put the cloth there- 
on, as taken out of the vat ; then a windlass for 

8 dyer's COMPANrOlf. 

the purpose of wringing the cloth as dry as con^ 
venieiitly can he done. Hang your cloth then in 
the optn air, till it is perfectly cool. At the 
j:;ame time, if you have more cloth, prepare, it as 
described before in the copper of pearlash water. 
This process must be observed every time the 
cloth is dipped in the vat. Two dippings arc 
commonly sufficient for colouring the first time ; 
then air and rince, and this will be a pretty good 
blue — and full and manage as you do cloths to 
prepare tliem f >r colouring. However, your dye 
must not be crowded too fast at first. 

If you find your dye does not colour fast 
enough, cover and rake, and let it stand an hour 
or two; being careful to keep the vat covered, 
excepting when the cloth is in : work the dye 
till it is cool, then heat it again. If all your cloths 
are not coloured for fulling ; heat your dye agaiii 
in the copper or other utensil, nearly to boiling 
heat, then turn it into the vat and cover it up ; 
add two pounds of pearlash, rake well, and let it 
stand ten or tvyelve hours ; then rake it, and let 
it stand tu^o hours, when it will be fit for work. 
Let the dye be worked as long as it will colour 
well ; then manage as before until the dye is re» 
duced. Recruit as before in setting, and man- 
ijge in the same manner till your cloths are all 
coloured. Only omit two pounds of potash and 
one pound of indigo out of the quantity ; and 
the dye must stand to come to work, which wall 
probably l>e sooner than at first ; caution must 
be used about working it too soon. 

The cloths when fulled and prepared for co- 
louring, must be managed as at first, and rui^ 
till they suit. After yon have done colouring, 
open your vat, rake well, and give the dye all 
the air you can. Let it stand, and it ma3'' be 
kept good for many years, if rightly managed : 
After it has been recruited several times, it will 

dyer's COMPANION- 3 

be necessary to dip off the dye carefully so as 
not to disturb the sediment or lees, and throw 
the lees awaJ^ When the dvQ has been stand- 
ing a long time, it is necessary to throw away 
the lees, for they will have a tendency to injure 
the dye, and the colour will not be so bright if 
they remain in the vat. The dye will not come 
to work so soon as if the sediment had remain- 
ed in the vat, and it ought not to be disturbed 
excepting when it is necessary to dispense with 
some of the kes. 

The dyer being careful to manage according 
to these directions, will have the best mode of 
dying cloth blue, known by me. 

To color yarn or wool in this dye, the yarn 
must be hung loose in the dye, and the wool be 
put loose into a nett and then immersed. 

When the goods are dyed, have them imme- 
diately rinced in clear water ; when dryed, take 
twelve gallons of warm water to one pound of 
hard soap dissolved, and one pint of beef gall ; 
wet the cloth with this, and let it run in the mill 
eight or ten minutes, then rince it with fair wa- 
ter till perfectly clean, and it will prevent the 
goods from crocks, &.c. if the color is not struck 
through the cloth and cuts light in the middle, 
to 20 yards take half pint of color, put in 
your copper of boiling hot water, run one hour, 
and rince welL 


The best to dye Yarn or Wool. 

TO set a tub of 6 gallons, take five gallons of 
good old sig,to which add 2gillsofspirits,half 
a pound of good indigo made fine ; put it in a 

19 dyer's companio:;. 

bag, wet It and rub it out in the dye, then add 
two ounces of pearlash, and 2 ounces of good 
madder ; stir and mix it all together, let it stand 
24 hours ; then add half a pint of wheat bran, 
stir it up till well mixed together, let it stand 2i 
hours longer, and if your dye does not come to 
work by this time, stir it as often as once in two 
or three hour.*-, but do not apply your goods be- 
fore your copper scum and froth rises, and the 
dye looks greenish when dropping, and your 
yarn or wool looks greenish when applied to the 
dye, which are symptoms that your dye is in 
good order for use ; but you must be cautious 
notto crowd your dye too full,for many blue dyes 
are destroyed in this way. Be careful also about 
reducing your dye too low ; always keep indi- 
go in the bag, rubbing it out when necessary ; 
and you need not stop your dye to recruit it af- 
ter it has come to work ; but make your addi- 
tions when you take your goods out, as you find 
it necessary. Wring out the goods, stir your 
dye well together, cover it close, and place it 
where it will keep lukewarm. It will not dye so 
quick as the other dye, but it will make a superior 
blue. It is commonly from two to three days 
' in colouring for a deep blue. 

N. B. The yarn or wool sliould be wet in 
warm sig, before it is put in the dye, and the tub 
covered close, &.c. 


TAKE half full of good ashesi two quarts 
rif stone lime, and as much sig as to rurl' 
through three gallons of liq^uQr ; add two ounces 


of good indigo made fine, four ounces of good 
madder, and half a pint of wheat bran ; stir and 
mix it well together, let it stand two days, then 
stir it up, and put in half a pint of good emp. 
tines. Let it stand 24 hours, and your dye will 
be fit for work. 

Directions to be observed in common Colour* 

EVERY person that understands his business 
knows what utensils are necessary for the busi- 
ness in colouring ; however, I will give a briei' 
description of those commonly used. 

The first thing necessary is the copper kettle .;• 
I sa^/ cropper kettle, because it is most common- 
ly used in all hot djTS, and all hot dyes may be 
coloured in the copper, and I shall mention no 
other in the fallowing receipts. Block tin of 
brass, are better for red and yelloiv, than the cop*- 
per ; and iron the best for black or green ; but this 
I leave to the discretion of those in practice. 
The size ought to be from two to four barrels, 
according as your business requires. In setting 
thekettle,reference should be had to convenience 
of heating and working. 

The Reel^ as it is commonly called, which is 
used for managing the cloth in the dye, is conduct- 
ed over and over in the dye, being turned by a 
wench ; and the cloth is poked down and spread 
open by a stick about three feet long. The cloth 
always should be tended lively v. hen in the dye. 
(The time the cloth is to be in these dyes, will 
hereafter be described.) 

When the cloth has been a sufficient time in 
the dye, then reel or wind it up ; let it drain a few 
minutes, then take it out in the open air, and 
spread it till perfectly cool ; and this must be the 
management every time the cloth iis dipped* Ne- 


yer add any dye-stufFor water when the cloth is 
in the dye ; but when added, stir and mix the 
dye well together before the cloth is put in. The 
cloths should be perfectly cool to prevent their 
spotting, and for the brightness of colours have 
the kettle well cleaned. To clean a copper, the 
most common form I practise, is to rince the 
dye well off, then take some ashes and a swab, 
and rub it well and rince it clean, and it will an- 
swer for most colours. But if it does not appear 
bright enough, then take half a gill of oil of vitriol, 
and rub in the same manner as before ; rince 
clean, &;c. 

Tq clean a Copper* 

TAKE four ounces of allum, two quarts of 
vinegar, and two ounces of oil of vitriol ; put 
them all together, heat them boiling hot, and put 
them into your kettle ; wash it well with a swab, 
rince it with water dean, and it will be fit for 
any dyes. 



SHALL lay it down as a general rule, to take 

20 yds. or 16 lbs. weight for the quantity of 

cloth, for which to proportion thedye-stuff. How- 
€ver,any quantity of cloth or goods may be colour- 
ed by the following receipts; only in the like pro- 
portion as before mentioned : and another thing 
is to be observed, the different states of the dyes, 
by giving all your goods an equal chance in the 
dye ; for most of colours the dye is good for 
nothing for that colour after the colour is doiie^ 

TO 20 yds. of fulled cloth, take four pounds of 
good logwood chips ; fill your copper with fair 


water, add the logwood, and boil well till the 
strength is out ; then add one pound of good 
madder and one pound of allum ; let it siuiiner 
together fifteen minutes, but not boil, (for the 
madder ought never to boil (run your cloth 
twenty or thirty minutes, roll out and air it ; let 
tlie dye simmer a few minutes^ then run it again 
as before, with the heat of the dye increasing, 
about thirty minutes : air it, and "the cloth ^will 
tlien appear of a purple cast or shade. Then 
take two ounces of verdigrease pulverized fine; 
then take one pint of sig ; put them into a pro- 
per vessel, and simmer them together with con- 
stant stirring, till well mixed and dissolved ; 
then add this to your dye, with two gallons of sig, 
and two ounces of blue vitriol ; boil them mode- 
rately together about 15 minutes, then stopyouf 
dye from boiling, and stir well together, then run 
your cloth about thirty minutes : run in this 
manner till the colour suits, and you will have a 
fine blue, but it will not be so durable as Indigo 


TO twenty yards of fulled cloth ; fill your 
copper with fair water, heat it boiling hot, take 
two pounds of copperas, half a pound of allum, 
a quarter of a pound of argal, or red tartar — puh 
yerize these together, and put this compound 
into the boiling w^ater — skim your dye, stop its 
boiling, run your cloth twenty or thirty minutes, 
air and run it again, as before, twenty minutes, 
air and rince it in water ; shift your liquor from 
the copper, rince your copper, fill it with fair 
water, then add four pound of good logwood 
chips, boil well twenty minutes, then slacken 
your fire and add an half pound of good mad- 
der; let it simmer fifteen minutes — together 

I4f dyer's companion. 

with one ounce vcrdi^rease made fine, as de- 
scribed in receipt fourth, with sig, &c- then take 
one gallon of sig and add natli the rest to the 
dye, stir them well together, till the dye is well 
mixed ; run your cloth again in this dye thirty 
minutes, air it and add two ounces of pearl- 
ash and run it again, vvidi the dye well mixed 
together — handle in this manner, till your co- 
lour pleases. This >vill be a good blue, rathev 
preferable to receipt No. 4 


Compound, or Chymic. — This compound 
or blueing is made thus : Take one pound oF 
good flotong indigo pulverized, four pounds of 
oil of vitriol, and two ounces of fine salt — put 
this in a stone pot (or some earthen vessel) that 
will contain six times the quantity of this com- 

Sound, or it will be liable to rise and run over, 
'irst put in the vitriol, then the indigo, then the 
salt ; stir this continually one hour, or^ till it 
gets pretty well settled and cool — for it will boil 
and foment in a terrible manner. Let it stand 
four days or a week, covered close, stirring it 
now and then, as is most convenient. 


TAKE one pound of common good indigo, 
six pounds of oil of vitriol, half a pound of stone 
lime — put these togedier (as described before) 
in the pot and stir it — This will be fit to use in 
forty eight hours. I have mixed it without 
either lime or salt ; but it requires more stirring 
and longer standing before it is fit for use. This 

CT)mpouncl is used for dying Prussian blue, 
green and many other colours. 


PILL your copper with fair water, heat it 
nearly boiling hot, then add of your blueing (as 
is before mentioned) a little, and stir it well with 
the water, run your cloth, roll out, air, and add 
oiFyour compound by little and little, till your 
colour pleases. — You may make in this dye, 
any shade you wish of this kind of blue, an4 
very bright. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take six pound of 
fustick chips and boil them well, then add one 
quarter pound of allum, run your cloth till it is 
a good yellow, then add of your blueing^" about 
half a gill at a time, stir and m.ix it well together 
in the dye, run your cloth with a hot fire fif- 
teen or twenty minutes, then air and add a little 
Tof your blueing and run again in the same man- 
ner as before, and add of your blueing, little by 
little, till your colour suits. 

If you have a considerable quantity of cloth 
to colour, it will be necessary to boil your fus- 
tick till your dye is strong ; then put it in a tub 
for the convenience of dipping it off as it is w^ant- 
ed to mix with the bluing. The quantity of 
yellow dye to be dipped off, must be left to the 
discretion of the dyer, according to the quantity 
of cloth in colouring ; let the chips remain in 

* This compound of vitriol and indigo, is known by tfee 
ilueing chymkk or snxonjiot* 

16 J^VER'S COiiPA^^IOiv. 

the kettle, and fill your copper Avith water, boil 
again, and yellow your cloth till a good yellow, 
by ridding allum every dipping — then take the 
chips out of the dye, then add of your blueing 
run all your clothes, then add of your blueing 
and yellow dye, having your dye hot and well 
mixed together — run your cloth, and add of 
your compound and yellow dye, by little and lit- 
tle, well mixed and. stirred together ; and if the 
colour does not appear bright enough, frequent- 
ly add a little allum, keep it in much longer, and 
this will give lustre to your colour. This is 
the best method of dying a bright green, I be- 
lieve in the world, or the best I ever knew. 

Green requires the judgment of the dj^er to 
prevent one colour from overrunning the other, 
otherwise the colour will appear dull, and never 
can be made bright. But follow the receipt with 
care and judgment, and you will have a very . 
fine green. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take five pounds of 
good fustick chips, boil well, then add two 
ounces of allum, run your cloth till a good yel- 
low ; then add of your blueing half a pound, run 
your cloth twenty or thirty minutes, then air, 
and add a little copperas and a little logwood ; 
let it boil a few minutes, run again and handle 
till your colour pleases. 

l\th. FOR GREEN, 

TO twenty yardb of cloth take four pounds of 
fustick chips, boil well, then add two ounces of 
pearlash, one ounce of allum, one ounceof «qua-> 
Ibrtis — let it boil, stir and mix it well together; 

then run your cloth till a good yellow ; air, and 
add of your blueing, mix well with your dye, 
run your cloth, and add of your blueing by little 
and little, till your colour pleases; 

\2tru FOR GREEji', 

TO twenty yards of cloth, take four quarts of 
wheat bran, wet it with vinegar, let it stand 
twelve hours ; fill your copper with fair water., 
put your bran in a bag and let it boil in the wa- 
ter one hour, take it out, let it drain, and squeeze 
it dry as you can ; then add two ounces of ar- 
gal,"^' made fine, and one ounce of allum ; boil 
well, run your cloth forty minutes, boiling ; 
then air and rince, shift your liquor from your 
Qopper, rince and fill with fair water ; then add 
four pounds of fustick chips, boil well till tlie 
Strength is well out, then add a little allum, and 
run your cloth thirty minutes more; then addi 
gradually, as much blueing as is necessary, and 
sadden with a little copperas. 

If the colour is not bright enough, shift your 
dye from your coi^per, and fill with fair water ;t 
heat it nearly to boiling heat, add a little bla^g^ 
Cfnji handle till your colour pleases* 

iz(h FOR greea: 

TO twenty yards of cloth, take five pounds 
gf fustick chips, and boil well ; then add two 
ounces of allum, and six ounces of compound 
or blueing— half of your blueing at a time ; run 
your cloth thirty minutes, then add the rest of 
your blueing together with yellow dye and a lit- 

•* TEi^i^.oil^d by spme, Cptde,'(Si:^ReftTartajr 

18 dyer's companiox. 

tie allum ; run again as before ; then add two 
ounces of blue vitriol, boil well, and handle till 
your colour pleases. 

N . B. These green dyes are worth saving as 
they are useful in many dyes, especially for bot. 
tie green in the first beginning. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take three pounds 
jof fustick chips, boil well, then add two ounces 
of allum and your blueing ; stir andimix them well 
together, then runyour cloth thirty minutes, air 
and run again till you have it a good deep green ; 
then add two pounds of logwood, boil well, take 
one quarter of a pound of verdigrease, pulverize 
it, and put in a proper vessel with one pint of 
vinegar; let it simmer together with constant 
stirring, till all dissolved ; then add it to the dye, 
stir and mix it well together, run your cloth 
•with your dye hot, thirty or forty minutes ; then 
air and sadden with copperas, till the colour is 
dark enough. 

If your green goes off, shift your dye from your 
copper, clean it well, rince your cloth well, fill 
your kettle with fair water, heat it boiling hot, 
and add blueuig by degrees till your coIqijjj 


FOR twenty yardsof cloth, fill your coppfer 
with fair water, heat it boiling hot ; take half a 
pound of blue vitriol, and let it dissolve in the 


water ; run your cloth 30 minutes, air and run 
Jigain as before ; then add three pounds of good 
logwood chips and two pounds of fustick, and 
boil well ; run your cloth, and handle till your 
colour pleases ; and you will have a fine bottle 
green, but it is more liable to fade than the other, 
which will hold equal to a blue. 

Or this, take one pound blue vitriol, heat your 
copper with fair water, near boiling hot, run 
your cloth, then air and run again as before ; then 
air, run and shift your liquor, then add 6 poun^ 
fustick and 4 pound logwood chips, boil well 
and run again as above, &c. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take six pounds of 
fustick, boil well, then add a quarter of a pound 
of allum, and a quarter of a pound of blueing ; - 
run your cloth one hour, then add half a bushel 
of butternut bark ; let it boil moderately till the 
strength is well out ; run your cloth 30 minutes, 
air, and run again ; then add one quarter of a pound 
of copperas, and handle till your colour pleases. 

When I have any bright green dye, as in re- 
ceipt No. 9, I use it as a preparation for the 
olive green. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take a quarter of a 
pound of aquafortis, and as much pewter or 
block tin as the aquafortis will dissolve ; f fir at 
pouring the pewter in a melted sta^e mio wa- 
ter :) fill your copper with fair water, heat boil- 

ing liot ; then add the compound of aqua{offis>j 
&c. with six ounces of argal, and half a pound 
of allum ; boil well, run your cloth boiling forty 
mhiutes ; then air and rince, and shift your li- 
quor from your copper ; fill with fair water, 
then take four pounds of good fustick, and a 
quarter of a pound of turmerick, boil well, and 
add half a pound of allum ; run your cloth thirty 
minutes, and handle till your colour pleases*. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take one pound oF 
allum, fill your copper with fair water, heat boil- 
ing hot, run your cloth boiling, three quarters of^ 
an hour ; air, rincc and shift your liquor from 
your copper ; rince and fill with fair water ; add 
six pounds of good fustick, boil well, then add 
a quarter of a pound of allum, and tvyo ouncei^ 
of aquafortis killed with pewter as described in 
receipt No. 17; stir and mix it well togethel? 
with your dye ; run your cloth and handle till 
your colour suits your fancy. 

The dyer must be exceeding careful in thesb 
yellow dyes, that his copper utensils and cloth 
are all clean ; for the yellow dyes are very easily 
spoiled. It also requires great care about hand- 
ling the cloths, that you do not touch them 
against any thing that will spot them, for that 
is not very easily mended* 

N. B. The aquafortis must be put in a sound 
earthen or glass vessel, to contain much more 
tlian the quantity t)f j^quaforlis ; for it will boil 
and fly, and appear to be red hot when you put 
in the pewter or block tin ; and it must be fed 
as long as it will dissolve it. Then let it stand 
till cold ; and stopped with wax or glass stog- 


per and it will keep good for work, then apply 
it to the dye. This is the way that aquafortis 
must be used, except otherwise directed. Re- 
member the pewter or block tin must be melted 
and thrown into water, and it will dissolve the 
better, &c. 

19//;. BUFF YELLOW. 

TO twenty yards of cloth, take four pounds 
of good fu stick 5 boil well; then add a quarter 
of a pound of the best madder and six ounces 
of allum ; let it simmer together, but not boil, 
(for the madder must not boil, but be near boil- 
ing) run your cloth, and handle till your colour 

N. B» The yellow dye (after you have done 
dying your yellow,) max', be useful to all co- 
lours that have yellow in them ; for greeny 
olive, &.C. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take two pounds 
of red tartar, four pounds of allum, three quar^ 
ters of a pound of cream of tartar, one pound of 
white argal or tartar ; pulverize and mix them 
together ; fill your copper with fair water, heat 
boiling hot; then add your compound, let it 
boil, run your cloth one hour boiling ; and this 
will completely destroy almost any colour oi? 

^r«r. FOR YELLOW. 

AFTER you have taken the colour out. The 
doth must be wxU rinced in water. For twentS'^ 
C 2 

ae dyer's? eoM>ANiOK. 

yards of cloth fill your copper with fair wateir, 
then add two pounds of fustick, (the best kind) 
half a pound of ground turmerick, and one ounce 
of aquafbrtis ; boil well, run your cloth, anc> 
handle till your colour pleases. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take half a pound 
of oil of vitriol, put in about one quart of cold 
water, stir it till well mixed with the w^ater ; put 
it in j^our copper already filled, and boiling hot, 
with fair water ; run your cloth thirty minutes, 
air and rince, and yon may make almost any co- 
lour you please, on cloth that has had the colour 
taken out in this wav ; but you cannot if done in 
the way of receipt No. 20 It must be observed, 
that there cannot be any great quantity of cloth 
or goods managed in these preparatioiis at once, 
without shifting the liquor ; for the dye-stuff 
that is extracted from the cloth w^ill overpowei^ 
the preparation that dissolves the colour- I have 
destroyed a black of the best kind and made t 
jgood yellow, in this way. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take one pound Oi' 
good fustick, a quarter of a pound of turmerick^ 
!MX ounces of aquafortis, and half a pound of ar- 
S^l or red tartar, which boil till the strength is 
wtll out, (the copper being clean as possible, and 
the water faiv) then run your cloth two hours 


With the dye boiling; then air, rince and shift 
your liquor from your copper, and fill with 
dean water ; heat boiling hot, then take one 
peck of wheat bran wet vvith vinegar, after stand- 
ing twelve hours, put it in a bag, and boil well 
one hour ; let it drain, and squeeze it as dry as 
you conveniently can, run your cloth 30 minutes^ 
air, rince and shift your liqnor from your cop- 
per ; clean your copper as clean as possible, fill 
with fair water, and heat boiling hot ; then add 
Sve ounces of cochineal made fine, one ounce of 
yed arsenick, two ounces and an half of aqua- 
fortis, two ounces of gum armoniac ; boil this 
togetlier till the strength is v/ell out ; then run 
your cloth vvith the dye boiling, run till your 
eolour suits, and you will liave a fine scarlets 

^24^//. WARLET REb^ 

TO twenty yards of cloth, take one peck 6i 
wheat bran wet with vinegar, let it stand twelve 
liours ; fill your copper with water, heat boiling 
hot ; put the bran pudding vMo a bag, let it 
boil one hour, then run your cloth with the dy6 
boiling forty minutes ; then add a quarter of a 
pound of aquafortis, three quarters of a pound 
of argal or red tartar ; run forty minutes m.ore 
with the dye boiling, then air, riuce and shift 
your liquor from your copper and fill with wa* 
ter ; add one pound of fustick, and a quarter of 
*a pound of turmerick, boil this one hour ; then 
yun your cloth one hour with the dye boiling^: 
air, rince and shift the liquor from your copper ], 
fill vvith water, heat boiling hot; then add six 
ounces of cocliineal pulverized, three ounces of 
•aquafortis, and one ounce of armoniac ; let it 
'boil well fifteen minutes ; run your cioth 4fft^ 

24 i)YiiR''S COMrANION* 

hour with your dye boiling, and you will have a 
fine scarlet. 


To twenty yards of cloth, take three quar- 
ters of a pound of allum^ three quarters of a 
pound of cream of tartar, and three quarters of a 
pound of argal ; pulverize these and mix theni 
together ; fill your copper with fair water, heat 
boiling hot, and add this compound ; stir and 
mix it well with the boiling water ; then run 
your cloth one hour boiling ; then air, rince and 
shift your liquor ; fill with fair water, heat boil- 
ing hot, then take half a pound of cochineal and 
half a pound of cream of tartar mixed and puL 
verized together ; then add one half of the cochi- 
neal and tartar ; run your cloth three quarters 
of an hour with the dye boiling ; then air and 
add of this compound by little and little, with 
your dye boiling, till the colour is well raised on 
the red ; then take half a pound of the spirits of 
sal armoniac, and run your cloth three quartersr 
of an hour, and this will give it the crimson hue* 
This is a true crimson, and permanent^ 


TO twenty yards of cloth ; take three quar^- 
ters of a pound of fustick, a quarter of a pound 
of turmerick, five ounces of aquafortis, fill 
your copper with water, add this and boil well, 
till the strength is well out ; run your cloth one 
and an half hours with your dye boiling ; then 
air, rince and shift your liquor from your cop- 

b'I'ee's ookfanion. ^9^ 

pa*, and wash clean : fill with foir water, ^ea^^ 
boiling hot, then take foiu' and an half, ounces o9 
cochineal, & four and an half ounces of cream o9 
tartar, pulverised together ; add this to the wa- 
ter with a quarter of a pound of aquafortis, and 
three ounces of turmerick, in which boil and 
-handle your cloth, run one hour, then take ha|,fr 
a pound of spirits of sal armoniac, or good ola 
sig, to bloom with ; in this handle with the dyfc 
boiling, till your colour pleases. 


TO twenty yards of cloth ; take ten pounds 
of red-wood or Nicaragua chips, and boil mo- 
derately in good clean water one hour ; tlien add 
one pound of allum, run your cloth forty min- 
utes, then air and let the dye steep in the sam^ 
manner as it did before ; and run again, adding 
a little allum every time you dip; and manage 
in this form till your colour suits jf our fmx-y- 
Red- wood or Nicaragua may be mixt togethex- 
or used separately, just as tlie dyer thinks fit and 
proper* I commonly use both together. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take eight pounds 
of red- wood, boil well, but not fnst, one hour, 
then add half a pound of allum, run your cloth 
three quarters of an hour, air and let the dye sim-^ 
mer in the s^me manner as before ; add a little 
allum and run your cloth, and manage in this 
form till tho strength is well out of the dye i 


then add half a pound of pearlash and handle 
till your colour pleases. 

The dyes for red, that are made of red- wood 
and Nicaragua, must not be hurried and drove, 
nor crowded too full, because it will destroy the 
lustre of the red, and the colour will be dulL 
It is necessary the copper and all the utensife 
should be clean. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take one peck of 
wheat bran, boil it in a small kettle with eight 
gallons of water, one hour ; then fill your cop- 
per with water, boiling hot ; then add the liquor' 
of the bran, and three and an half pounds of al- 
lum, one pound of red argal, boil and run j^our 
Gloth, (being well scoured and clean) one and 
an half hours, boiling; then air and rince your 
clotli, and shift the licjuor from your copper; 
fill with fair water, then add eight pounds of 
madder that is good, and heat moderately, with 
constant stirring, till near scalding hot; run your 
cloth three quarters of an hour uith a moderate 
fire, then increase your fire, and bring it near a 
boiling heat, but not boiling, for the madder 
must not boil, if you intend to have a good red ; 
then run your cloth in this manner until the 
strength is well out of the madder, and the co- 
lour well raised on the red ; then shift your li- 
quor from your copper ; fill with water, and add 
two and an half pounds of the best Brazil, boil 
well one hour, and add three quarters of a poutid 
of allum and run your cloth till your colour 
suits, boiling between each dipping ; and this 
will produce a good red. 

, This colour may be finished in the madder 


4ye without shifting the dye, by adding two gaL 
Ions of lant or sig. After the colour is well 
raised in the madder, run your cloth thirty min- 
utes, and it will answer. 

The best is with Brazil, but it is more lengthy, 
and the colour is brighter than with the sig ; so 
i leave it to the discretion of the dyer. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take six quarts of 
wheat bran, wet with vinegar, let it stand twelve 
hours, and sour ; put it in a bag, fill your cop- 
per with water, heat boiling hot, and boil the 
pudding two hours ; then take it out and let it 
drain ; squeeze as dry as you can conveniently ; 
then add one and an half pounds of allum, and 
half a pound of red argal made fine, run your 
cloth one hour boiling, air and let it lie all night 
and sour ; then rince your cloth, shift your li- 
quor from your copper, and fill it with fair wa- 
ter : when warm, add ten pounds oi'good mad- 
der, and four quarts of wheat bran, constantly 
stirring until it is near boiling, but not boiling, 
for madder niust not boil ; run your cloth and 
manage in this manner till the strength is well 
out of the dye, and the red well raised, then add 
one gallon of lajnt or sig, and handle till your go- 
lour pleases. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take three and an 
half pounds of nutg^lls pulverized, put them in 
the copper, and fill the copper about half full t)f 

^2$* dyer's dOHPAMO^v 

\vatcr, put the galls in, let it boil till the strengtii* 
is well out ; then fill the copper with cold wa- 
iter ; see that yoar dye it not hotter than scalding 
hot ; then add five, six, or seven pounds of the 
best madder, in proportion to the shade requir- 
ed ; let it simmer with a small fire one hour, 
with frequent stirring; then run your cloth thirty 
minutes, air and run again with the heat increas- 
ing ; run till the strength is well out of the dye, 
and the colour well raised on the red. The dyo 
must steep between each dipi:)ing, fifteen or 
twenty minutes, with the heat increasing, but 
not boiling, for it will destroy the substance of 
the madder to let it boil. ^ If your colour is not 
dark enough, add a little potash or pearl- 
iash, and handle till your colour pleases ; and 
YOU will have a fine polished red. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take one pound df 
fustick, and tliree quarters of a pound of allum, 
iill your copper with water, heat boiling hot, run 
your cloth, after the strength is put of the fus- 
tick, run three quarters of an hour ; shift your 
copper, fill with fair w^ater, and then add six 
pounds of red-wood, let it boil moderately one 
hour, then add three quarters of a pound of al- 
lum, run your cloth 40 minutes ; then air, and 
let the dye simmer one and an half hours, and 
run your cloth as before ; then air and take out 
the chips, and add one and an half ounces of 
cochineal, and three ounces of aquafortis ; run 
again with the dye boiling, 40 minutes ; to 
bloom, take six or eight ounces of spirits of sal 
armoniac, or good old sig ; and your cloth will 
be a good colour by handling In this half ^ft 

dyer's companion. 29 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take two pounds oE 
fustick chips, fill your copper with water, boil 
well, then add one pound of allum, boil, run 
your cloth one hour boiling, then air, rince and 
shift your copper ; fill with fair water, add eight 
pounds of red-wood, boil well, and add half a 
pound of allum ; run your cloth one hour, then 
air, let the dye steep one hour, and run again, 
adding a little allum ; manage in this manner 
until the strength is well out of the dj^, and 
the colour well raised on the red ; then add two 
ounces of aquafortis, killed with pewter or 
block tin, as described in receipt 18th, ruix 
your cloth thirty minutes with the dye boiling ; 
then add two gallons of sig to bloom, handle till 
your colour pleases, and you will have a fine 
claret red- 

?4r//, FOR CLARET, 

TO twenty yards of cloth, take twelve pounds 
of barwood, boil well, then add half a pound of 
allum, run your cloth until the strength is well 
out of the dye, about thirty minutes to a dipping, 
boiling between each dipping as much as is ne- 
qessary to get the strength out of the barwood c. 
when the colour is well raised on the red, then 
add a quarter of a pound of logwood, and a 
quarter of a pound of copperas mixed togetherj 
and handle until your colour pleases. 


TO t^y^nty yvds of cloth^ take one pound of 

30 dyer's comtaniox. 

logwood, fill with fair water, boil well, run your 
cloth, and sadden with copperas until your co- 
lour pleases. 


TO colour twenty yards of cloth ; fill your 
copper with water, heat boiling hot, then add 
one pound of copperas ; run your cloth, air, and 
run it again; then shift your liquor from your cop- 
per, rince it, and fill with water ; then add one 
and an half pounds of logwood, boil well twen. 
ty minutes, then run your cloth till your colour 
pleases ; and you will have a fine claret that is 

This is the only way that scarlet can be co- 
loured a darker colour. By running it in the cop- 
peras water first, you may dye it almost anydark 
colour you please ; for the copperas will de- 
stroy all the acidous power that the scarlet is 
made by and depends upon ; but until the pow- 
er of the acid is destroyed, you cannot strike any 
colour through, so but that it will remain red in 
the middle of the cloth. 

I have coloured scarlet black completely 
through, and almost all other dark colours, by 
the help of copperas. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take seven and an 
half pounds of barwood, boil well, and add a 
quarter of a pound of allum : then run your 
clotli one hour : air and add two pounds of Bra^. 


/il, and boil till the strength is well out ; run 
your cloth again as before till the colour is well 
raised on the red, then add two quarts of sig or 
lant, and handle till your colour pleases. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take four pounds 
of Brazil, and one and a quarter pounds of log- 
wood ; boil wellf and add three quarters of a 
pound of allum, then run your cloth thirty rnin- 
utes, air, and let it steep till the strength is well 
out ; then run again as before, then add three 
quarts of lant or sig, with the dye hot and well 
mixed together ; run your cloth, and handle till 
your colour pleases. 

Twenty shades of violet colour may be pro- 
duced, by varying the logwood and brazilletto. 
The further management of this dye, I have left 
to the fancy of the dyer, for the colour will be 
beautiful, almost Iqual to cochiiieal and indigo. 

You may use peach-wood in part, instead of 
all brazilletto, if you like. It will be less expen- 
sive than all brazilletto ; but this I leave to youF 
own choice. 


FOR twenty yards of cloth, fill your copper 
with fair water, heat boiling hot, then add two 
pounds of allum, and one pound of argal ; in 
this boil and run your cloth one hour, then air, 
rince and shift your copper ; fill with water, and 
add two pounds of madder. Let it heat mode- 
rately, with often stirring, till near boiling hot, 

32 dyer's GOMPANiONT 

run your cloth one hour ; and you will Rave a. 
good CQlour of the kind. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take oneandanhafr 
bushels of black birch, and half a bushel of 
liemlock bark, boil well till the strength is well 
out ; then add a quarter of a pound of allum, 
run your cloth one hour, and handle, and you 
will have a good colour of the kind. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take two pound^^ 
offustick chips, 3 ounces of argal, and half a 
pound of alkim, boil till the strength is well out 
of the fustick, then run your cloth, with the dye 
boiHng, one hour ; then air, rince, and shift the 
liquor from your copper, and fill with fair 
water ; then add two and three quarters pounds 
of red-wood, two and three quarters pounds 
of madder, three quarters of a pound of 
allum, and two ounces of aquafortis ; let it 
boil moderately, with often stirring, till the 
strength is well out ; then run your cloth one 
hour ; then add one and an half ouncej^ of arsen- 
ick^ and half an ounce of cochineal, and this will 
bind the colour. In this run and handle till your 
colour pleases. 

42rf. FOR ORJXGE. 

TO twenty yards of cloth, take eight pounds of 
fustick, aixd four pounds of rcd-wooct, and boil 


v;ell ; then add half a pound of allum, run your 
cloth thirty or forty minutes, then air, and let the 
dye steep a while, then run again till the strength 
is well out of the dye ; then add one gallon of sig 
to bind i and handle till your colour suits. 

43d, FOR BROWJ^. 

TO twenty yards of cloth, take two bushels 
of butternut bark, fill ..with water, heat mode- 
rately, let it steep, (but not boiling) till the 
strength is w^ell out of the bark ; then run your 
eloth three quarters of an hour ; and air and run 
again with the dye hot, but not boiling, (for 
boiling the bark destroys part of the lustre of 
the colour which the bark gives) but run in thi^- 
manner till the strength is well out of the dye, 
tlien, air and take the bark out of your dye ; 
then add a quarter of a pound of copperas and 
^wo quarts of sig, and mix the dye well together ; 
run your cloth with your dj^Q boiling fifteen or 
twenty minutes, and handle in this manner till 
your colour pleases. 

Various shades may be produced in this dye^ 
by varying the bark and copperas; some- 
times more of one sort, and sometimes less r 
and thus by changing the order of them, diiF;:rent 
shades will ^rppear; Dry bark and green will, 
make a different shade; boiling and not boiling will 
have the same effect. Thus I leave it to the dis- 
cretion of the dyer, to vary them as he or she 
pleases, to answer the shade or shades required*. 


TO- twenty yards of cloth, take five pouncj^ 

-JL/ <4 

34 dyer's companion. 

of good ground camwood, fill your copper with 
fair water, heat^ boiling hot, let your camwood 
boil a few minutes, then run your cloth one 
hour ; air and run again in the same manner as 
before ; air and add half an ounce of blue vitriol, 
and a quarter of pound of oil of vitriol,^ boil 
well five or six minutes, then run your cloth 
twenty or thirty minutes more ; then take one 
pound of copperas dissolved in vinegar by con- 
stant stirring on the fire, (but be sure and not 
let it boil, for it will spoil the dye) then add the 
copperas by little and little, the dye boiling, and 
run as before, and handle till your colour pleases. 
If it is not dark enough for the corbeau, take 
two ounces of verdigrease made fine, and dis- 
solved in sig or vinegar on the fire, by often stir- 
ring, as described in receipt 4th ; add this with 
one pound of logwood chips ; boil well, and 
handle in this manner till your colour suits. 
Sometimes it is required to be very dark, then 
these darkening materials must be applied 
according to the judgment of the dyer, &c» 
You may change this colour by adding a few 
ounces of pearlash, to a bright purple, which 
will be permanent. 

* When oil of vitriol is applied to any hot'tiquor, you'must 
before you put it in the dye, put seven-eighths of cold water 
to it, and rhen it will heat near boiling hot with the cold 
"water; but if you put in otherwise, it will make the hot 
liquor fly in a shocking manner, and the dyer will be in dan- 
ger of being scalded ; and another thing to be observed, you 
must raise your red for your body, with camwood before 
you apply your vitriol, or your camwood will be lost; for 
camwood cannot run upon any other dye stuff; in what 
e Imr it is used, it must be first applied, otherwise it will 
be of no use ; yet camwood is the best dye-wood in the 
world if used ri^ht. 

dyer's companion* 55 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take eight pounds 
€)f Nicaragua, and half a pound of fustick ; boil 
well, and add half a pound of allum, run your 
cloth till the strength is well out of the dye, and 
the colour well raised on the red, then add half 
an ounce of blue vitriol, and half a gill of oil of 
vitriol, and four quarts of sig, run your cloth 
30 minutes ; then add half a pound of logwood, 
boil wcll,add one ounce of verdigrease, pulveriz- 
ed and dissolved, as in receipt No. 4, run your 
cloth twenty minutes ; then add copperas by lit- 
tle and little to sadden ; and handle till your co^ 
lour pleases. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take two pound's^ 
of fustick chips, boil well, and add one pound of 
allum, run your cloth boiling three quarters of 
an hour ; air and rince, and shift your copper, 
then fill with water, and add ten pounds of red- 
wood chips ; let it boil moderately one hour ; 
then add half a pound of allum, run your cloth 
forty minutes, air, and let the dye steep one hour, 
and run again as before; and handle in this 
manner till you have a good red ; (you must be 
cautious not to drive the dye too fast, and add a 
little allum now and then if necessary) and till 
the strength is well out of the dye : then add one 
gallon of sig or urine, ruayour cloth half an hour, 
then add^ one and an half pounds of logwood 
chips, boil well, then add two ounces of verdi- 
grease made fine aiid dissolved in one pint of 

56 dyer's COMPAI^IONa 

vinegar, as described before, and handle till yout 
colour pleases. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take two pounds of 
fustick and seven pounds of red-wood chips^ 
boil moderately one hour, then add half a pound 
of allum, run your cloth three quarters of an 
hour, then slacken the heat of your dye, and add 
three pounds of madder ; let it stand and sim- 
mer with often stirring half an hour, run your 
cloth one hour, and ii^ the strength is not out of 
the dye, run again. The cloth must be a good 
red before you sadden ; then add copperas to 
sadden with by little and litde, till your colons: 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take four pounds 
of fustick chips, boil well, then add half a pound 
of allum ; then run your cloth one hour boiling, 
then air and rince, and shift your copper and fill 
with fair water ; then add six pounds of red- 
wood chips, boil well, add half a pound of allum, 
yunyour cloth one hour, then add one and an half, 
pounds of madder, let it simmer half an hour, 
then run your cloth one hour, then add three 
quarters of a pound of logwood chips, boil well, 
then add two gallons of sig ; then run your cloth 
and handle till your colour pleases. 


TO twenty yards of clotb^ take one and anhali 

pcTiinds of fustick, boil well, and add a quartei? 
of a pound of allum, in which run your cloth 
one hour boiling ; air and rince your cloth, shift 
your liquor from your copper and fill with fab 
water, then add nine pounds of red- wood ; let it* 
boil well, then add half a pound of allum, rufi 
your cloth one hour, then add a quarter of a 
pound of pearlash and a quarter of a pound 
of allum ; run your cloth half an hour, and this? 
will be a good red ; then add one ounce of arse- 
nick and a quarter of a pound of argal ; ruft 
your cloth three quarters of an hour, then add 
two gallons of good old sig, and handle till you.i) 
colour pleases, and you will have a fine colonic 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take one bushel of 
butternut bark, and one bushel of walnut bark, 
boil well, run your cloth one hour, then take the 
bark out of the dye, and add half a pound of 
copperas ; run your cloth forty minutes ; then 
air and rince, and shift your liquor from yom" 
copper ; fill with fair water, and add tvv o pounds 
of fustick chips ; boil well, thenadd half a pound 
of allum, run your clo'h one hour, and air and 
rince, and shift your liquor from your copper, 
fill with fair watrr, and add eight pounds of red- 
wood ; boil well and c^^dd half a pound of allum, 
run your cloth one hour ; then add two ounces 
of oil of vitriol, killed with the flower of brim- 
stone; run your cloth half an hour ; then add 
half a pound of logwood, and boil well, then add 
two gallons of good old sig ; and handle till youi: 
colour pleases. 



TO twenty yards of cloth, take eight pounds 
of fustick chips, boil well, then add a quarter of 
a pound of allum ; run your cloth half an hour, 
then add one and anhalf bushels of good butter- 
nut bark, boil moderately till the strength is well 
out, then run your cloth one hour with the dye 
hot ; then if the strength is well out of the dye, 
take the bark and chips out of the dye, and add 
three pounds of Nicaragua wood, or red- wood, 
and one and an half pounds of logwood chips, 
boil well thirty minutes ; then run your cloth 
one hour, then add one gallon of sig, run twen» 
ty minutes with the dye boiling, then add one 
and an half or two pounds of copperas, and run 
to your liking ; and this will be a colour equal 
to a blue for strength, &c. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take four pounds 
of fustick, and three pounds of red- wood chips, 
or Nicaragua, boil well, then add half a pound 
of allum ; run your cloth one hour, then slack 
the heat of your dye, and add four pounds of 
good madder ; let it simmer half an hour ; then 
add half a pound of allum, run your cloth 
one hour; then add two ounces of copperas, 
and two gallons of sig ; and handle with the dye 
hot till your colour pleases. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take six pounds of 

dyer's companion. 39 

fustick chips, and three pounds of ground cam- 
wood, boil well till the strength is well out ; then 
run your cloth one hour, then add three and an 
half pounds of coarse madder ; let it simmer 
twenty minutes ; then run your cloth half an 
hour ; then add half a pound of copperas, and 
handle till your colour pleases. 


TO twenty yards of clothj take eight pounds 
of fustick chips, and two poui^ds of red-wood 
chips, boil well one hour, and run your cloth 
forty minutes ; then add four pounds of mull> 
or coarse madder, and two quarts of rotten wood 
of oak, boil m^oderately, and run your cloth one 
hour ; then add six or eight ounces of copperas, 
and handle till your colour pleases. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take five pounds 
of fustick chips, boil well, run your cloth one 
hour, then add one bushel of butternut bark ; 
boil well, but moderately, one hour ; then run 
your cloth one hour, or till the strength is well 
out of the dye ; then take the bark and chips 
out of the dye, and add six ounces of copperas, 
and handle till your colour pleases. 


1rO twenty yards of cloth, take six pounds of 
fustick chips, and one pound of logwood, boil 

40 dyer's companion. 

well, and run your cloth half an hour ; then add 
one pound of madder, let it simmer half an hour, 
then run your cloth as before ; then add a quar- 
ter of a pound of chymick or blueing, stir and 
mix it well with the dye, and run your cloth 
twenty minutes ; then add one and an half pounds 
of logwood, and one^ gallon of sig ; run your 
cloth as before, add six ounces of copperas, and 
iiandle till your colour pleases.. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take seven pounds 
offustick chips, three quarters of a pound of log- 
wood, and half a pound of madder ; boil well 
one hour, then run your cloth one hour, then add 
half a pound of chymick or blueing, and run 
your cloth twenty niinutes ; then add two quarts 
of sig, and run again as before ; then add two 
ounces of copperas, and handle till your colour 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take eight pounds 
of fustick chips, and four pounds ofred-wood 
or Nicaragua ; boil well an hour and a half, then 
add a quarter of a pound of allum ; run your 
cloth thirty minutes, then air and run again till 
the strength is well out of the dye ; then add one 
gallon of sig, run your cloth half an hour, then 
take one peck of soot scraped from the chimney, 
put it into a tub, and put two pails full of your 
dye to it ; stir it well together, and let it stand 
and settle ; then pour off the liquor moderately, 


nnd add It to your dye; run your cloth, and 
handle till, your colour suits. 


TO'twenty yards of cloth, takefour pounds ol 
fustrck chips, and boil well ; then add a quarter 
of a pound of allum, and run your cloth half an 
hour ; add five pounds of red- wood, boil well, 
and then add half a pound of allum ; run your 
cloth as before till the strength is well out of 
your dye, then add a quarter of a pound of argal, 
and handle till your colour pleases. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take six pounds of 
fustick chips, and boil well, then add a quarter 
of a pound of allum ; run your cloth one hour, 
then add two pounds of ground camwood, and 
one and an half pounds of madder, and let it 
simmer half an hour ; run your cloth one hour, 
then add half a pound of copperas, or more, if 
the colour is not dark enough ; and handle till 
your colour pleases. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take three quarters 
of a bushel of butternut bark, and tliree quarters 
of a bushel of walnut bark, boil well one hour, 
but moderately ; run your cloth one hour, then 
if the strength is well out of the bark and dye, 


take the bark out of the dye, and add one pound 
of copperas to sadden w'uh ; run your cloth 
three quarters of an hour, air and rince your 
eloth and shift your hquor from your copper, 
\vash clean and fill with f\iir water; then add 
four pounds of fiistick chips, boil well, and then 
add half a pound of allum : run your cloth half 
an hour; then add five pounds of red- wood 
chips, boil one hour, and add a quarter of a 
pound of allum ; run your cloth three quarters 
of an hour ; let it steep, and run till the strength 
is ^vell out of the dye. To sadden, take one 
tiallon of sig, and handle, &c. 


TOjwenty yards of cloth, take one pound of 
allum, boil, and run your cloth one hour, then 
siuft your liquor from your copper, and fill with 
fair water ; then add five pounds of fustick, boil 
well till the strength is well out, then run your 
cloth thirty minutes; then add one bushel of 
butternut bark, and five pounds of sumac ber- 
ries, boil moderately one hour, and then run 
your cloth forty minutes ; then add six ounces 
of aquafortis, killed with pewter, as described 
before in receipt No. 18; run your cloth with 
the dye boiling one hour, and the colour will 
be done* 

63:/. FOR SjYUFF BR0WA\ 

TO twenty yards of cloth, take eight pounds 
of f'lS'ick chips, boil well, and add .? quarter of 
a pound of allum ; run your cloth thirty min- 

dyer's companion, 43 

iites, then add four pounds of red-wood chips or 
tv/o pounds of ground camwood ; boil \^dl, and 
run your cloth till the strength is well out of the 
dye ; then add one gallon of sig, a quarter of a 
pound of logwood, and an ounce of verdigrease, 
prepared as in receipt 4th ; boil well, run your 
cloth twenty minutes, then add two ounces of 
copperas, and handle till your colour pleai^es. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take eight and an 
half pounds of fustick chips, four pounds of 
coarse madder, and three quarters of a pound of 
logwood ; boil well till tht strength is well out 
of the dye-wood, but not fast ; or the madder 
may be omitte d till the strength is boiled out of 
the logwood and fustick, and then let \x simmer 
a short time ; then add six ounces of allum, run 
your cloth one hour, air, and run igain, till 
the strength is well out of the dye ; then rdd 
half a pound of copperas to sadden, or more if 
it is not dark enough; and handle till your co- 
lour pleases.. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take one and an 
half pounds of fustick, and four pounds of good 
logwood, boil well, and tl\en add one and an 
half pounds of good madder, and six ounces of 
allum ; let it simmer half an hour, then run your 
cloth one hour ; add eight or ten ounces of cop- 
peras, and one quart of lant, then run and han- 
dle till your colour pleases. 



If you wish to alter the shade of this colour, 
you may add five or six pounds of logwood, and 
less fustick, and you may have the colour to 
suit your fancy. 


TO twenty y^rds of cloth, take one bushel of 
buttt^rnut bark, boil well and run your cloth one 
hour; then take out the bark, and add half a 
pound of copperas ; run twenty minutes, air, 
and run again, and add more copperas if it is not 
d?^rk enough ; for it requires to be very dark^ 
When dark enough, shift your copper, scour 
clean, and rince your cloth ; fill with fair water, 
ht at hot, then add three ounces of compound or 
blueing ; run your cloth twenty m/inntes, air, 
and if your colour is not blue enough, add a lit- 
tle more blueing ; and if it is not dark enough, 
and the colour grows lighter, then add four or 
six ounces of logwood, and one ounce of blue 
vitriol \ and handle till it suits j'our fancy. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take half a peck of 
(:hesnat or maple bark, and two ounces of log- 
wood, boil well, then add two ounces of cop-^ 
peras, and alitrle compound or blueing, fsayhalf 
an ounce) and stir your dye well together ; run 
your cloth twenty minutes; then if you find 
your colour wants altering, it may be done by 
varying dius ; — If it is not dark enough, add a 
little more copperas-— if not blue enough, add a 
little more blueing — if not bright enough, add a. 


little more log\\ ood ; run again, and if it requires 
nothing, your colour will be finished. Silk may 
be dyed in this. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take four quarts of 
wheat bran, put it in a bag, and fill your copper 
with fair water, and boil the pudding an hour 
and a half; then take it out, let it drain, and 
squeeze it as dry as you can ; then add two 
ounces of allum, let it boil, and skim off the 
scum that will rise, then run your clodi one hour; 
add four pounds of logwood chips, put them in 
a bag, and boil \vell till the strength is well out, 
then take the bag of logwood out of the dye, if 
you do not, it will spot the cloth ; run your cloth 
thirty minutes, then add half an ounce of blue 
vitriol, and handle till your colour pleases. 

It requires care with this colour, as well as all 
other light colours, that you do not let the ck)th 
touch any thing that will spot it, for there is not 
much, if any, remedy for a light colour when 
spotted ; and all light colours shouM be dried 
with the backside to the sun ; for the sun is apt 
to injure the colour. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take half a peck of 
hemlock bark, with the moss taken oiR and two 
-ounces of logwood chips, boii well, run your 
cloth twenty mifmres, then add two ounces of 
copperas, and handle till your colour pleases, 

4ft BYEr's COMPANIOif; 

70///. /'Oi? ASH BROW.y. 

TO twenty yards of cloth, take three quarts 
of white ash bark, three ounces of logwood chips, 
boil well, run your cloth twenty minutes : ttien 
add three ounces of copperas, and handle till 
youT' colour pleases. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take a half peck of 
chesnut or muple bark, green or dry, two pounds 
of fustick chips, and two ounces of logwood 
chips : boil well, then add one ounce of com^. 
pound of blueing, run your cloth twenty min- 
Htes : then add two ounces of copperas, and 
liandle till your, colour pleases. 

7.2d. FOR DRAR. 

TAKE chesnut, black birch, and yellow oak' 
bark, half a peck of each, boil well, run your 
cloth, then add three ounces of copperas; and 
handle till your colour pleases. 

7 2d. FOR DRAB. 

TAKE one quarter of a pound of nutgnl/s', 
made fine, then one quarter of a pound of fustick, 
boil w ell, run your cloth ; then add half an ounce 
of blue vitriol, tw^o ounces of copperas ; run 
your cloth fiftt en minutes, then add half a gill of 
oil of vitriol and one ounce of blueing, and stb 


it well with the dye, run your cloth, and handle 
till your colour suits. 


TAKE six ounces of nutgalls, pulverized^ 
three ounces of the flour of brimstone, four 
ounces of allum — put them in fair water, run 
your cloth one hour ; then sadden with black 
float, and handle till your colour suits. 

75th, FOR DRAB. 

TAKE one and an half pounds of fustick, one 
pound of logwood, one quart of rotten wood of 
oak, boil w^ell, then add one half pound of mad- 
der, and four ounces of alkim, boil, run your 
cloth twenty minutes ; then add three ounces of 
copperas and one quart of sig, and handle till 
your colour pleases. 

76///. FOR DRAB. 

TAKE one and an half pounds of fusticfe 
chips, six ounces of logwood, boil well; then 
add one quarter of a pound of ahum, run your 
cloth thirty minutes ; then add three ounces of 
copperaSj and handle till your colour pleases. 


TAKE two pounds of fustick chips, hi^ 


ounces of logwood, boil well, then add seven 
ounces of chymick, run your cloth twenty min- 
utes ; then add three ounces of good madder, 
two ounces of red tartar, made fine — let it sim- 
mer fifteen minutes, and run your cloth twenty 
minutes : then add one gallon of sig, or lant, and 
three ounces of copperas, and handle till your 
colour pleases. 


TAKE one pound of fustick chips, three 
pounds of rotten wood of oak, three ounces of 
barwood, t\vo ounces of logwood cliips, one 
pound of madder, boil well, runyour cloth twen- 
ty minutes ; then add six ounces of filings of iron, 
boil well, run your cloth fifteen miimtes : then 
add six ounct;s of logwood, and five ounces of 
€opperas, and handle till your colour pleases* 


TAKE two ounces of blue galls, one ounce 
of logwood, two ounces of allum, one ounce of 
cream of tartar, and two ounces of madder : run 
your cloth fifteen minutes, then add one ounce 
ef copperas, and handle till your colour pleases. 


TAKE three pounds oi good madder, one 
pound of fustick, let it simmer one hrair ; then 
add two ounces of allum, run your cloth half an 

hour ; then add one pound six ounces of inlngs* 
of iron, boil well, run your cloth ; then add thrta 
ounces of logwood, and handle till your coiour 


TAKE three quarters of a pound of fusticb^ 
one quarter of a pound ofloguood chips, boil 
well, then addhalf a pound of alluin, two ounces 
of blueing : mix it well with the dye, run your 
cloth, thirty minutes ; then add one ounce of 
copperas, and handle till your colour suits 
your fancy. 


TAKE three ounces of allum, half a pouni 
of fustick, six ounces of logwood chips, two 
ounces of madder,addtwo ounces of camwood, 
one and an half pints of rotten wood of oak ; boil 
well half an hour, run your cloth one hour, air, 
sadden with three ounces of copperas : and, 
handle, till your colour pleases. 


TAKE one and an half pounds of fustick, 
boil well; then add one quarter of a pound of 
allum, run your cloth boiling, one hour, then 
air and rince and shift the liquor from your cop- 
per, fill with fair water ; then add three and an 
half pounds of good madder, two ounces of cam- 
wood, let it simmer, fifteen minutes ; then run 

50 dyer's companiok. 

your cloth twenty minutes, then add two ounces 
of filings of iron, and handle till your colour 


TAKE five ounces of fustick chips, two 
.ounces of good niaddtr,two ounces ofallum, boil 
well, run your cloth twenty minutes ; thei^ ^u^d- 
den with two ounces of copperas, and handle 
till your colour pleases. 


TAKE three quarters of a pound of fustick, 
two ounces of madder, two ounces of logwood, 
boil well; then add one quarter of a pound of 
allum, run your cloth one hour; then sadden 
with two ounces of copperas, and handle till 
your colour pleases. 


TAKE two pound of fustick chips, five 
ounces of logwood chips, boil well, then add 
five ounces of madder and one quarter of a 
pound of allum, run your cloth thirty minutes, 
then add one quarter of a pound of copperas, and 
handle till your colour pleases. 

TAKE six pounds of fustick chips, boil well : 

dyer's companion. si 

then add two ounces ofallum, run your cloth 
fifteen minutes; then add two and an half pounds 
of logwood, boil well, run your cloth thirty min- 
utes, then sadden till your colour suits, with six 
ounces of copperas. 


Tx\KE one and an half pounds of logwood, 
three quarters of a pound of red argal, and three 
quartersof apound of allimi, boil well, run your 
cloth one hour, boiling ; then add four pounds 
of good fustick chips, boil welL run your cloth 
half an hour, and handle till your colour pleases^ 


TAKE your cloth, and dye it a bright lively 
blue, but not deep ; then rince your cloth, and 
fill your copper with fair water ; then add six 
pounds of stone rag, or the moss of stone, boil 
w^U, run your cloth one hour ; then add two 
ounces of copperas, and one quart of sig, and 
handle till your colour pleases. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take two quarts 
of wheat bran, wet w^ith vinegar ; let it stand 
tvvo days and sour, then fill your copper with 
fair water, put the bran into a b. g, boil well 
one hour; then take out the bag and let it 
drain, then add one pound of madder and on€ 

so dyer's compa>^iok. 

pound of allam ; run your cloth one and an 
half hours, boiling: then air and fold it up 
smooth, and wrap it up close, and let it lie twen- 
ty-four hours ; then rince, and shift the liquor 
from your copper, fill with fair water, then add 
eight pounds of logwood chips, boil u^ell till the 
strength is well out ; then run your cloth one 
hour ; then, if you find it necessary, add more 
logwood — 'if not, then add one quarter of a 
pound of copperas, and one gallon of lant, and 
handle till j'our colour pleases. 

If your colour is not dark enough, you may 
use a little ashes, put with sig ; and take the lie 
and put in the dye, with a little copperas, and 
run again. — Lie and sig has the same effect, 
and potash or pearlash. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take one and an 
half pounds of copperas, fill your copper with 
water, heat boiling hot ; then run your cloth 
twenty minutes, air, and run again as before, 
then air and rince your cloth, shift the liquor 
from your copper, and rince, fill with fair water, 
heat, and add four pounds of logwood chips, 
boil well, run your cloth half an hour, then air 
and run again as bef >re ; then, if your colour is 
not dark enough, add one ounce of blue vitriol, 
run again, and handle till your colour pleases. 


TO twenty yards of cloth — fill your copper 

^'itli fair water, heat boiling hot, tlien add one 
pound of blueing, (made as in receipt No. 6, fcpr 
Prussian blue) add this at twice or three times, 
run your cloth twenty minutes at a time, air and 
stir the blueing well with the dye, before the 
cloth is dipped in the dye ; then add two pounds 
of logwood chips, boil well, then add one quar* 
ter of a pound of verdigrease pulverized and dis- 
solved in vinegar, as in receipt No. 4 ; then run 
your cloth haff an hour, then add half a pound 
of copperas, run again, air, and if it is not dark 
enough, add more copperas, and handle till youi? 
colour suits your fancy. 

93^. jFOR crow, with blue VITRIOL.^ 

TO twenty yards of cloth — Fill your coppef 
with water, heat scalding hot, take half a pound 
of blue vitriol, let it dissolve, run your cloth for- 
ty minutes, in two parts : then add five poundsr 
of logwood chips, boil well, run your cloth thir- 
ty minutes, air and run again, and handle till 
your colour pleases. 

34^th. FOR BLACK. 

TO twenty yards of cloth — Fill your copper 
tVith water, heat, and add three pounds of cop- 
peras ; heat near boiling, run your cloth one 
hour, then air and run again, boiling the time 
as before : air and rince, and shift the liquor 
from your copper (rince your copper clean) and 
fill with water, and add six pounds of logwood 
chips, boil well, run your cloth thirty or forty 
minutes, let it boil again fifteen or twenty min-. 
M\^, then run again as hdbre; then acW- 


one quarter of a pound of blue vitriol, run your 
cloth, boiling, three quarters of an hour; then, 
if it is not black enough, run again, and hmidle 
till your colour pleases. 

This is the best form to dye a black, I think, 
in the world ; it is equal to any for brightness, 
and without the least danger of rotting the cloth; 
and the colour is lasting and permanent as a 
blue or scarlet. 

It is necessary to cleanse the colour or dye 
stuff well out of the cloth, immediately. First 
rince in fair water, then take a tub of warm wa- 
ter, sufficient to handle, and wet the before-men- 
tioned quantity of cloth ; then add half a pint 
of the liquor of beef galk, mix it well with the 
warm water, then handle your cloth in this till 
it is well wet, then rince in water till it is clean. 
This is a sure remedy against crocking. The 
beef gall may be used in all cloths, in this man- 
ner, that are liable to crock ; and it will prevent 
their crocking, without the least danger of injur^ 
ing the colour. 


TO twenty yards of cloth, take three pounds 
of logwood chips, one and an half pounds of su- 
mac, of one season's growth, cut and dried : 
boil well, run your cloth half an hour, then add 
one ounce of blue vitriol, one quarter of a pound, 
of nutgalls, pulverized, boil well, run your cloth 
fifteen minutes : then add one ounce of verdi- 
grease, pulverized and dissolved in sig or vine- 
gar, as described in receipt No. 4 : run your 
cloth fifteen minutes, then add one pound of 
copperas, handle, and if it is not black, then add 
more copperas; and handle till your colour 

dyer's companion^. 35 

96th. FOR BLACK. 

TO twenty yards of cloth, take six pounds of 
logwood chips, one pound of dry alder bark 
one and an half pounds of sumac, of one, sea- 
son's growth, well cured and dried, one quarter 
of apoundof fustick,boil wellonehour, thenrun 
your cloth one hour, air and run again as before ; 
then air, add one gallon of sig, and one and an half 
pounds of copperas, run your cloth twenty min- 
utes ; then if it is not JDlack, add more copperas, 
and if it is attended with a rusty brown, add two 
pounds of common good brown ashes, run your 
cloth, and handle till the strength is well out of 
the dye. 

Then, if it is not black, shift your liquor from 
your copper, scour clean, rince your cloth, fill 
your copper with fair water, then add one pound 
of logwood chips, one quarter of a pound of al- 
der bark and half a pound of argal ; then boil 
well, run your cloth one hour, then sadden with 
copperas, what is necessary, and handle. But 
if it continues of a rusty cast, which logwood 
causes, add one gallon of sig, or more ashes, 
that which is most convenient, and handle till 
your colour pleases. 

N. B. Silk may be dyed in this dye. It is 
necessary to take the same method in cleansing 
as in receipt No. 94, and all other dark colours 
that are liable to crock, &c. 

^7th. FOR BLACK. 

TO twenty yards of cloth, take three quarters 
of a pound of blue vitriol, add to fair water, boil 
well, run your cloth three quarters of an hour ; 
then add six pounds of logwood chips, and one 

56 j)!?er's com^akio-^ 

pound of fustick chips, boil one hour, nm yoQy 
cloth one hour, then add two ounces of verdi- 
grease, pulverized and dissolved in vinegar, as 
before described, and one gallon of sig, run y oup 
doth twenty minutes ; then add one pound q|' 
copperas, and handle with the dye boiling, till 
your colour pleases. 

98///. FOR BLACK. 

TO twenty yards of cloth, take one bushel of 
butternut or chesnut bark, or both mixed to- 
gether: boil tin the strength is well out, theff 
run your cloth one hour, then sadden \yith cop- 
peras till it is quite dark ; then air and rince, and 
shift your copper, fill with fair water ; then add 
four pounds of logwood chips, half a pound of 
fustick chips, boil well till the strength is well 
out, then run your cloth one hour ; air, and if it 
is not black, or near a black, run again ; then 
add one pound of copperas, and one gallon of* 
sig ; boil well, run your cloth boiling, and han>= 
die till your colour suits your fancy^ 

The preceding Receipts are calculated for 
twenty yards of fulled cloth ; but thin cloth may 
be dyed as well as thick, and all kinds of woollen 
^oods, as yarn, wool, &c. Silks may be dyed 
in most of the dyes before mentioned ; but the 
dye requires to be stronger for silk than for 
woollen. Those dyes that will not answer for 
silk, I shall mention hereafter. 

I S7 3 




99///, BLUE — FOR Cor-roN, LineN) YarNj ifc, 

TO a tub that will hold thirty-six pails of 
water, take twelve pounds of stone-lime, 
slack it, put it in, stir it ten or twelve minutes ; 
then add six pounds of copperas, dissolved with 
hot water, stir it as before ; then add six pounds 
of indigo, ground line, stir it incessantly two 
hours ; for three days, stir it three or four times 
in a day, then let it stand fifteen or twenty hours 
before the yarn is put in, lay sticks across the 
tub, to hang the yarn on, that it may not reach. 
the bottom ; move the jarn round every fifteen 
minutes. Six hours is sufficient for the first co- 
louring of the dye ; as the dye grows weaker, 
longer time is required : rince and dry it in the 
shade. . 

When the dye is reduced, then recruit in man- 
ner and form as in setting, only when there is a 
great quantity of sediment at the bottom, then 
the dye must be dipped off, leaving the sedi- 
ment in the bottom ; then throw away the sedi- 
ment, shift the dye back, arid if the tub is not 
full enough, then add more water, (rain water is 
required in this dye in setting and recruiting). 
The dye must not be worked at too soon after 
recruiting, or sitting, and it must not be crowd- 
ed too full in colouring, but judgment must be 
used by the dyer, &c. 

F 2 

58 dyer's companion'. 


TO set a tub of twelve gallons, take ten gal- 
lons of good sig, to which add three gills of spi- 
rits, one pound of good indigo, three ounces of 
pearlash, a quarter of a' pound of good mad- 
der, and a pint of wheat bran ; put the indigo in 
a bag, and rub it in the dye till the indigo is dis- 
solved, and stir the dye well together with the 
ingredients ; let it stand twelve hours covered 
close and kept warm, and manage it in the man- 
ner and form as in receipt No. 2, till the dye 
comes to work. After tlie dye has come to 
work, wet the yarn in hot water, with a little 
pearlash in it ;. let it cool, then put it in the dye 
loose ; ^ let it lie in the dye twelve hours* then 
■wring it out and let it air ; and if it is not dark 
enough, then put it in again- There ought to 
be something at the bottom to keep the yarn off 
of the sediment. 

^ There may be a saving in colouring cotton or 
linen, by first colouring brown or purple, as I 
shall hereafter mention. Silk may be dye-d in 
this dye, but not in the blue vat. 


HEAT water sufficient for your yam, say for 
five pounds of cotton or linen yarn, take five 
ounces of blue vitriol, run your yarn or let it lie 
in the dye one hour, then add three pounds of 
good logwood chips, boil well, and put in the 
yarn ; let it lie one hour, then air and add two 
Gunct:'s of pearlash, let it lie thirty minutes;, 
^en^ if it is not dark enough, add a little blue 


vitriol ; put it in again, and you will have a good^ 
looking blue, but it will not be so lasting a co- 
lour as tlie two forms before mentioned. 

102f/. To take the Colouf out of Silk ^ Cotton^ or Linen^ 
tvhen sfiotted or another colour is ivi&hed.-^Mot, 

TO one barrel of hot water, take half a gill of 
f)il of vitriol, put in the goods ; run them fifteen 
minutes, air and rince them in fair water inmie- 
diately, lest it should endanger the goods.^ 

I have reduced black Avithout injuring it^ and 
made a yellow of it in this form. 


TAKE two pounds of fustick, boil well, tii^ 
the strength is well out, then take out the chips^ 
and add a quarter of a pound of allum, and six 
ounces of blueing, prepared as in receipt No. 6 s 
stir it with the dye till it is well rnixed, then 
handle your silk fifteen or twenty minutes : stir 
it lively, and keep it open and loose in the dye ; 
(silk should never be wenched as woollen goods) 
air, and if not derp enough, add a little more blue- 
ing ; and if not yellow enough, then a little allum , 
run again fifteen minutes ; then air, and if the 
colour suits, rince immediately. The dye ought 
to be so fixed as to colour quick, and there must 
not be a great quantity coloured at once in a 
dye : for the dye will- get too strong with the 
vitriol, which will endanger the silk ; but with 
proper care it may be coloured without any 



TO set a dye, take two pounds of logwood, 
and one pound of fustick chips, boil well, then 
add a quarter of a pound of allum, and run 
your goods one hour ; then add a quarter of a 
pound of blue vitriol, run your goods thirty 
minutes, then add two ounces of pearlash ; run 
again, and handle till your colour pleases. 


TAKE two pounds of the leaves or peelings 
of onions that are clean and clear from dirt ; put 
them in fair water, boil well, then add half a 
pound of allum, run your goods one hour, and 
you will have a good colour. 


TAKE two pounds of eopperas, dissolve it 
in hot water, and have the liquor very strong ; 
let it stand till nearly cold, run your goods one 
hour, then dip it in good lye, handle till perfect- 
ly wet ; then let it drain, and hang it in the sun 
fifteen minutes, and the sun will turn the colour ; . 
continue to manage in this manner, dipping it 
in the dye and hanging it in the sun, till dark 


TAKE one and an half bushels of black-birch 

byer's companion. .61 

Bark, and half a bushel of hemlock bark boil 
well ; then add a quarter of a pound of allun>, 
and two ounces of pearlash ; run your cloth op 
goods till your colour pleases. 


TAKE six pounds of Nicaragua chips, boil 
them till the strength is well out ; then add half 
a pound of allum, and let it stand till cold ; run 
your cloth or yarn in hot water, with a little 
pearlash in it ; tlien air, and put it in the dye) 
frequently handling over till the colour suits. 


TAKE butternut, sassafras, black alder, and 
hemlock bark, a bushel of each ; boil well, run 
yourgoods one hour, then add two pailfuUs of lie, 
or a quarter of a pound of pearlash; run youF 
cloth or goods, and handle till your colonic 


TAKE six pounds of logwood chips, and 
three pounds of redwood chips, boil well till the 
strength is well out of the chips ; then add one 
pound of allum, and run your goods one hour ; 
then add one ounce of verdigrease, made fine 
dnd dissolved in sig, described before, and add 

62 dyer's compaxiox. 

one gallon of sig ; run your goods thirty or for* 
ty minutes, and if your colour is not dark enough^ 
then add a little blue vitriol, and handle till your 
colour pleases* 


TAKE three pounds of logwood chips, boil 
well, till the strength is well out and the dye very 
strong, (for all cotton dyes require to be strong;) 
then add half a pound of allum, and one ounce 
of pearlash ; let it stand and get cold, dip your 
goods into hot water, air, and put them into the 
dye loose, handle over once in fifteen or twenty 
minutes ; let them lie in the dye in this manner 
till the colour suits. It must be observed in 
dying cottons and linens in cold dyes, that the 
air and sun are very necessary to brighten and 
strike the colour in. Let the goods lie in the 
air and sun, three or four times in the course of 
your colouring, fifteen or twenty minutes at a 
time. The preparation is suitable for blue, as 
mentioned in receipt 99th. 

1 1 ^th. BRO WN O A* CO TTOA'JjYD 

TAKE of maple or white oak bark, one 
bushel, boil well till the strength is well out, 
then take the bark out, and have dye sufficient 
to wet the goods ; then add one pound of cop- 
peras, let it stand till nearly cold ; run your 
goods in hot water with a little pearlash first ; 
then put it in the dye, and handle over once in 

dyer's C0JMPANI02>. 63^ 

ten or fifteen minutes, and air, as described be- 
fore in receipt 110th ; and handle in this manner 
till the colour suits ; then rince clean. This is the 
brown mentioned in receipt 99th, for a saving 
in blue ; but I prefer the purple ; but when co- 
loured blue, after it is dry, it is necessary to 
scald it in salt and water, to bind the colour- 


TAKE one pound of nutgalls pulverized, 
boil in water one hour, then add two pounds of 
copperas ; let it stand till cold, and have liquor 
enough to wet the goods ; (it requires to be 
very strong) put j^our goods in the liquor, and 
handle once in five or six minutes, wring and 
air once in half an hour ; dip in this manner 
liiree hours, then rince. This liquor ought to 
be put in a tub, and another liquor prepared 
in another tub, in this manner, viz. — take six 
pounds of sumac, of one year's growth, cut 
and well dried with the leaves all on, in the 
summer season, and three pounds of logwood 
chips, boil well till the strength is well out, then 
shift it in the tub, and let it s^nd till cold ; then 
run your goods in the same manner as before 
described, handle in this two hours ; if the co- 
lour is not then dark enough, run again in the 
copperas and galls liquor, then rince and run 
in the logwood again, and handle in this manner 
till your colour suits. 

N. B. Cotton and linen, when dyed in cold 
dyes, must always be wet and run in hot water 
half an hour, and then aired ; and a little pearl- 
ash is g(Jod in the water, to cleanse the goods 
for colouring, &c. 

64 dyer's coi^itanion. 

Cold dyes will remain good always if properly 


TAKE one pound of nutgalls pulverized, put 
them in water, boil one hour, then put it in a 
tub, then add two pounds of copperas, have the 
liquor strong, and enough of it to wet and cover 
the goods; then dip in the hot water; then 
stir the galls and copperas together, then put in 
your goods and handle over once in five min- 
utes, that no part shall be confined, wring and 
air every half hour ; handle in this liquor two 
hours, then rince, then add three pounds of fus- 
tick and one pound of logwood chips, boil well 
till the strength is well .out; then add five ounces 
of good madder, and two ounces of allum ; let 
it simmer a few minutes, then shift the liquor into 
a tub, and let it stand till cold ; then handl 
j^our goods in the first liquor two or three houis 
till the colour is well raised ; and if it is not dark 
enough, then take two pounds of fustick, and 
one pound of logwood, boil well ; let it cool, and 
sadden with copperas as much as is necessary^ 
and handle till your colour pleases. 



TAKE five pounds of fustick, and 'two 
pounds of logwood chips, boil well ; then add a 
quarter of a pound of blue vitriol, and a quarter 
of a pound of allum, run your goods one hour ; 
then add one pound of copperas, and handle idBI 

fitER's eCTVfPAJ^IOl?. 65 

fbut colour pleases. If the colour is not dark 
enough, you may add more copperas, &c. 


TAKE four pounds of fustick chips, and 
half a pound of logwood chips, boil well, then 
add tivo ounces of allum, and one ounce of 
blue vitriol ; then run your goods till the strength 
is well out of the dye ; then sadden with cop- 
peras to your liking, and handle till your colour 


TAKE hot water, and dissolve one pound of 
copperas ; run your goods forty minutes, then 
air and rince, and shift your liquor from your 
copper ; fill with fair water ; then add three 
pounds of logwood, boil well, run your goods 
one hour, then add a tiuarter of a pound of blue 
vitriol, and handle till your colour pleases. 


TAKE four pounds of good logwood, and 
two pounds of fustick chips, boil well; then 
add a quarter of a pound of blue vitriol, run 
your cloth one hour, or till the strength is well 
out of the dye, then sadden with two pounds of 
t3>pperas, and one gallon of good old sig; ruii 

06 dyer's companion, 

your cloth, and if it is not black, you must air 
and rince, and shift your liquor from your cop- 
per, and set another dye in manner and form as 
the first, and handle again, and depend on having 
an excellent black at last. But if it is attended 
with a rusty brownness, you may put in one 
quart of brown ashes, or two ounces of pearl- 
ash, and handle lively, which is necessary in all 
hot silk, cotton, and linen dyes. 


TAKE one pound of nutgalls pulverized, 
boil in one pail full of water one hour, then add 
two pounds of copperas, shift it into a tub, and 
add water sufficient to cover, and handle your 
goods very strong ; then take fair water and fill 
your copper, add four pounds of logwood chips, 
two pounds of sumac v/ell dried, of one season's 
growth, and one pound of dry alder bark, boil 
well till the strength is well out, then dip offthe 
<Iye into a tub, the chips remaining in the kettle ; 
let it stand till cold. 

The dye must be managed in this manner ;-— 
first run your goods in hot water, with a little 
pearlash in it ; run in this half an hour, then aif 
and lay your goods into the copperas and galls li- 
quor ; handle over every eight or ten min- 
utes, and air every half hour ; handle in this two 
hours, then rince clean and lay it in the logwood 
liquor ; handle as in the other three hours, then 
if it is not black, put water in the copper upon 
the chips ; before running in the copper, let it 
steep and cool again, and add one pound of 
copperas ; run in this one hour ; but if it has a 
rusty brown appearance, which is occasioned 
by the logwood, then add two ounces of pearL 


dyer's companion. 67 

ash, or brown ashes will answer if you have 
no pearlash ; run in this half an hour, then air 
Jind rince clean, and if it is not black,then recruit 
the liquors and make them stronger, and man^ 
age as before in the first preparation ; and never 
fear but you will have a fine black. 

After you have rinced clean, to keep it from 
crocking, use beef galls, as mentioned in receipt 
No. 94. 

GEjVERJL observjtio.ys. 

COTTON and linen dye is the best cold in 
general; for it is almost impossible with me to 
colour cotton and linen in hot dyes without spot- 
ting ; for the cotton, &c. are of a cold deadly 
nature, and the steam ofthe dye has a bad effect on 
goods of this kind. All kinds of cotton and lin- 
en cloths, yarn and thread, may be coloured 
by following the preceding receipts for dying 
cotton and linen. 

In the receipts for dying silk, cotton and linen, 
I have not specified any particular quantity of 
yards or weight. There is so much chffcrence in 
the weight of goods of this kind, that no rule 
eould be given in yards ; and no certainty can 
be aiSxed to a general rule of weight, be- 
cause of the difference of the quality of the 
goods. Silks differ, so do cottons and linens ; no 
regular system can therefore be adc^pted. The 
dyer is to proportion his dyes according to the 
receipts, foiloAving his judgment as the goods 
vary ; and if he closely pursues the directions 
for proportion and management, he will not find 
a single receipt that will not answer the purpose 
designed. I shall hereafter speak particularly 
of the powers on which the dyes depend. 

68 dyer's coifi^AKroN. 

X/JRectiOjYs for dressing cloth, 

IN dressing cloth, there are various forms in* 
use with almost every workman in the busi- 
jiess ; but I shall only point out the way M^hich 
I conceive to be the best. There are also diflfer- 
ent kinds of tools and utensils made use of^^ 
"which I shall leave to the discretion of the prac^ 


CLOTH to be fulled, should be wet witW 
fsoap sufficient to cleanse it of the dirt and grease^ 
then scoured clean and dried ; then burl or pick 
out all the knots and specks that will injure 
the cloth in dressing ; then wet with soap so 
that the cloth will work and turn lively in the 
mill. Let proper attention be paid to handle the 
cloths from the mill, so as to keep them 
smooth ; and be cautious not to let them grow 
together, for it is very hurtful to the cloth, and 
detrimental in dressing. The fulling-mill must be 
tended with aire. When the cloths are fulled 
sufficiently, then scour clean from the soap : 
And if there is any of the first quality to be 
dressed, then card lightly over, so as to lay and 
straighten the nap ; then shear this nap off; then 
take clothier's jacks, and raise a nap sufficient to 
cover the thread ; then shear this off and raise 
another nap with teazles. I prefer teazles to 
any thing else to raise a nap on cloth ; they are 
much milder and softer to cloth than jacks ; 
but where they cannot be had, jacks may be 
substituted in their place. After, raising the 
third nap, then colour the cloth ; cleanse it well 
from the dye, and lay the nap straight and smooth 
out of warm Avater with jacks that are limber ; 


dyer's companion. 69 

then dry, keeping the nap smooth : when dry, 
first shear on the back-side, then shear smooth 
and even on the face side, and as close as you 
can. When sheared, burl clean, and lay the nap 
with a sand- board or brick, or brush, but not 
with a jack ; some erroneously use a jack ; a 
jack is good and necessary to raise a nap, but 
not to lay it. Lay the nap smooth with the 
sand-board, and then the cloth is fit for the press. 
Have smooth papers, put it in the press, let the 
heat of the plate be just hissing hot; screw it 
moderately in the press, for the beauty of most 
thick cloths is destroyed by pressing too hard. 
The beauty of thick cloth depends on dressing 
and not on pressing ; the coarser the cloth is, the 
harder it requires to be screwed ; all thick cloths 
are not dressed alike, but according to quality, 
some requiring once shearing, some twice, and 
so on, to the number of times mentioned before ; 
six times is sufficient for the first quality, man« 
aged as before mentioned. Some fulled cloths 
do not require shearing, which are dressed with 
a thick nap, sufficient to cover the thread ; this 
may be raised with common wool and cotton 
cards ; this kind of cloth is called bear-skin or 
coating. Bear-skin should be pressed in the cold 
press, never in the hot-press. Baize or flannels 
should be fulled hghtly, the grease and dirt 
scoured out clean ; then, if it is to be coloured, 
dye and raise a nap with a mild easy card or 
jack and a stuffed board, and dry smooth, and 
press in a cold press ; but if it is to remain white, 
raise a nap as before, and dry smooth ; then have 
a stove, or some proper tight place, with con- 
veniences to hang the cloth up loose; then, to 
100 yards of flannel, burn one pound of sulphur 
or brimstone under the cloths, and it will cleanse 
them from A] -pecks of dirt, and leave them as 
white as need be; but when you find it necessa- 

7© dyer's COMPAI^IOIf. 

ty,you may have yon r copper cleaned with fair 
hot water, with a little compound of blueing in 
it ; run your cloth in this a few minutes, and 
dry smooth ; put in clean papers, press in the 
cold press, &c. Some, when they stove their 
cloth with sulphur, wet it in clean soap suds, 
;md hang the cloth or goods up wet ; but I pre- 
fer the water with a litde blueing, to whiten the 
cloth before stoving, for it will wear handsomer^, 
and will not grow yellow so soon. 


THIN cloths should be well coloured, cleans-^ 
ed well from the dye, dried smooth, and press- 
ed double ; thin cloths require to be much mois-. 
ter than thick cloths ; the press papers should be 
hard, thin and smooth ; and the press hotter 
than for thick cloths. It must be screwed very 
hard, for the beauty of thin cloth is in the gloss 
given by pressing. The heat of the press should 
be kept regular, and the cloth will be smooth^^ 


SILK must never be pressed, but cleaned 
well from the dye-stuff, then dried ; then dis- 
solve gum Arabic in water, wet the silk 
thoroughly in this, Avring and squeeze as dry a§ 
you can, so as it shall not drip : then strain it 
out smooth every way, and dry. This will finish 
the silk dressing. 

Cottons. Some do not require to be pressed^ 
as velvets^ cordiu'oys, and similar cloths r they 


require only to have the nap laid when wet ; fus- 
tian must have a nap raised drjr with teazles, 
and then pressed. Almost all kinds of cotton 
and linen cloths, except those before mentionedj 
such as nankeens, jeans, muslins, &c. require to 
be pressed quite hard ; not as hard as thin wooL 
en cloths, but harder than thick. If any of the 
goods requires to be glazed, it must be managed 
in a different form, instead of pressing it must 
be calindered ; i. e. run through a machine with 
two steel rollers, one hot and the other cold, and 
the goods rolled between them, &c. 

N. B. Silk, cotton and linen, cloth must nevef 
be put in the fulling-mill to scour ^t any time;> 
for it will ruin them. 

Obacrvaiiona on the difference o^ Coloursy and thefr 
defiendin^ fiowers, with directions as to the use of 
Dye-stuffs^ and their fir ofier ties and effects. 

THE five Material Colours are these, Blue, 
Yellow, Red, Brown and Black ; the three 
powers are these, the Alkali, the Acid, and Gor- 
rosive ; these are the depending powers of all 
colpjars which I shall endeavour to shew in each 
colour in course. 

First, The blue. The blue with indigo de- 
pends on the power of the alkali, sig or urine ; 
pearlash and potash and the lie of lime are 
^all alkalies : so it evidently appears that indigo, 
although the best dye drug in the world, (except 
cochineal) is of no effect without the power of 
the alkali. There are other materials used with 
the indigo, but are of no other use than to sup. 
port and assist the indigo : Woad will dye a 
blue, properly prepared, without the indigo, and 
indigo without the woad ; so woad serves only as 
an assistant to the indigo. Woad is a very use . 

72 l>rER's COMPANIOxV* 

fill dye drug in carrying on large manufacto-i 
lies ; but it will not answer any useful purpose 
in our small bu:>iness. Madder is a strong drug, 
serving to brighten and darken the blue, which 
greatly assists the indigo. Wheat bran serves 
only to soften the water, and urine or sig pre- 
pares the dye to come to work sooner than it 
otherwise would. Borax is an alkali which 
softens all parts, and causes it to rest easy, and 
come to work well and soon. Blue with indigo 
is C(^l()ured vvith drugs altogether. 

Prussian Blue is of a different nature ; it is 
dependant on the power of the acid, which I 
shall describe hereafter. Blue with logwood is 
of a different nature from any other real colour. 
I think this is possessed of all the powers and 
xnixed powers ; with regard to logwood I have 
imbibed an idea that it was leading and allied 
to a blue, I have tried one power and another, 
until I have been brought to this conclusion. 
Madder to strengthen the logwood ; allum is an 
acid that raises the lustre of the blue, but not 
sufficient of itself, it being a weak acid; verdi- 
grease is evidently possessed of two powers, I 
think ; it agn es with the acid and corrosive, but 
is most powerful as a corrosive- Sig is a weak al- 
kali, which shows that the powers are mixed ; it 
rouses and gives lustre to the logwood, and 
makes a fine blue. Thus we find the three pow- 
ers may be mixed together in a real colour, al- 
though much averse to each other. Blue vitriol 
is possessed of two powers, acid and corrosive, 
and powerful in both ; it has a speedy effect on 
logwood ; and is very good in the latter part of 
dye, to raise, bind, and darken the colour. 

In the 5 th receipt I have placed the two powers 
as a preparation for the blue, which are in them- 
selves in direct opposition to each other. The 
acid being inos^ powerful, it will generally de- 
stroy the cojrrosive. Copperas is a corrosive; 

alliim and tartar are acids^, which soften and 
take off the ill effects of the copperas ; thus mix- 
cd together, they have a good effect ; but place 
them in two different bodies and apply you^ 
goods, and one will destroy the other. The 
copperas agrees well with logwood, for almost 
any colour : however, for a blue, it is necessary 
to rince the copperas well gut of your goods, 
otherwise the colour will be dull. Copperas be- 
ing placed v/ith the logwood, kills the nature of 
k, and destroys the lustre of the blue if used aftef 
the logwood- The vcrdigrease, sig and pearl- 
ash make the three powers compleat in this dye, 
dniy in different form and manner ; which evi- 
dently shews that blue with logwood cannot be 
made without these powers ; but when the 
three powers are necessarily fixed or placed in 
tmion, they must be in a feeble form ; and stilly 
if they are not properly applied, although weak 
and feeble, perhaps they will breed a war that 
will cost something before a peace can be made; 
so be cautious in dealing with too many pow- 
ers at once, till you become well acquainted 
with their relative and combined strength- 

Pi? t^55/^iY BLUE. 

PRUSSIAN Blue depends principally on 
the indigo raised by the power of the acid, and 
softened by tlie power of alkali. Oil of vitriol is 
a strong acid, salt and lime are alkalies ; salt may- 
be used, and answer the purpose of lime, so it 
evidently appears that salt is a simple alkali ; 
these three ingredients mi^xed together, make a 
compound of blueing forPrussian blue and green. 
Green is no colour of itself, but is connected 
with two, blue and yellow^ which are both de« 

j74 dyer's COMPAN'IOX. 

pendant on the acid. Fustick is an excellent 
dye-wood, but is useless without the acid to 
raise and brighten the colour. AUum is com- 
xnonly used, but tartar and aquafortis serve to 
raise the colour of the yellow ; so green may be 
made very easy, the two colours being in per- 
fect union with regard to po^^'ers. So lead them 
together with care till they arrive at their proper 
state, which is a good green. 

In the 10th receipt I have admitted a little log- 
wood and copperas, which serves to darken the 
green, and rather dull, &c. 

In the 1 1th receipt, I have admitted pearlash^ 
allum and aquafortis with the fustick. Allum and 
aquafortis are acids ; pearlash is an alkali; the 
acid raises the yellow, the alkali softens and takes 
off the harsh parts of the acid, fits and springs 
the wool, to prepare it to receive the blue ; the 
acids are binding, and the alkali the reverse. 

In the 12th receipt, I have admitted wheat 
bran wet with vinegar. Vinegar is the principal,, 
it being an acid, leading to corrosive, or is in 
greater union than any other acid with the cor- 
rosive ; but when mixed with wheatbran, it is a 
mild acid and has quite a different effect from 
what it would in the natural state ; and cannot 
be used any otlier way in these kind of dyes. 
When mixed with the bran, or othcnvise, it is of 
a cleansing searcliing nature. I have admitted 
red tartar, which is cleansing and prepares the 
cloth or goods to receive a colour. Copperas 
serves only to darken, as I have said before.^ 

In the loth receipt I have admitted blue vitriol, 
which serves to darken and raise the lustre of 
the yellow. 


BOTTLE Green is connected widi three dif* 


ferent colours ; two as green, one as brown ^ 
the green is possessed of the quality described 
before, depending on the acid ; the brown is 
assisted by the logwood, and lowered down by 
the power of the corrosive. The copperas would 
destroy the power of the acid in this dye, were 
it not for the verdigrease being possessed of two 
powers, which renders both mild and friendly. 

In the 14th receipt, it is evident that blue vi- 
triol is of two powers ; as an acid it raises the 
yellow of the fustick, as a corrosive it darkens 
very rapidly Vv^ith logwood, so the goods are pre- 
pared with these two powers to combine the 
three in one colour. 

The 15th receipt is an olive green ; this is a 
simpleness of green, and depends on the power 
of the acid, as green; but as brown on the 
corrosive ; the acid going under cover of the 
bark, gives admittance to the corrosive ; and 
thus the lustre of the colour is preserved from 


YELLOW is one of the material coloui% 
snd is dependent, always, on the power of the 
acid, and no other ; but has different subjects^ 
Fustick is the principal subject among our dy- 
ers, and allum the principal acid. Aquafortis 
is ver5^ good to cleanse and prepare the colour ; 
and it substantiates the yellow, and makes it 
much brighter. So the allum and aquafortis 
agree in all light colours ; but aquafortis will not 
answer with a corrosive ; for it is so strong an 
acid that it will not admit any thing of a darken- 
ing nature, as you see in taking the colour out of 
cloth, &c. The composition is made up of 
agids, and that wall destroy the power of the 

lU dyer's companion. 

corrosive and alkali, and all the subjects that 
unite vvith those powers; so it isevident that the 
acid is most powerful — for it will destroy what 
the others create ; yet the acid may be overcome, 
in some of the most feeble parts, when not guard- 
ed with care by alkali and corrosive. 


SCARLET is one of the most noble colours 
ever made by man : cochineal is its grand and 
principal subject, which is the finest and best 
dye drug in the world. Scarlet has the most 
brilliant rays of all colours, which resemble the 
sun in the firmament and the bow in the clouds. 
Yet cochineal is the most simple of all dye drugs, 
w^ere it not for the power of the acid and a pro- 
per connection with other -subjects. Thefustick 
and turmeric place a foundation to give lustre to 
the scarlet; aquafortis and argal cleanse, and 
raise the lustre, and make way for the cochineal 
to take place ; yet the goods are too hard — they 
want softening and taking off the harsh part of 
the acid, which is done by wheat bran, wet with 
vinegar. The bran is softening, and the vinegar 
is an acid which is searching and cleansing, — 
Now the cloth is prepared to give place to the 
cochineal. JVrsenick andarmorick, are only as- 
sisting subjects ; the aquafortis to keep up the 
life and spirits of the subjects. Thus cochineal 
is supported by one of the most noble and great- 
est powers, and is guarded by worthy subjects^ 
and a scarlet is an ornament to kings. 

The next is possessed of the same power, only 
the subjects are a little differently arranged. 


dyer's com?anign. /%« 


CRIMSON has the brilliance and lustre of 
the rain-bow, yet is possessed of two colours ;• 
but most united with the red, with a little tine - 
tui-e of blue. So it is evident crimson is of no 
colour in itself, but is a mixture with red and 
-blue. As red, it depends on the acid ; and a^^ 
blue, on the alkali. Cream of tartar, allum, and 
crude tartar, are all acids. Salammoniack is an. 
alkali, and a very mild one. — Thus we find 
these two powers united by the help of one sub- 

The other, or the next following, has a num« 
ber of subjects, but dependent on the same pow^ 
jers. — Red, with nicaragua, is dependent oi:^ 
the acid, and all other reds. Dye woods are not 
so permanent as drugs, nor so brilliant in rays ; 
but answer a good purpose for common use^ 
and make very good colours. All crimsons 
are dependent on the powers of the acid an^^ 


MADDER is a fine drug, and maybe cuiti?: 
vated among us, very easy. It is a tender root % 
and when manufactured fit for use, there are 
three different sorts proceeding from one root. 
The dyer ought to be well acquainted with the 
cjualities of this drug. It will not admit of boil- 
ing ; it kills and destroys the nature of it, (as it 
does all other dye-stuffs taken out of the ground. '^ 
Madder requires the softest water in the world. 
In order to soften the water, I use the wheat 
bran. But madder depends partly on two pow- 
ers — when sig h used, vvhiclj seryets- to darken 


and bind the red ; but brazilletto has the same 
effect, only the colour will be brighter — and this 
serves as an assistant, and the sig as an alkali, 
and the allum and argal as acid. Thus th^ 
madder red is dependent on the acid- 

The Meroon Red has the same principal sub- 
jects, and is dependent on the same powers ; 
and differs in nothing only it is a brighter red, 
and a little different in the management. 

"This colour is the most independent of any 
colour ; not depending on any power or powers. 
Nutgalls is a subject with madder, but a little 
pearlash may be added in case it wants help ; so 
it appears that the alkali stands as a power, in 
this ; so all reds are dependent on the acids.— 
The crimsons and clarets are nothing of them- 
selves, and are subject to two powers — the acid 
and the alkali. The subjects being differently 
arranged, causes the different complexions. 

The power of the corrosive to destroy the 
power of acid. — Copperas, the strongest of all 
corrosives, properly prepared, will, without assis- 
tance, destroy the acid. Take cloth from aci- 
dous liquor and put it in copperas water, and it 
will wholly destroy the acidous power ; — and 
acid will destroy the corrosive, in the same 
manner. So it requires a mediator, when these 
two powers come together, to unite them, and 
prevent their destroying each other ; but in the 
mixture of colours they will require a frequent 
and friendly correspondence. 


ORANGE colour is fine and brilliapt^ jtfld 


lias the shades of two colours — yellow, in full ; 
and red, in part. So orange is the union of two 
colours which agree in powers only. 


CHERRY is a dark red, and is subject to the 
powers of acid and alkali ; and the subjects are 
barwood and brazlUetto—but barwood is the 
niostdependingone,though the other isnecessarj^. 


VIOLETS are a mixture of red and blue ; 
the red depends on the subject of brazilletto and 
on the power of the acid— the blue, on the sub- 
ject of logwood and on the power of the alkali. 
Thus, in this dye, the powers and subjects 
agree, and by varying the powers and subjects, 
alter the complexions. 


PINKS are of various colours, but this is a 
simple red, and is dependent on the power of the 
acid; Its subjects are a number, but I have 
laid them down as one in the receipt, and that 
is madder — which is the principal subject to be 
depended on in this colour. 

^ FLESH colour is a simple colour of red, 
changed from v/hite to a small tincture of red: 

80 bver's companiqi;. 

This has a number of subjects, but is deiJgn- 
dent on the power of the acid. 

BROWN has many subjects, and of various 
complexions, principally dependent on thepow- 
er of the corrosive ; but sometimes we admit 
the weak power of the alkali, like the sig, &c* 
Brown has the greatest connection with all the 
colours, oi any colour : for most, or tlie great- 
est port of llie mixed colours, are connected 
widi the brown^ as we shall shortly shevv^ 


CORBEAU is a mixture of two colours, red 
and brown ; these colours, in this one, depen- 
dent on tv/o powers, and but one principal sub-^ 
ject. The pov/ers are an acid and corrosive ; 
the subject, camwood and the best of dye-wood. 
The red depends on the oil of vitriol for an 
acid ; to prepare and unite the bodies of the 
goods to take off a gray that these colours arc 
inclining to; tlie blue vitriol being possessed of 
two powers, intercedes for the brown, supports 
the red and raises the lustre, which is the glory 
of these colours when united together ; die cloth 
er goods, in a direct view, will be brown but 
when glanced by the eye or looked across, it 
will appear with a fine lustre of red. 

The acid is a gunrd to the red, but tliat would 
TiOt give j^'dmittance to ti^e brown, ^^ere it not 
for the blue vitriol being of two pov/ers, which 
interpose for tlieir mutual good. Copperas, the 
strongest of corrosives, is harsh and liery, and 

dyer's COMPAl^ION. 81 

wants to be softened down notwithstanding the 
blue vitriol. Were it not, for another assistant 
uniting with the corrosive, you would fail in the 
union of these two colours ; by dissolving the 
copperas in vinegar, it softens the copperas ; the 
vinegar being an acidous power, uniting with the 
corrosive, causes the two powers to unite. The 
logwood assists the camwood in completing the 
necessary union. Thus when these two colours, 
which are in opposition to each other have occa- 
sion to unite, it must be by the mediation or the 
sul^ject of two powers, a&. I shall shew more 
plainly in the next place. 


NICARAGUA, not of so spirited a nature^ 
requires the greater assistance of the powers^ 
'X'his has the assistance of three powers, and 
has assisting subjects ; thefustick, as an assisting 
::^ubject, raises the lustre of the red ; and yellow 
always depends on the acid ; the blue vitriol 
guards the acid against the corrosive, keeps it 
from danger, and fits it to receive the subject of 
logwood ; the verdigrease supports the acid, 
raises the lustre of the red, and unites with the 
corrosive ; the copperas being softened by the 
sig, the weak power of the alkali* So by the 
union of the three powers, and two mixed pow- 
ers, and the subjects, (the Nicaragua the chief,) 
the two colours are brought to an union. 


REDWOOD has spirit sufficient, but is s1c\t 


in motion, and is a feeble subject ; and yet is a 
subject of great use : however, it requiresrassis- 
tauce, otherwise it would fail. It is supported 
by the three powers, the acid and corrosive are 
its main dependencies ; but I have placed them 
in different forms, as you will see by the receipts 
for corbeau and London brown with red-wood. 
The powers must support the different subjects 
according to the different order in which they are 
admitted. I have left some, deficient of the pow- 
er of the corrosive, to the assistant subject log- 
wood, and the power of the weak alkali sig ; 
but in case the colour is not dark enough^ then 
the dyer's judgment will call his attention to look 
on the receipts before mentioned, and he will 
see the corrosive will be admitted — the copper- 
as or verdigrease, which is commonly best 
to guard the red, and' powerful in darkening. 
Thus we find the acid and corrosive are necessa- 
ry with this mixture of red and brown ; and softened by the. powder of the alkali. 
Tlie dyer will always find diese colours must be 
supported by the power of the acid and corro- 
sive. The acid the power of the red always ; 
the corrosive the complete power of the browru 
The reddish brown and Spanish brovvn are de- 
pendant on the^me powders, but not altogetlici^ 
on the same subjects, &e. 


THE London Smoke is a mixture of yellow 
and bro%vn. The yellow is dependant on the 
cicid, and is the substan e and life of the colour. 
Fustick is the principal subject for the yellow, 
and allum the acid, but the bark is a guard to 
the yellow, and is a subject in favor of all pow^ 

dyer's COMPANIOInI?* . 8S 

ers. The smoke is a very dark colour, bearing 
a little red with the yellow ; thus, the butternut 
bark substantiates every part of these colours i 
the Nicaragua raises the reddish hue, the log- 
wood assists the copperas in darkening, and the 
sig supports the colour in every part, and enliv- 
ens it to give place to the corrosive. Thus the, 
three powers are united in this mixed colour^ 
with many powerful subjects ^vhich stand wd-i 
to the last. 


CINNAMON colour is a mixture of threa 
colours, red and yellow in perfect union, and isr 
dependent on the acid ; and the brown, the cor- 
rosive and allcali. So the three powers, and 
three subjects are united in this mixture. The 
smoke and liver browns are simply the same as 
London smoke, only differing in their subjects ; 
the camwood and madder corresponding with 
the fustick, and laying a foundation for the 
brown. Thus the subjects will unite so perfect^ 
ly well together, that they are at peace with ail 
the powers but the the corrosive ; and this bind^ 
all these subjects and unites the colours. 


THE Olive differs nothing more from smok& 
than this it is not so dark, h^s no hue of red, 
and is not depending on the alkali ; but the 
weak alkali may be admitted, (as sig) but is de- 
pendent on the powers of acid and corrosive r 
and the subjects of the olives are fustick th^ 

84 DYER'S companion; 

principal ; the others which are many, serve to 
alter the complexions and give different shades* 
Butternut, logwood and madder unite as to 
shades ; the blueing gives a dilFerent shade^ 
I'hus it is left to the discretion of the dyers to 
make use of what form they please. 


SNUFF Colours are formed of three coloui^ i 
dependent on the yellow for lustre, and the red 
and brown for the shades. The snuff colours 
are dependent principally on the power of the 
acid and corrosive, and a little on the power of 
the alkali ; and the many different subjects have 
correspondence with these powei;3. Their union 
in this manner causes the difference in complex- 
ions. So as to the powers, properties and ef- 
fects of these browns, they are simply all as one, 
but differing in complexions; 1 mean the 
f^moke, the olive and snuff. It is dependent on 
the fu stick and the acid : the red is dependent 
on the redwood, camwood and madder, and on 
the power of the alkali ; the brown on the barks, 
the logwoodj and sumac ; and is dependent on 
the corrosive. Thus by changing the orders of 
the subjects and powers, the different shades 
may be produced in those colours ; and this I 
liave left to the discretion of the dyer. 

bat-wijYG, slate, dove or lead, 
pearl or silver grey,aj\^ddrab. 

AS to these colours, they are a mixture of all 
colours, and are depending on ail the powers 

dyer's oompakion. 85* 

vvnd almost all the subjects. Some shades are 
very light, merely changed from white ; some 
re dark near to a black, but as to the above co- 
. ours they are stiled greys,forming various shades 
and complexions, from a pearl to a slate colour ; 
tlie different subjects corresponding with the 
powers, causes the complexions to difftr. So 
with regard to the powers, I think I have de- 
scribed plamly before ; the union of the subjects 
and colours are of so extensive a nature in these 
different shades, it is in vain to describe them 
in manner and form as I have the rest, for it- 
would swell a volume. I have been very par- 
ticular in the receipts, and given rules sufficient^ 
and an extensive asfiortment of shades ; but in 
short, they are all greys of different complexions', 
being of a weak and feeble make, and must be 
nursed with care, otherwise they will nevei" ar- 
rive to a state of maturity. 

THE raven is a mixture of two colours, blii^ 
land black ; black direct, and blue by the glance 
of the eye. N(jw the blue is dependent on the 
power of the acid and alkali, and the black on 
the power of the corrosive.^ The wheat bran 
softens the goods ; the vinegar as an acid 
cleanses them and prepares them to meet the 
subjects, and the madder and alhirn rouses it up 
for the logwood ; lying and souring gives puie. 
tration and admittance to the remaining sub=^ 
jects, and the corrosive power. 


CROW colour differs not much from the ra- 


ven. ^ If any, only in form ; but I think there is 
a difterence — the crow is attended with a little 
brownish luie, and is dependent on the power of 
the con'osive, and the subject of the logAvoodi &C, 


THE blue part is raised with the blueing 
which has been described before ; the black on 
the corrosive ; the logwood the principal sub- 
ject ; the verdigrease intercedes for both, and 
unites both colours together. 


BLUE Vitriol being connected with two 
powers, the acid and corrosive, forms an union 
with these two colours, and prepares them to 
meet the subject of logwood, and brings them 
on terms never more to part. 


BLACK is a colour of all colours. It has 
but one shade, and that is the shade of darkness. 
Black is dependent on the power of the corro- 
rsive, and has many subjects ; but logwood is 
the principal, the others serve as assistants 
to the logwood.^ Thus one power and one sub- 
ject form the substance of this colour. There 
are difterent shades of all colours except black. 

Some men, and even philosophers, have en- 
deavoured to shew that black is not a colour ; 

dyer's companion. 87 

but I shall endeavour to refute them. Black is 
made of materials, as any other colour ; dark- 
ness is caused by materials, by the earth and the 
material world ; by the shadow of these, dark- 
ness comes ; and by the subjects of materials, 
white is changed to black. So men may as 
well argue that light is darkness, as to say that 
black is not a colour- Light is not darkness, 
nor white black ; but were j;he light to remam 
with us, we should not perceive the darkness ; 
and if we were not blessed with materials, we 
should not change white into colours.^ Light 
is changed by materials ; the light of this w orld 
is of a nature to be changed, and white is of the 
same substance, depending for its changes on 
materials of dye-stuff; by our f;<culties we use 
them? and obtain the desire<:l effect Tvhich God 
in his wisdom has designed. Blue, yellow, red, 
brown and black are made of materials; they 
are all colours, and are all of equal rank, formed 
from white ; yet black is most powerful, for 
that maybe made to overshado wall other colours, 
^nd cause darkness to reign over the m all. So 
it is evident that black is a colour of all colours, 
"But black and white mixed together is no co- 
lour. If light and darkness were mixed together, 
Ave should have neither : the God that made 
the world separated the light from the darkness ; 
so in like manner he has given us materials, and 
a faculty to use them, to change white to 
black. Thus we find that black is a colour. 

It is said that orange and violets are colours, 
but they are not in themselves so, but are com- 
pounded of colours* No mixture can be a real 

Having endeavoured to give you my ideas of 
the properties and effects of colours ; I request 
to be read with candor, and hope to be of some 
benefit. If I have committed errors, I wish 
they may be corrected for the public ab vantage. 

^3 dyer's COI^IPAXIOX. 


SILK is of a nature different from wool, 
cotton, and fnien : it is ofa deadly nature : how- 
ever, the most of preparations for dying woollen 
will answer for silk, only the dye requires to be 
stronger. It has also such an union with cotton 
l\nd linen, that most of these preparations will 
answer for either. So it appears that silk is of 
a substance between v/ool, cotton and linen, and 
it unites with them as to colours, &c. 


COTTON and Linen are of a cold and 
deadly nature, and require different preparations 
and management in colouring. It is the best v/ay 
in colouring cotton and linen, to have the dye 
cold ; they being of so cold a nature. As to 
the colours of cotton and linen, I shall say but 
little : As to the powers, the principal is the 
corrosive, the next die alkali, and sometimes 
the acid ; which j' ou will see by the receipts. 
The subjects are many, but die grand subject 
is nutgalls ; the others are so numerous, I shall 
•not mention them now. I have endeavoured to 
explain them explicitly in the receipts for cot- 
ton and linen, and think it needless to mention 
them again here. As to the powers and the 
union of the subjects, they have been explained 
before and the best way is to examine the rules 
for improvements, and follow the receipts close 
in proptr order, and I presume to say they will 
have the desired effect, m all colours and shades; 

dyer's companion. 89 


Observation First* 

WE think ourselves masters of our busi- 
Bess before we are, and undertake to do that we 
know nothing of. By this our business is ruiii-^ 
ed, our customers imposed upon, and our coun- 
try impoverished ; this is the present situation 
of our business. 

Observation Second. — Those impostors in» 
jure their fellow- functioners as well as the pub- 
lic, by discouraging manufactories. Finding 
they fail of their intentions, they begin to encou- 
rage their customers by promising to do better, 
and to work very cheap ; by these impostors, 
people are deluded, and their goods not un- 
irequently ruined. With the customer, who 
knows nothing of dressing, cheapness is every 
thing. The workman who is a complete mas*, 
ter of his business is often compelled to regu- 
late his prices of work by the charges of those 
who are ignorant of the trade ) (^nsequently the 
work is slighted, or the mechanic cannot obtain 
a living ; and the employer is a loser in the end,, 
as the goods are badly finished, or perhaps en- 
tirely ruined. 

Let those who practise in a business make 
themselves masters of it; then fair and just prices 
may be obtained for their labor, and the employ- 
er will be better satisfied, and real justice be 
done him. — Thus our manufactories would be 
increased : The interests of the employer and 
employed would both be enhanced ; they are 
inseparable:^ selfishness counteracts its own 
views ; the injustice we do our country, v^e do 
to ourselves. 

As a nation we can never be really indepen- 
dent, until we become our own manufacturers, 
©f articles pf the first necessity. To arrive at 

90 dyer's COMPANIOIC. 

this desirable point ought to be our constant en-, 
deavour ; and every real patriot will use his ex- 
ertions, not only in word but in deed, to hasten 
the period. 

TO make fine Broadcloth,take your wool and 
sort it carefully ; take the shortest and finest of 
the wool, leaving no coarse locks with it ; then 
break the wool all together, and card it into rolls 
by one person or machine, then spin well the 
filling cross handed ; give it a good twist, but 
not hard so as to be wirey ; let it all be twisted 
alike, and spun by one person, tJien let it be 
well wove, with the threads closed together, but 
not too hard. Then take the long wool, and 
have it combed into worsted ; have it well spun, 
twisted well, and wove firm. Thin cloths de- 
pend on the t\yisting and firm weaving ; but the 
other, after it is well manufactured, depends on 
the fulling to close and make it firm, and on the 
dressing for beauty. The cloth if well manu- 
factured, well fulled, and well dyed and dress- 
jed, will appear equal to any imported cloths ; 
but if not well manufactured, it will not be 

If you have coarse wool and fine mixed toge- 
ther, it cannot be a fine piece ; if it is not broke 
and carded together, it will not work well; it is 
liable to be streaked, and pucker or cockle in the 
mill. If not well spun, or if spun by two hands^ 
it will have the same effect ; and if two weave on 
one piece, one thick and the other thin, it will 
cause it to pucker or cockle. 

With proper care and attention in the manu- 
facturing and dressing of cloths, we may equal 
any in workmanship and beauty, and afford 
tUen^ one third cheaper than those imported* 





THE author of the Dyer's Companion 
thinks it his duty, in gratitude to the professors 
in that noble art, to subscribe his hearty thanks 
for their approbation of, and encouragement 
given to that work, in this and every part of 
America. It is well known by that body 
of people, and felt by some, that the price for 
dying woollen goods has been much reduced of 
late. Many circumstances having determined 
me, long since, to acquire all possible know- 
ledge in the practice of dying ; in my first edi- 
tion I had not the advantage of any author 
to assist me, in compiling or improving this 
noble art, it is a work of my own study and im- 
provements ; I have of late had the advantage of 
some authors, showing the general practice of 
dying all over Europe, in England, France, 
Germany, &C' which I shall in this edition give, 
a general plan of dying, together with my own 
improvements from my small practice, and some 
observations on tlie properties and effects of 
dyes and dye stuff, the modern and ancient forms, 
as to the use of them. I am therefore constrain- 
ed, once more to recommend a strict inquiry 
into the original quality of all the drugs they 
use, that thereby^ if possible, they may discover 
some of the hidden advantages that may justly 
be expected therefrom. I am astonished that 

92 3yTaODUCTIO>. 

no artist has ever attempted to improve thh 
most ingenious art of chymical principles, I be- 
gan the^ work in hopes that my master- piece 
would induce some Artist to undertake its im- 
provement, but in vain do I expect it. 

Of flowers. — Among the infinite variety of 
colours, which glow in the flowers of plants^ 
there are very few which have any durability, 
or whose fugitive beauty can be an^ested by art> 
so as to be applied to any valuable purpose ; the 
only permanent ones are the yellow, the red, the 
blue, and all the intermediate shades of purple ; 
crimson, violets, &c. are extremely perishable. 
Many of these flowers lose their colour on being- 
dried, especiully if they are dried slowly ; the 
colours of them all perish even in the closest 
vessels, the quicker they are dried, and exclud- 
ed from the air, the longer they retain theiif 
beauty. The colouring matter, extracted and ap- 
plied on certain bodies, is still more perishable ; 
oftentimes it is destroyed in the hand of the 
operator. The colour of blue flow^ers is extract- 
ed by the infusion of water ; but there are some 
from which this gains only a redish or purplish 
hue. The red flowers readily communicate their 
own red colour to water, there is no exception 
among those that have been tried ; rectified 
spirits give a brighter, but paler than the w^ater 
infusion. The colour of yellow flowers, are in 
general durable ; many of them are as much so 
perhaps as any ofthe native colours of vegetables. 
The colour is extracted both by water & spirits ; 
the watry infusions are the deepest. Neither 
t^cid nor alkalis alter the species of. colour, 
though both of them vary the shades ; acid, 
making it paler, and alkalis deeper : allum Irke- 
wise considerably heightens it, though not so 
much as alkalis. Woollen silk impregnated with 
a solution of allum and tartar, receives a durable 

INTRODtrCTIO^r; 91> 

fellow. Some of these flowers were made use of 
y the German dyers. 

Of fruits.' — The red juices of fruits are, red 
currants, mulberries, elder berries, morello, black 
cherries, &c. gently inspissated to dryness, dis- 
solve again; almost totally in water, and appear 
nearly of the same red colour as at first. Recti- 
fied spirits extracts the tinging particles, leaving 
a considerable portion of muilaginous water un- 
dissolved, yet the spirituous tincture proves 
of a brighter colour than the watry. The 
red solutions and the juices themselves, are 
sometimes made dull, and sometimes more 
florid, by acid, and generally turned purplish 
by alkalis. There are a great number of fruits 
of different shades which 1 shall not attempt 
to enumerate or describe. But to prove, the 
proofs of colouring vegetables is by varying 
them with spirits, acids and alkalis, saline, vo- 
latile and corrosive liquors. When I make use 
of the word corrosive it is intended to imply, to 
absorb, to destroy, to reign king like black, or 
to change any shade, and destroying the lustre, 
or lustre of the colour ; it is one of the reigning 
powers, let the substance or qu ality be what it will. 
Of Plants.— -The blue and green colours of 
leaves and plants, have more or less fusibility ; 
we cannot claim in the mineral and animal king- 
doms, no substitute for blue, except (Prussian 
blue,) one which has been introduced by some 
dyer's as a colouring substance, and the vegeta- 
bles yield but two, which are both produced 
from the leaves of plants : indigo and woad. 
For yellow, there are seven different plants be- 
sides woad and barks, which will be spoken of 
hereafter. The leaves of many kinds of herbs 
and trees give a yellow dye to wool or woollen 
doth, that has been boiled in a solution of allum < 
-^■nd tartar 5 wild in particular affords a fine yeU 
I 2 


low, and is commonly made use of fof this pur- 
pose by the dyer's, and cultivated in large quan- 
tities in some parts of England. There is no 
colour for which we have such a variety of ma- 
terials as for yellow ; Mr. Hellot observes, that 
all leaves, barks and jjpots, which on being chewed 
discover a slight astnngency, as the leaves of the 
almond, peaoh, and pear trees, ash bark, the 
roots of wild patience, &:c. all yield durable yel- 
lows ; the brightness will be according to your 
preparation >talluip and tartar, and length o£ 
time you boil your dye, &c. If we were sensible 
of the double advantage that might be acquired 
in the use of many of our vegetable drugs, 
which must be first grounded on chymical expe- 
riments in miniature, which will be a certain 
rule to the practice at large, I am certain you 
would not rest till you had made some improve- 
ment.^ For experiment, after you have been dy- 
ing with that resinous drug sanders, when emp- 
tying the vessel, you take up a handful, dry it 
and digest it in a phial with some pure spirits of 
wine, and it will afford you an excellent red ; 
water being insufficient to dissolve the resin, and 
set out the prime part of the colour. Many oth- 
ers may be discovered if an unwearied attention 
was paid. 

Of dying in general. — If I ask a dyer what^ 
ingredients compose a black ? the answer will be 
this, logwood, sumac, galls, bark, and coppe*. 
ras ; and if he knows it, he will add in Jiis last 
dip a little ashes or argal. If I ask him, which of 
these drugs contain an acid, which an aleotic, 
and which a neutral quality, he cannot give me 
an answer ; so you see he knows the effect, bufe 
is a stranger to the cause, and every thing else 
separate from fact and custom. What a pity 
it is that men will not search things to the bot- 
torn, when they might be able to find out tl^e 
eauses of miscarriages^ for which goods are 


frequently thrown aside to be dyed other colours, 
greatly to the dyer's loss. In convershig with a 
sensible dyer I simply asked him what part does 
logwood act in the black dye ; the honest man 
answered, it helps to make it black ; no other 
Ijroof was wanted but to follow the old round ; 
but the reader by now thinks it time to be in- 
formed of the business of logwood, which 
is, (if used in a right proportion,) to soften 
the goods, and give a body and lustre to the 
colour. Logwood being possessed of a most ex- 
cellent astringent quality, fixes itself in the pores 
of the goods, and gives them a velvet-like feel 
and gloss. 

Some will object to this assertion, and say^ 
but our blacks have not that velvet-hke feel 
and gloss ; true, sir ; but don't you know the 
reason ; you dye your black without scowering 
your goods, forgetting, or not knowing, that 
when the goods enter the boiling dye liquor 3^ 
they grow harsh and the oil contained in thent 
forms a sort of resin, which becomes as fixed 
as if it was pitch or tar, this is one great reason 
why black is so liable to soil linen because the 
dye in some sense is held in an outside or super- 
ficial state ; it is not possible these goods should 
finish soft like velvet, or shine like a ravens 
feather ! No, on the contrary they spoil the 
press papers and come out stiff and hard like 
buckram, (not velvet,) no greater cause can be 
assigned for it th-in that of not scowering; this is 
the reason of the great difference, so much spo- 
ken of, between the London blacks and those 
dyed in America ; if the American dyers would 
take the same pains as the Londoners do, I 
think they would excel i^n fact, if not in name^ 
and therefore let the American dyers be equally 
tight and clean in their performances, and there 
is nothing to prevent their superiority. Many 
^viil censure and despise this, for no other re?.- 

^ iWTRODircfTroH; 

son than because they cannot see into it, nor 
will they be at any pains to learn and improve 
their talents ; they seem rather to choose the old 
round, having no spirit or courage to improve, 
but content with each knowing the other's me- 
thod, without strivhig to excel, and discover a 
more^ complete and less expensive way of 
working and using the drugs to the best advan- 
tage. ^ I know not how men can sit still Vv^hen 
there is more to learn ; let it not be said of you 
as one of old, he lived and died and did nothing ; 
perhaps he worked with his hands but his head 
was asleep, and when dead his memory was no 
more ; sure it is, the invitation I have to write 
and publish this small treatise on dying is not 
so much to please others, or to show any thing 
I have is capable of the name of parts, but to 
communicate my good wishes for improve- 
ments to my brethren the dyers, and to show 
my willingness to help to perfect one of the most 
useful arts in the world. 

There are very few arts so expensive as that 
^f dying; and although those principal com- 
modities, clothing and furniture, receive tlieir 
chief improvement and value therefrom, it is ne- 
vertheless very for from being brought to per- 
fection. A long Tjractice, sound judgment, and 
great attention, will form a good and expert 
dyer. Many dyers can work w^ith success in a 
number of colours only which depend on each 
other, and are entirely ignorant of the rest, or 
have but a very imperfect idea of them. 

A philosopher, who studies the art of dyings 
is in some measure astonished at the multiplici- 
ty of new objects which it affords ; every step 
presents new difficulties and ol^curities, with- 
out hopes of any instruction from the common 
workmen, who seldom know more than facts 
and custom. Their manner of explaining then?:- 

selves, an5 their common terms, only afford 
more darkness, which the uncommon and ofterr 
useless circumstances of their proceedings ren» 
der more obscure. ^ 

Before we enter into the particulars of dying 
wool, it is necessary to give anidea of the prima- 
ry colours, or rather of those which bear this 
name by the artist ; for it will appear by readings 
the celebrated works of Sir Isaac Newton oir 
Light and Colours, that they bear no affinity 
with those which the Philosophers call by that 
name. They are thus named by the workmen, 
because by the nature of the ingredients of 
which they are composed, they are the basis 
from w^hence all others are derived. This divi^ 
sion of colours, and the idea which T intend to 
give of them, are also common to the different 
kinds of dying. 

The five primary colours are blue, red, yellow^^ 
brown and black. Each of these can furnish a 
great number of shades, from the lightest to the 
darkest ; and from the combination of two or- 
more of these diff^Tcnt shades, arise all the co- 
lours in nature. Colours are often darkened, oP 
made light, or considerably changed, by in. 
gredients that have no colour in themselves ; 
such are the acid, the alkalis, and the neutral 
salts, lime, urine, arsenic, ahum, and some 
others ; and in the greatest part of dyes, the wool 
and woollen goods are prepared with some of 
these ingredients which of themselves give little 
or no colour. ^ It may easily be conceived what 
an infinite variety must arise from the mixture 
of these different matters, or even from the man- 
ner of using them ; and what attention must be 
given to the minutest circumstances, so as per- 
fectly to succeed in an art so complicated, and in 
which there are many difficulties. 
It is not needful to be very particular in des* 


cribing the utensils of a dye-house, as they ai^fe 
commonly known ; this work being designed 
for the experienced dyer» A dye-house should, 
however, be erected on a spacious plan, roofed 
over, but admitting a good light, and as nigh as 
possible to a running water, which is very neces- 
S'ciry, either to prepare the wool before it is dyed, 
or to wash it afterwards. The coppers should 
be set at thedistance of eight or ten feet, and two 
or more vats for the blue, according to the 
quantity of w^ork that is to be carried on. 
^ The most important point in dying the primi-^ 
live blue is to set the vat properly at work, and 
conduct her till she is in a state to yield her blue. 
The size of the woad vat is not fixed, as it de- 
pends upon necessity or pleasure. A vat con- 
taining a hogshead, or half that quantity, has 
often been used with success, but then they 
must be prevented by some means from cool- 
ing too suddenly, otherwise these small vats 
will fail. 

Another kind of vat it prepared for bluet 
this is called the indigo vat, because it is the in^ 
digo alone that gives it the colour. Those thai 
use the woad vat do not comm^only use the indi- 
go one. 

There are two methods of dying wool of any 
colour ; the one is called dying in the great, the 
other in the lesser die. The first is done by 
means of drugs or ingredients that procure a 
lasting dye, resist the action of the air and sun, 
and are not easily stained by sharp or corrosive 
liquors. The contrary happens to colours of 
the lesser dye. The air fades them in a short 
time, more particularly if exposed to the sun ; 
most liquors stain them, so as to make them 
lose their first colour. It is extraordinary that, 
as there is a method of making all kinds of co- 
laurs by the great dye, the use of the lesser 


i&hould be tolerated ; but three reasons make it 
difficult, if not impossible, to prevent this prac- 

1st, The work is much easier. Most colours 
and shades which give the greatest trouble . 
the great, are easily carried on in die lesser dye. 

2d, Most colours in the lesser are more bright 
and lively than those of the great. 

3d, For this reason, which carries more weighty 
the lesser dye is carried on much cheaper than 
the great. This is sufficient to determine some 
men to do all in their power to carry it on in pre- 
ference to the other. Hence it is that the true 
knowledge of chymistry, to which the art of dy- 
ing owes its origin, is of so much use. 

It may be observed, that all lasting colours 
are called colours of the great, and the others of 
the lesser dye. Sometimes the first are called 
fine, and the latter false colours ; but these ex- 
pressions are equivocal, for the fine are some- 
times confounded with the high colours, which 
are those in whose composition cochineal en- 
ters ; therefore, to avoid all obscurity I shall 
mention them distinctly and separately in their 
places hereafter. 

Experiments, (which are the best guides in 
natural philosophy as well as arts) plainly shew 
that the difference of colours, according to the 
foregoing distinction, partly depends on the pre- 
paration of the subject that is to be dyed, and 
partly on the choice of the ingredients which 
are afterwards used to give it the colour. I 
therefore think it may be laid down as a general 
principle, that all the invisible process of dying 
consists in dilating the pores of the body that is 
to be dyed, and depositing therein particles of a 
foreign matter, which are to be detained by a 
kind of cement which prevents the sun or rain from 
changing them. To make choice of the colour- 


ing particles of such a durability that they may 
be retained, and sufficiently set in the pores of 
the subject opened by the heat of boiling water, 
then contracted by the cold, and afterwards 
plaistered over with a kind of cement left behind 
with the salt used for their preparation, that the 
pores of the wool or woollen stuff ought to be 
cleansed, enlarged, cemented and then contract- 
ed, that the colouring atom may be contained ia 
a lasting manner. 

Experiments also shew that there is no co- 
louring ingredient belonging to the great dye 
which^ has not more or less an astringent and 
precipitant quality. That this is sufficient to se- 
parate the earth, of the allum ; this earth joined to 
the colouring atoms, forms a kind oflacque, 
similar to that used by the painters, but infi- 
nitely finer. That in bright colours, such as 
scarlet, where allum cannot be used, another 
body must be substituted to supply the colour- 
ing atoms (block-tin gives this basis to the scar- 
let dye-) When all these small atoms of earthy 
coloured lacque have insinuated themselves 
into the pores of the subject that is dilated, the 
cement which the tartar leaves behind serves to 
masticate these atoms ; and lastly, the contract- 
ing of the pores, caused by the cold, serves to 
retain them. 

It is certain that the colours of the false dye 
have that defect only because the subject is not 
sufficiently prepared; so that the colouring 
particles being only deposited on its plain sur* 
face, it is impossible but the least action of the 
air or sun must deprive them of part if not of 
the whole. If a method was discovered to give 
to the colouring parts of dying woods, the neces- 
sary astriction which they require, and if the 
wool at the same time was prepared to receive 
Ihem, (as it is the red of madder} I am conviac*. 

iNTRODUCTlOi;. 101 

ed, by thirty experiments, that these woods 
might be made as useful in the great, astthey 
have hitherto been in the lesser dye. 

What I have said shall be applied in the se- 
quel of this treatise, where I shall shew what en- 
gaged me to use them as general principles. 

I should have been glad to have seen a work 
of this sort, (knowing the great need there is o£ 
a chyiT^ical understanding of this art) signed by 
the name of some person of distinction, to have 
given it a better face. I dare nor flatter myself 
to have brought it to its last perfection, as arts 
daily improve, and this in particular; but I. 
hope some acknovvledgment will be due tome 
for bringing this matter a little further out oC 
that obscurity in which it has laid, and for as. 
sisting the dyers in making discoveries to hel^ 
to perfect this most useful art. 

I shall now proceed to examine the five pri^ 
mary colours above mentioned, and give the 
different methods of preparing them after the 
most solid and permanent manner. 

The materials of which cloths are made, for. 
the most part are naturally of dull and gloomy 
colours. Garments would consequently hava 
had a disagreeable uniformity, if this art had no£ 
been found out to remedy it, and vary their 
shades. The accidental bruising of fruits 06 
herbs, the effect of rain upon certain earths and 
minerals might suggest the first hint of the art of 
dying, and of the materials proper for it. Every- 
climate furnishes man with ferruginous earths,- 
wdth boles of all colours, with saline and vegeta- 
ble materials for this art. The difficulty must 
have been to find the art of applying them. But 
how many trials and essays must have been: 
made, before they found out the most proper me-c 
thods of applying them to stuff's, so astostaiix 
ijiem with beautiful and lasting colour^.? j[ty 


this consists the principal excellence of the 
dyer's art, one of the most ingenious and difficult 
which we know. 

Dying is performed by means of limes, salts, 
waters, lies, ferrnentations, macerations, &c. It 
is certain that dying is very ancient. The Chi- 
nese pretend that they owe the discovery of it to 
Hoan-ti, one of their first sovereigns. 

One of the most agreeable effects of the art of 
dying, is the diversifying die colours of stuftso 
There are two ways by which this agreeable 
variety is produced, either by needle- work widi 
threads of different colours, on an uniform 
ground, or by making use of yam of different 
colours in the weaving. 

The first of these in\'entions is attributed to 
the Phrygians, a very ancient nation ; the last 
to the Babylonians. Many things incline us to 
think that these arts were known even in the 
times of which we are now treating. The great 
progress these arts had made in the days of Mo. 
ses, supposes that they bad been discovered long 
before. It appears to me certain, then, that 
the arts of embroidery or weaving stuffs of va- 
rious colours were invented in the ages we are 
now upon. But I shall not insist on the man- 
ner in which they were then practised, as I can 
say nothing satisfactory upon that subject. 

Another art nearly related to that of dying, is 
^at of cleaning and whitening garments, when 
they have been stained and sullied. Water 
;done is not sufficient for this- We must com- 
municate to it by means of powders, ashes, &c. 
that detersive quality which is necessary to ex- 
tract the stains which they have contracted. 
The ancients knew nothing of soap, but suppli- 
ed the want of it by various means. Job speaks 
of washing his garments in a pit with the herb 
bgritb* This pass^e shows that the method of 


cleaning garments in these ages, was by throw- 
ing them into a pit full of water, impregnated 
with some kind of ashes ; a niethod which seems 
to have been very universal in these first times. 
Homer describes Nausicaa and her companions 
washing their garments, by treading them with 
their feet in a pit. 

With respect to the herb which Job calls 
borith, I imagine it is salworth.^ This plant is 
very common in Syria, Judea, Egpyt, and Ara- 
bia- They burn it, and pour water upon the 
ashes. This water becomes impregnated with 
a very strong lixivial salt proper for taking stains 
or impurities out of wool or cloth. 

The Greeks and Romans used several kinds 
of earths and plants instead of soap. The sava- 
ges of America make a kind of soap-water of 
certain fruits, with which they wash their cot- 
ton-beds and other stuffs. In Iceland the wo- 
men make a lie of ashes and urine. The Per- 
sians employ boles and marls. In many coun- 
tries they find earths, which, dissol *ed in water, 
have the property of cleaning and whitening 
cloth and linen. AH these methods might per* 
haps be practiced in the primitive ages. The 
necessities of all mankind are much the same, 
and all climates present them with nearly the 
sarne resources. It is the art of applying them, 
which distinguishes polite and civilized nations 
from savages and barbarians. 

I shall leave all to itself, and to every man li- 
berty to approve or disapprove as he pleases, and 
however they determine the author vail not be 
much troubled, for he is certain no man can 
have a lighter esteem for him,thanhe hasforhim- 
self; he however, will be well pleased if any man 
shall find benefit by what he has written. If any 
should alledge a general opposition, that to the 
author, will be no privating argument ; he does 


not plead the importunity of friends, for t& 
publication of this ; if it is worthy it needs no 
apology, if not, let it be despised ; and I remam 
the same friend to trade. 




BLUE among all colours is the most difficult 
to set up and manage, it is one of the five ma« 
terial or primitive colours. In the preceding 
work it is to be observed, that the rule given is 
calculated for cloth generally : in this I shall 
give the process for wool, for that is to be pre« 
ferred, and the most sure and the only way blue 
ought to be coloured, except very coarse cloth ; 
and further, I have given in the preceding, re- 
ceipts for blue, for the good and false dye, or the 
greater and the lesser dye ; in the good dye we 
are not furnished but two drugs that give a per» 
manent blue, and they are, indigo and woad, or 
pastel, and these lir;ht and fleaty substances, 
were it not for the power of fixed alkalis, which 
rouses and gives life to the colouring atom or 
substance, and separates it from the earth it con» 
tains ; I shall leave this for further explanation. 

The lesser dye is obtained from logwood 
with assisting subjects, and depends on the 
powers of the alkali and acid, as you may sec 
in my preceding observations on blue with log- 
wood ; it is further to be observed, in the pre- 
ceding observations on the properties and effects 
ofdyesanddye stuft^, that I have classed the 
colours into five material or primitive colours ; 
which are, blue, j^ellow, red, brown, and black ; 
ail other shades are depending on these as their 
mothers or princesses, and these five colours are 
depending on three monarchial pov/ers, which 
-lave but- little or no alliance v/ith each othe.r, 


except it is by the intercourse of some neutraV 
power. The names of the powers are the alkali, 
acid, and corrosive, and all their subjects rest 
mild and easy under them, and have a friendly 
correspondence and never are at variance,except it 
is by the interference of the powers; when it hap- 
pens, there can be no peace or negociation only 
by the assistance of a neutral power. I shall 
give further explanations on this subject in the 
.sequel ; showing the connexion of colours by 
twos, and by threes, and their dep>endencies with 
the dying subjects and the subjects to be dyed. 

To return to the blue ; 1st. it is necessary to 
pay some attention to the vat, and utensils used 
in blue dying. 2nd, The explanation on the 
articles used in the blue dye, ho\v prepared, 
and its effects, &c. 3d. Giye a brief account 
by way of receipts, of the modern forms as 
practised in general in the largest manufactories 
of America, and the general practice in England 
and France, by the most noted dyers in 
Europe, &c. 

The vat and utensils used in blue dying. — The 
vat must be in size and proportion as your bu. 
siness requires, from eight to twenty. four bar- 
rels ; the fashion and forms are various accord- 
ing to fancy, but I shall point out the modes 
most applicable, and easiest to manage and des- 
patch business. The best and cheapest v/ay to 
make a vat ; have the bottom of cast iron about 
two and a half feet deep, with a flange on the out- 
side about four inches from the top, then raise it 
to five or five and a half feet, with staves made 
of pine plank two inches thick, hooped w ith 
iron hoops and fastened to the upper edge of 
the iron kettle; when thus prepared, place it 
in the dy6-house, where it will be the most ad- 
vantageous to work at, set it with convenience 
for heating, with a flew raised with briejk to keep 


tht dye at a proper heat, &c. Some have them 
of lead and have them set, but it is expensive 
and liable to melt and burst ; others use copper 
caldrons, which ought not to be admitted, for 
the alkali corrodes the copper and has a bad ef- 
fect on the dye. The next thing necessary is a 
large iron boiler, that will contain half as much 
as your vat, set for the convenience of heating 
near the vat, for the purpose of setting and re- 
cruiting your dye, and immersing your goods 
in warm water; and a large tub that will hold 
the remainder of your dye. The next thing 
necessary is a small iron kettle, say about a bar- 
rel, set convenient for heating, for a preparation 
kettle to dissolve potash, &c. ; another kettle is 
necessary, say the size of six ^ gallons, for the 
purpose of grinding indigo with two eighteen 
pound cannon balls ; the form, have the bottom 
rounding that the indigo may settle under the 
balls, and the point of the standard placed in 
the centre with a cross to turn the balls. The 
iiext, a copper ladle with a long handle, to dip 
to the bottom of the vat, to hold two gallons ; a 
copper skimmer with a handle suiFicient to reach 
to the bottom, to take up the ground, say eigh- 
teen inches diameter ; a smaller one to take 
off the flury or head, and a small tub to contain 
it. The next thing necessary for dying wool, 
is a net sufficient to contain the wool, and strung 
with a cord the width of the vat, and its depth 
within two feet of the bottom, but not so as to 
touch the ground. There is another form of vat 
and utensils used for blue dying, explained in 
the preceding work in receipt No. 1, for dy- 
ing cloth; the rake, the jack for wringing, the 
screen, the handlers, the folding and cooling 
board, &c. &.c. The cold indigo vat with urine, 
does not require to be set in the ground, neitheir 
a ilev/ around it, but set in the dye-house as is 


most convenient to work at. All woollen blue 
di^es require to have a tight cover, and clouted 
with cloths to prevent the evaporation of the 
volatile fluid. The cotton vats are set quite dif- 
ferent if worked cold, which I shall describe 

The 7nethoil of fireliaring goodzfor blue ; and an cxfila- 
nation of the dye stuffs^ how firefiared and its effects. 

WHEN the vat is once prepared and come to 
ivork, the dying of wool or stuffs is easy. Wet them 
well in clear warm water, with one quarter of 
a pound pearlash to every 40 pound of wool, 
wringing and dippingthem in the vat, and keep, 
ing them in more or less time, according as the 
colour is required in shade. From time to time 
the stuff is aired ; that is, taken out of the vat 
and wrung, so that the liquor may fall back 
into the vat, and exposed a little to the air, 
which takes off the green in one or two minutes ; 
for let Xvhat vat soever be used, the stuff is al- 
ways green at its coming out, and only takes 
the bhie colour in proportion as the air acts ujxDn 
it. It is also very necessary to let the green go 
off before it is returned into tlie liquor to receive 
a second shade, as being then better able to 
/fudge of its colour, and know if it is requisite 
to give v.^iat is called one or several turnings. 

It is an ancient custom among dyers to reck» 
on thirteen shades of blue from the deepest to 
the lightest. Although their denominations be 
somewhat arbitrary, and that it is impossible 
exactly to fix the just passage from one to the 
other, I shall notwithstanding give the names. 
They are as follow, beginning v/ith the lightest ; 
milk-blue, pearl- blue, pale-blue, flat-blue, mid- 
watchet-biue, garter^ blue, mazareen-blue^deep- 
blue, and ¥^ry deep or navy-blue. 

These distinctions are not equally received 
by all dyers, nor in all provinces, but the most 
part are known ; and it is the only method 
that can be taken to give an idea of the same 
colour, whose only difference is in being more 
or less deep* 

It is easy to make deep blues* I have alrea- 
dy said, that to effect this, the wool or stuffs are 
to be returned several times into the vat ; but 
it is not so in respect to light blues ; for when 
the vat is rightly come to work, the wool can 
seldom be left in short time enough, but that it 
takes more than the shade required. It often 
happens when a certain quantity of wool is to 
be dipped, and that it cannot all be put in at 
the same time, that what goes in at fic^st is deep- 
er than the other. There are some dyers who, 
to obviate this inconveniency in making very 
light blues, which they call milk and water^ 
take some of the liquor of the indigo vat, and 
dilute it in a very great quantity of lukewarm 
water ; but this method is a bad one, for the 
wool died in this mixture has not near so lasting 
a colour as that dyed in the vat ; as the altering 
ingredients w^hich are put into the vat with the 
indigo, serves as much to dispose the pores of 
the subject which is dipped in, as to the open- 
ing of the colouring fecula which is to dye it, 
their concourse being necessary for the ad- 
hesion of the colour. The best method of mak- 
ing these very light blues, is to pass them ei- 
ther in a woad or indigo vat, out of which the 
colour has been worked, and begins to cool. 
The woad vat is still preferable to that of the 
indigo, as it does not dye so soon. 

The blues made in vats that have been work- 
ed are duller than the others ; but they may be 
pretty sensibly roused by passing the wool or 


Stuffs in boiling water. ^ This practice is even 
necessary to the perfection of all blue shades ; 
by this the colour is not only made brighter, 
but also rendered more secure, by taking off all 
tliat is not well incorporated with the wool ; it 
also prevents its spotting the hands or linen, 
xvhich commonly happens, and the dyers, to 
gain time, neglect this precaution. After the 
v/ool is taken out of the warm water, it is neces- 
sary to wash it again in the river, or at least in 
a sufficient quantity of water for the carrying off 
all the superlluous loose dye. 

The best method to render the blue dye 
brighter, is by filling them with a thin liquor of 
raelted soap, and afterwards cleansing them from 
the soap l:^;^ vvarm water, and, if convenient, by 
rinsing them in an old cochineal liquor. This 
method is- to be taken with deep blues ; but if 
the same was taken with very light blues, they 
would lose their bright blue lustre, and incline 
to grey. 

I hope to have removed all difficulties on the 
preparation of blue, and in the method of dying 
it. Some dyers, for the sake of gain, spare the 
woad and indigo, and use for blue, archil-log- 
wood, and brazil : this ought to be expressly 
forbid, though this adulterated blue is often 
brighter than a lasting and legitimate blue. 
This is to be noticed in the receipts, treating 
on the lesser die, 

I shall now explain the theory of the invisible 
change of the blue dye. This colour, w^hich I 
shall here only consider ia relation to its use in 
the dying of stufis of what kind soever, has 
hitherto been extracted only from the vegetable 
world, and it does not appear that we can hope 
to use in this art the blues the painters employ: 
such are the Prussian blue, whiqh holds of the 

-dyer's companion. Ill 

f-animal and mineral kincl^ ; the azure, wliicli is 
a vitrified mineral substance ; the ultramarine, 
which is prepared from a hard stone ; the earths 
that have a blue colour, &c- These matters 
cannot, without losing their colour in whole 
or in part, be reduced into atoms sufficiently 
minute, so as to be suspended in the saline li- 
quid, which must penetrate the fibres of the ani- 
mal and vegetable substances of which stuffs are 
manufactured; for under this name linen and 
cotton cloths must be comprehended? as well as 
those wove of silk and wool. 

Hitherto we know but of two plants that yield 
blue after their preparation : the one is the isatis 
or glaustum, which is called pastel in Langue- 
doc, and woad in Normandy. Their prepara- 
tion consists in a fermentation continued even to 
the putrefaction of all the parts of the plant, the 
root excepted ; and consequently in the unfold- 
ing of all their principles into a new combination, 
and fresh order of these same principles, from 
whence follows an union of infinite fine particles, 
which, applied to any subject whatever, reflects 
the light on them very different from what it 
would be, if these same particles were still join, 
ed to those which the fermentation has sepa- 
rated. *^ 
The other plant is the anil, which is cultivat- 
ed in the East and West Indies, out of which 
they prepare that fecula that is sent to Europe 
under the name of indigo. In the preparation 
of this plant the Indians and Americans, have 
found out the art of separating only the colouring 
parts of the plant from the useless ones ; and the 
French and Spanish colonies have imitated them, 

* 1748, Mons. Macquer, of the Royal Academy of 
Sciences, found the means of using the Prussian blue to dye 
silk and cloth, in a blue whose brightness surpassed all th^j 
blues hitherto J^nown. 

112' APPEKDIK 'fO TH^ 

and thereby made a considerable increase of 

That the indigo, such as is exported from 
America, should deposite on wool or stuffs the 
colouring parts required by the dyer, it is infus- 
ed several ways, the processes of which will be 
given in the seqtieL They may be reduced to 
three ; the cold indigo vat may serve for thread 
and cotton ; those that are made use of hot, arc 
iit for stuffs of any kind whatever. 

In the cold vat, the indigo is mixed with 
pearlash, copperas or green vitriol, lime, mad- 
der, and bran. The hot vats are either prepar- 
with water or urine ; if with water, pearlash 
or potash, and a little madder must be added ; if 
with urine, allum and tartar must be joined to 
the indigo. Both of these vats, principally in- 
tended for wool, require a moderate degree of 
heat, but at the same time strong enough for the 
wool to take a lasting dye, I mean such as will 
withstand the destroying action of the air and 
sun, the proof of dyes. 

I have prepared, as I said before, these three 
vats in small, in cylindrical glass vessels, expos- 
ed to the light, in order to see what passed be- 
fore the infusio;! came to a colour, that is whe- 
ther it was green beneath the flurry at the sur- 
face, which is a sign of internal fermentation.^ I 
have said that the green colour of the liquor is a 
condition absolutely essential, and without 
which the colour the stuff would take would 
not be a good dye, and w^ould almost entirely 
disappear on the least proofs. 

I shall now give a description of the cold indi- 
go vat in small, for the changes are much better 
seen in her, and for this reason, that what hap- 
pens in the two others is not very essentially dif- 
ferent. It is proper to take notice, that vvhat I 
shall c?[\\part, in this observation of exBeruneiUJs, 


is a measure of the weight of four drachms, of 
all matter either liquid or solid, and that it will 
be this quantity that must be supposed, each 
time that I use that word in the detail of these 

I put three hundred parts of water into a ves- 
sel, containing five hundred and twelve, or eight 
quarts, in which I dissolved six parts of cop- 
peras, which gave the liquor a yellow dye. Six 
parts of potash were also dissolved by them- 
selves in thirty-six parts of water. The solu- 
tion made, I digested in it six parts, or three 
ounces, of indigo of St. Domingo well ground ; 
it was left over a very gentle fire three hours. 
The indigo swelled, and taking up a larger space, 
rose from the bottom of this alkaline liquor, with 
which it formed a kind of thick syrup, which 
%vas blue. This was a proof that the indigo was 
only divided, but not dissolved; for had its so« 
lution been perfect, that thick liquor would 
have been green instead of blue ; for all liquor 
that has been tinged blue by a vegetable of any 
kind, grows green on the admixion of an alka- 
line salt, either concrete or in a liquid form, 
whether it be a fixed of volatile. 

From hence the reason is discovered why in- 
digo does not dye a stuff of a lasting blue when 
its liquor is not green ; for its solution not be- 
ing complete, the alkali cannot act upon these 
fiirst elementary particles ; as for example, it 
acts on the tincture of violets, which is a per- 
fect solution of the colouring parts of those 
flowers, which it turns green in an instant, and 
on the first contact. 

^ I poured this thick blue liquor into the solu- 
tion of vitriol, and after well shaking the mix- 
ture, I added six parts of lime that had beeri 
slacked in the air ; it was cold weather when 
Ihis experiment was made; the thermometer 



was at two degrees under the freezing point, 
'which was the cause that this was near four 
days coming to a colour, and the fermentation, 
which must naturally ensue in all vitriolic li- 
quor, where an alkaline salt has been put in, 
such as potash, and an alkaline earth, was 
carried on with so much slowness that very lit- 
tle scum appeared on the surface of the liquor. 
In a hot season, and by making use of lime 
newly calcined, these kind of vats are some- 
times fit to dye in four hours. 

Each time I stirred the mixture with a spa- 
tula, I observed tliat the iron of the vitriol or 
copperas was the first that precipitated to the 
bottom of the vessel, and that the alkaline salt 
had precipitated it to join itself to the acid. 
Thus in this process of the cold indigo vat, a 
tartar of vitriol after the manner of Tachenius 
is formed ; whereas by the common method 
of preparing this neutral salt, the acid of vitriol 
is poured on a true alkaline salt, such as pot- 
ash. This again is a circumstance that leads 
insensibly to the theory of the good dye. ^ I de- 
sire the reader to take notice of this, as it will 
occur in the sequel of this observation, as well 
-us in other chapters. 

The earthy parts of the lime precipitate next 
after the iron ; they are easily distinguished by 
the whiteness, which are yet difficult to distin- 
guish when the colouring parts of the indigo 
are sufficiently loosened. In short, under this 
white earth the fecula of the indigo deposites it- 
self, and by degrees rarifies in such a manner, 

hat this substance, which the first day was only 
the eighth of an inch above the precipitated 
lime, rose insensibly within half an inch of the 

surface of the liquor, and the third day grew 

so opaque and muddy, that nothing further 

could be distuiguiohed. 


This rarefaction of the indigo, slow in winter, 
quick in summer, and which may be accelerat- 
ed in winter by heating the liquor to fifteen or 
sixteen degrees, is a proof that a real fermenta ^ 
tion happens in the mixture, which opens the 
little lumps of indigo, and divides them into 
particles of an extreme fineness ; then their sur- 
faces being multiplied almost ad^ infinitum, ^ they 
are so much the more equally distributed in the 
liquor, which deposits them equally on the sub- 
ject dipped in to take the dye. 

If fermentation comes on hastily, or in a few 
hours, whether on account of the heat of the air, 
or by the help of a small fire, a great quantity of 
flurry appears ; it is blue, and its reflection they 
have also named coppery, because the colours of 
the rainbow appear in it, and the red and yel- 
low here predominate \ however this phcenome- 
non is not peculiar to indigo, since the same re- 
flection is perceived in all mixtures that are in 
actual fermentation, and particularly in those 
which contain fat particles blended with salts, 
urine, soot, and several other bodies put into 
fermentation, show on their surfiice the same 
variegated colours. 

The flurry of the indigo Tat appears blue be- 
cause exposed to the external air, but if a small 
portion of the liquor which is under it be taken 
up witha spoon, it appears more or less green in 
proportion as it is filled vvith colouring particles. 
In the course of this observation, I shall show 
the reason of this difference, or, at least, a pro- 
bable explication of this change of blue, which, 
as I have said before, is absolutely necessary for 
succeeding in the process described. 

When the vat is in this state, it has already 
been said that cotton, thread, cloths wove from 
them, &c. may be dyed in her, and the colours 
which they take are of the good dye ; that is? 


this cotton and thread will maintain them, evtn 
after remaining a suitable time in a solution of 
white soap, actually boiling. 1 his is the proof 
given them preferable to any other, because the 
linen and cotton cloths must be washed with 
soap when dirty. 

Though the indigo liquor which is in this 
state can make a lasting dye without the addi- 
tion of any other ingredients ; the dyers who use 
this cold vat add, as in the other hot vats, a de- 
eoction of madder and bran in common v/atel- 
run through a sieve ; this is what they call be" 
ver. They put rnadder to insure, as they say, 
the colour of the indigo, because this root af- 
fords a colour so adhesive that it stands all 
proofs ; they put the bran to soften the w^ater, 
which they imagine generally to contain some 
portion of an acid salt, which, according to their 
opinion, must be deadened, 

This w'as the opinion of the French dyers 
» against indigo in the days of Monsieur Colbert ; 
and as this minister could not spare time to see 
the experiments performed in his presence, on 
the foundation of this report, he forbade indigo 
to be used alone. But since the government has 
been convinced, by new^ experiments made by 
the late Mr. Dufay, that the stability of the blue 
dye of this ingredient w^as such as could be de- 
sired ; the new regulation of 1737, licences the 
dyers to use it alone, or mixed w ith woad ; so 
that if they continue to use the madder, it is ra- 
ther because this root giving a pretty deep red, 
and this red mixing with the blue of the indigo, 
gives it a tint which approaches the violet, and 
also a fine hue. 

As to the bran, its use' is not to deaden the 
pretended acid salts, but to disperse throughout 
a quantity of sizey matter ; for the small portion 
pf flour which remains in it, dividing itself into 

oyer's companion. 117 

the liquor, must diminish in some measure its 
fluidity, and consequently prevent the colouring 
particles which are suspended in it, being pre- 
cipitated too quick, in a liquor which had not 
acquired a certain degree of thickness. 

Notwithstanding this distributed throughout 
the liquor, as well from the bran as the madder, 
which also affords something glutinous, the co- 
louring particles will subside if the liquor re- 
mains some days without being stirred ; then 
the top of the liquor gives but a feeble tint to the 
body dipped in, and if a strong one is wanted, the 
mixture must be raked, and left to rest an hour 
or two, that the iron in the copperas, and the 
gross parts of the lime may fall to the bottom, 
which otherwise would mix with the true co- 
louring particles, and prejudice their dye, by 
depositing on the body to be dyed a substance 
that would have but little adhesion, which in driv- 
ing would become friable, and of which each 
minute part would occupy a space, v» here the 
true colouring particle could neither introduce 
nor deposite itself by an immediate contact on 
the subject. 

Not to deviate from the method followed by 
the dyers, I boiled one part of grape^ madder 
and one of bran, in 174 parts of water : this pro- 
portion of water is not necessary, more or less 
may be put, but I v/anted to fill my vessel, 
which contained 512 parts. I passed this bever 
through a cloth and squeezed it putting this li- 
quor, still hot, and which was of a blood-red, into 
the indigo liquor, observing the necessary pre- 
cautions to prevent the breaking of the glass ves- 
sel. The whole was well stirred, and two hours 
after the liquor was green, and consequently fit 
for dying. It dyed cotton of a lasting blue*, 
somewhat brighter than it was before the addi- 
tion of the red of madder. 


I shall now endeavour to find out the particu- 
lar cause of the solidity of this colour ; perhaps it 
may be the general cause of the tenacity of all 
the rest; for it appears already, from the expe- 
riments above related, that this tenacity depends 
on the ^ choice of salts which are added to the 
decoctions of the colouring ingredients, when 
the same ingredients contain none in themselves. 
If from the consequences which shall result from 
the choice of these salts, of their nature, and of 
their properties, it be admitted (and it cannot be 
fairly denied) that they afford more or less tenui- 
ty in the homogeneous colouring parts of the 
dying ingredients, the whole theory of this art 
wall be discovered, without having recourse to 
uncertain or contested causes. 

One may easily conceive that the salts added 
to the indigo vats not only open the natural 
pores of the subject to be dyed, but also unfold 
the colouring atoms of the indigo. 

In the other preparations of dyes (to be men- 
tioned hereafter j the woollen stuffs are boiled in 
a solution of salts, which the dyers call prepa- 
ration. In this preparation tartar and allum are 
generally used. In some hours the stuff is taken 
out, slightly squeezed, and kept damp for some 
days in a cool place, that the saline liquor which 
remains in it may still act and prepare it for the 
reception of the dye of these ingredients, in the 
decoction of which it is pi ungid to boil again. 
Without this preparation, experience shows that 
the colours will not be lasting, at least for the 
greatest part ; for it must be owned that there 
are some ingredients which yield lasting colours, 
though the stuff has not previously undergone 
this preparation, because the ingredient contains 
in itself these salts. 

It is therefore necessary, that tlie natural pores 
of the fibres of the wool should be enlarged and 

dyer's companion. 119 

cleansed by the help of those salts, which are al- 
ways somewhat corroding, and perhaps they open 
new pores for the reception of the colouring 
atoms contained in the^ ingredients. The boil- 
ingof this liquor drives in the atoms by repeated 
strokes. The pores already enlarged by these 
salts, are further dilated by the heat of the boiling 
water ; they are afterwards contracted by the 
external cold when the d\^ed matter is taken out 
of the copper, when it is exposed to the exter- 
nal air, or when it is plimged into cold water. 
T'hus the colouring atom is taken in, and detain- 
ed in the pores or fissures of the dyed body, by 
the springiness of its fibres, which have contract- 
ed and restored themselves to their first state, 
and have re-assumed their primary stiffness upon 
being exposed to the cold. 

If, besides this spring of the sides of the pore, 
it be supposed that these sidfs have been plaister- 
ed inwardly with a layer of the saline liquor, it 
will appear plainly that this is another means 
employed by art to detain the colouring atom ; 
for this ^tom having entered into the pore, while 
the saline cement of the sides was yet in a state of 
solution, and consequently fluid ; and this ce- 
ment being afterwards congealed by the external 
cold, the atom is thereby detained ; by the spring 
which has been mentioned, and by this saline 
cement, which by crystalization is become hard, 
forms a kind of mastic which is not easily re- 

If the coloured atom, (which is as small as the 
little eminence that appears at the entrance of 
the pore, and without which the subject would 
not appear dyed} be sufficiently protuberant to be 
exposed to more pow^erful shocks than the resis- 
tance of the sides of the cement that retains it, 
then the dye resulting from all these atoms suffi- 
ciently retained, will be extremely lasting, and 


in the rank of the good dye, provided the saline 
coat can neither be carried off by cold water, 
such as rain, nor calcined or reduced to powder 
by the rays of the sun ; for every lasting colour, 
or colour belonging to the good dye, must with- 
stand these two proofs. No other can reasona- 
bly be expected in stuffs designed for apparel or 

1 know but of txyo saks in chymistry, which, 
being once crystalized, can be moistened with 
cold water without dissolving ; and there are 
few besides these that can remain several days 
exposed to the sun, without being reduced to a 
flower or white powder. These are tartar, ei- 
ther as taken from the wine vessels* or purified, 
and tartar of vitriol. The tartar of vitriol may 
be^made by mixing a salt already alkalized, (or 
that may become sucTi vvhen the acid is drove 
out with a salt whose acid is vitriolic, as cop- 
peras and allum) ; this is easily effected if it be 
weaker than the acid of vitriol, and such is the 
acid of all essential salts extracted from vegeta- 

In the process of the blue vat, which I tried 
in small, to discover the cause of its effects, 
copperas and potash, (which is a prepared al- 
kali) are mixed together ; as soon as these so- 
lutions are unitedi the alkali precipitates the 
iron of the copperas in form of powder almost 
black ; the vitriolic acid of the copperas, divest, 
ed of its metallic basis by its union with the al- 
kali, forms a neutral salt, called tartar of vitriol^ 
as vvhen made with the salt of tartar and the vi- 
triolic acid already separated from its basis ; for 
all alkalis, from whatever vegetables they are 
extracted, are perffctly alike, provided they 
have been equally calcined. 

More difficuhies 'vill occur with regard to the 
water for die preparaiioa of other colours, such 


.as reds and yellows- It may be denied that a 
tartar of vitriol can result from the mixture of 
allum and crude tartar boiled together ; yet the 
theory is the same, and I do not know that it 
©an be otherwise conceived. The allum is a 
salt, consisting of the vitriolic acid united v. ith 
an earth ; by adding an alkali, tlie earth is im- 
mediately precipitated, and the tartar soon 
forms ; but instead of this alkaline salt, allum 
is boiled with the crude tartar, which is the es- 
sential salt of wine, that is, a salt composed of the 
vinous acid, (which is more volatile than the vi» 
triolic) and of oil, both concentrated in a small 
portion of earth. 

This salt, as is known to chymists, becomes 
alkali by divesting it of its acid. ^ Thus when 
the allum and crude tartar are boiled together, 
besides the impression which the fibres of the 
stuff to be dyed receive from the first of these 
salts, which is somewhat corrosive, the tartar 
is also purified, and by the addition of the earth, 
which is separated from the allum, (and which 
has near the same effect upon the tartar, as the 
earth oi Merviels^ which is used at Montpellier 
in manufacturing cream of tartar) it becomes 
clear and transparent. It may very probably 
happen that the vitriolic acid of the allum, driv- 
ing out a part of the vegetable acid of the tartar, 
a tartar of vitriol may be formed as hard 
and transparent as the crystal of tartar. Ad- 
mitting one or other of these suppositions, con- 
sequently there is in the open pores of the wool 
a saline cement which crystalizes as soon as the 
stuff which comes out of the dye is exposed to 
the cold air, which cannot be calcined by heat, 
nor is soluble in cold water. I could not avoid 
making this digression. 

This theory is common to the indigo vat, 
where urine is used instead of water ; allum 


and crude tartar in the place of vitriol and pot^ 
ash. This urine vat gives a lasting dye only 
when used hot, and then the wool must remain 
in an hour or two to take the dye equally. As 
soon as the vat is cold she strikes no more dye ; 
thereasonof this would be difficult to discover 
in an opaque metal vat, but in a glass vessel it 
is easily seen. 

I let this little glass proof vat cool, and all the 
green colour, which was suspended in it while 
hot, precipitated little by little to the bottom ; 
for then the tartar crystalizing itself, and reuni- 
ting in heavier masses than its moculas were 
during the heat of the liquor^ and its solution, 
it sunk to the bottom of the vessel, and carried 
with it the colouring particles. 

When I restored this liq^uor to its former de. 
gi'ee of heat, after shaking it, and letting it settle 
a while, I dipped a piece of cloth, which I took 
out one hour after, with as lasting a dye as at the 
first ; so that when this vat is used and fit to 
%vork, the tartar is to be kept in a state of solution, 
which cannot be done but by a pretty strong 
heat. The alkali of the urine greens it, the al- 
lum prepares the fibres of the wool, and the 
crystal of tartar secures the dye by cementing 
the colouring atoms deposited in the pores. 

There still remains a difficulty with respect 
to the indigo vat, in which, neither vitriol, al- 
lum or tartar are used, but only pearlash or a 
fixed alkali in equal quantity with the indigo, 
and which is pretty briskly heated to dye the 
wool and stuffs. But before I enter into the 
cause of the solidity of its dye, which is equal 
to that of the other blue vats where the other 
salts already mentioned enter, I must examine 
into the nature of pearlash ; it is a vegetable 
fixed alkali obtained from ashes and are the 
salts of lies calcined ; potash is of the same 

dyer's companion. 123 

Bature, and from the same source, but the 
process is a little different in manufacturing 
it; it is not so mild and pure as the pearlash, 
it contains a much larger quantity of earth, and 
operates in the dye more quick and active. 
Some erroneously formed an idea that^ these 
alkalis were the lees of wine, and lost their acid 
substance by calcination, as Mr. Haigh, (dyer 
of Leeds,) observes on the nature of pearL ashes; 
*' which are the lees of wine dried and calcin- 
ed : it is therefore an alkaline salt, of the nature 
of salt of tartar, but less pure as proceeding 
from the heaviest parts of the dregs of wine, and 
consequently the most earthy^ besides, the alka- 
li of the pearlash is never as homogeneous as the 
alkaline salt of tartar well calcined, and there are 
scarcely any pearlash not putrified, from which 
a considerable quantity of tartar of vitriol may 
not beobtcJined ; it is even probable by an expe- 
rinient which I have related, that it might at 
length be entirely converted into this neutral salt; 
the same may be said of potash, and of all other 
alkaline salts, whose basis are not that of the 
marine salt." 

This is an error of Mr. Haigh, for pot and 
pearl- ashes have not the least connection with tar- 
tar or lees of wine, or tartar of vitriol, and it 
cannot be converted into a neutral salt. 

Mr. Haigh and all others that form this opin- 
ion, are in an error, for the alkali of pot and 
pearl-ashes and lime, have not the least share 
of acid in them- Whatever qualities they may 
be possessed of in nature, are hidden from us till 
reduced to atoms, by the elementary heat. The 
pot and pearl-ashes are hidden in the plants or 
vegetable world, some vegetables possess more 
pleatic than others ; the lime is hidden in the 
earth, or stones, and its alkali substance is not 


discovered till it is obtained by fire and air. The 
animal world are more or less alkali ; for in- 
stance, the oyster shell. The alkali is found by 
the same ele!uent ; however, the animal world 
are more or less acidous, as will be shown here- 
after in manufacturing indigo and woad. 

Of Borax.— ^The nature of borax is a neutral 
salt, used to correct the acid that arises from the 
vegetable substances of wheat bran and madder, 
(not diluted) by fermentation creates an acid with 
the alkali of a volatile, urinous substance ; and 
likewise the indigo and woad, have a certain de- 
gree of acid, uncertain to determine, and if the 
acid should have the advantage of the alkali, and 
is not discovered soon enough, the dye is lost; so 
it requires borax or some neutral substance to 
correct the acid, and to act with them both, and 
it cannot be affected only by neutral salts, or a 
substitute of the same nature. 

I must now give the reason why the indigo 
vat is green under the first surface of the liquor ; 
why this liquor must be green that the blue 
dye may be lasting, and why the stuff that is ta- 
ken green out of the liquor becomes blue as 
soon as it is aired. All these conditions being 
of necessity common to all indigo vats either 
cold or hot, the same explication will serve for 
them all. 

1. The flurry which rises on the surface of the 
indigo liquor when it is fit dye is blue, and the 
under part of this scum is green ; these two cir- 
cumstances prove the perfect solution of the in- 
digo, and that the alkaline salt is united to its 
colouring atoms since it greens them, for without 
they would reinahi blue. ^ 

2. These circumstances prove that there is 
also in the indigo a volatile urinous alkali, which 
the fixt alkali of the potash, or the alkahne earth 
of the lime displays, and which evaporates very 

•fiYER^s companion:^ ^25 

shortly after the e^cposition of this scum to the 
air. The existence of this urinous volatile ap- 
pears plainly by the smell of the vat during the 
fermentation ; when stirred, or when heated, the 
smell is sharp, and resembles that of stinking 
meat roasted. 

3. In the preparation of the anil,^ in order to 
separate the fecula, a fermentation is continued 
to putrefaction. All rotten plants are urinous. 
This volatile urinous quality is produced by the 
intimate union of salts with the vegetable oil, or 
is owing to a prodigious quantity of insects fall- 
ing on all sides of fermenting plants, and attract- 
ed by the smell exhaling from them, where they 
live, multiply, and die in them, and consequent- 
ly deposit a number of dead bodies ; therefore t6 
this vegetable substance an animal one is united, 
Avhose salt is always an urinous volatile. This 
sanie urinous quality exists also in the woad, 
which is prepared after the same manner, viz. 
by fermentation and putrefaction^ and which 
will be further explained in the narrative of its 

4. And lastly, if indigo or woad be distilled 
in a retort, either alone, or (which is much bet- 
ter) with some fixed saline or earthy alkali add- 
ed to it, a liquor will be obtained, which, by all 
chymical essays, produ-fes the same effects as 
volatile spirits of,urine. 

Why does not this volatile urinous quality in 
the indigo cause it to appear green, since it 
must be equally distributed through all its parts? 
And why does indigo, being dissolved in plain 
boiling water, tinge it blue and not green ? It is 
because this volatile urinous salt is not concret- 
ed that it requires another body more active 
than boiling water to drive it out of the par- 
ticles surroundii ig it ; and the solution of indigo 
is never perfected by water alone ; whatevo- de-^ 


^ree of heat is given, it is only diluted, and not 
dissolved in it. Indeed this decoction of indigo 
blues the stuffs that are dipped, but the blue is 
not equally laid on, and boiling water almost in- 
stantly discharges it. I shall endeavour to 
answer this by an example drawn from another 

Salt ammoniac, from which chymists extract 
the most penetrating volatile spirit, has not that 
quick urinous smell by dissolving and boiling it 
in water ; either lime, or fixed alkaline salt, must 
be added to disengage the iirinous volatile parts. 
In like manner, the indigo requires fixed saline^ 
or earthy alkalis, to be exactly discomposed., 
that its volatile urinous salt may be discovered, 
and that its colouring atoms may be reduced 
probably to their elementary minuteness. 

I now come to the second quality required. 
The liquor of the indigo vat must be green, that 
the dye may be lasting ; for the indigo would 
not be exactly dissolved, if the alkali did not act 
upon it. Its solution not being as perfect as it 
ought to be, its dye would be neither equal nor 
lasting ; but as soon as the alkaline salts act up- 
on it, they must green it : for an alkali, mixed 
with the blue juice or tincture of any plant or 
* flower, immediately turns it green, when equally 
distributed on all its colouring parts. But if by 
evaporation these same parts, coloured, or co- 
louring, have re-united themselves into hard and 
compact masses, the alkali will not change their 
colour till it has penetrated, divided^^and reduc- 
ed them to their primary fineness. ^ This is the 
case with indigo, whose fecula is the. dry in- 
spissated juice of the anil. 

With respect to the last circumstance, which 
is *hat the stuff must be green on coming out of 
jthe liquor and become blue as soon as it is air- 
i:d^ without which, the blue would not be of a 

dyer's gompanio^st. 127 

good dye, the following reasons may be given : it 
is taken out green because the liquor is green ; 
if it was not, the alkaline salt put into the vat 
would not be equally distributed, or the indigo 
would not be exactly dissolved. ^ If the alkali 
was not equally distributed, the liquor contain- 
ed in the vat would not be equally saline : the 
bottom of this liquor would contain all the salt ; 
the upper would be insipid. In this case the stuff 
dipped in would neither be prepared to receive 
the dye, nor to retain it; but when it is taken out 
green at the end of a quarter of an hour's dipping 
it is a proof that the liquor was equally sahne, 
and equally loaded with colouring atoms ; it is 
also a sign, that the alkaline salts have insinuated 
themselves into the pores of the fibres of the 
stuff and enlarged them, as has been observed, 
and perhaps have formed new ones. Now there 
can be no boubt that an alkaline salt may have this 
effect on a woollen stuff, when it h evident that 
a very sharp alkaline lie burns and dissolves al- 
most in an instant a flock of wool or a feather. 

A process in dying called, by the French, 
Jhnte de boiirre^ that is the melting or dissolving 
of flock or hair, is still a further example- The 
hair, which is used^ and boiled in a solution of 
pearlash in urine, is so perfectly dissolved as 
not to leave the least fibre remaining. There- 
fore if a lixivium, extremely sharp, entirely de- 
stroys the wool, a lie which shall have but a 
quantity of alkaline salt sufficient to act on the 
wool without destroying it, will prepare the 
pores to receive and preserve the colouring 
atoms of the indigo. 

The stuff is aired after being taken green out 
of the vat, and after wringing it becomes blue. 
What is done by airing? it is cooled ; if it is 
the urinous volatile detached from the indigo 
which gave it this green colour, it evaporates, 
and the blue appears again ; if it is the fixed 


alkaline that causes this grcv-n, not only the 
greatest part ih carried ofFby the strong expres- 
sion of the stuff', but what remains can have no 
more action on the colouring part, because the 
small atom of tartar of vitriol, which contains 
a coloured atom still less than itself, is crysta- 
lized the instant of its exposition to the cold air, 
and contracting this same colouring atom by the 
tielp of the spring at the sides of the pore, it en- 
tirely presses out the remainder of the alkali^ 
which does not crystalize as a neutral salt. 

The blue is roused, that i>, it becomes bright- 
er and finer by soaking the dyed stuifinwartn 
water, for then the colouring particles, which 
had only a superficial adherence to the fibres of 
the wool are carried off. Soap is used as a 
proof of the laerting of the blue dye, and it niust 
stand it, for the soap, which is only used in a 
small quantit>^ in proportion to the water, and 
whose action on the dyed pattern is fixed to five 
minutes, is an alkali, mitigated by the oil, which 
cannot act upon a neutral salt. If it discharg- 
es the pattern of any part of its colour, it is be- 
cause its parts were but superficially adhering ; 
besides, the little saline crystal which is set in 
the pore, whose use is to cement the colouring 
atom, cannot be dissolved in so short a time, 
so as to come out of the pore with the atom it 

This treatise lays down the essay of a me- 
thod of dying different from any hitherto offer- 
ed. I appeal to philosophers, who would think 
little of a simple narrative of processes, if I did 
not at the same time give their theory. I shall 
follow this method in the other experiments on 
reds, the yellows, or other simple colours, as it 
is absolutely necessary to have a knowledge of 
them before entering on the compound, as these 
are generally but colours laid on one after the 

dyer's companion. 129 

other, and seldom mixed together in the same 
liquor or decoction. 

Thus having once the knowledge of what 
procures the tenacity of a simple colour, it will 
be more easily known, if the second colour can 
take place in the spaces the first have left emp- 
ty without displacing the first. 

This is the idea which I have formed to my- 
self of the arrangement of d liferent colours laid 
on the same stuff, for it appears to me a matter 
of great difficulty to conceive that the colouring 
atoms can place themselves die one on the other^ 
and thus form kinds of pyramids, each still pre- 
serving their colour, so that from a mixture of the 
whole a compound colour shallresult, and which, 
notwithstanding, shall appear uniform, and as it 
w^ere homogeneous* To adopt this system, we. 
must suppose a transparency in these atoms, 
which it would be difficult to demonstrate ; and 
further, that a yellow atom must place itself 
immediately on a blue one, already set in the 
pore of the fibre of a stuff, and that it must re- 
main there strongly bound, so that they must 
touch each other with extreme smooth sur- 
faces, and so with every new colour laid on. 

It is not easy to conceive all this, and it ap- 
pears more probable, that the first colour has 
only taken up the pores that it found open by 
the first preparation of the fibres of the stuff; 
that on the side of these pores there remains 
more still to be filled, or at least spaces not oc- 
cupied, where new pores may be opened to 
lodge the new atoms of a second colour, by the 
means of a second preparation of water, compos- 
ed of corroding salts, which being the same as 
those of the first preparing liquor, will not de- 
stroy the first saline crystals introduced into 
the first pores. 

What has been already said with regard to the 


indigo vat, may also serve to explain the action 
of the woad vat on wool and stuffs ; it is only 
supposing in the woad> that salts do naturally 
exist, pretty near of affinity to those that are add- 
ed to the indigo vat. It appears by the descrip. 
tion given of these vats, that the woad vat is by 
rnu^^h the most difficult to conduct. I am con- 
vinced that these difficulties might be removed, 
if an attempt was made to prepare the isatis as 
th^ anil is in the West Indies. I shall therefore 
compare their different preparations. I have 
taken the following narrative from the memoirs 
of Mr. Astruc's Histoire Naturelle du Lan- 
guednc Paris^ Cavalier 1757, in 4to, p. 330 
and 331. 

" According to the opinion of dyers, woad 
only gives feeble and languishing colours ; 
Whereas those of the indigo are lively and bright- 
This opinion I grant is conformable to reason : 
the indigo is a fine subtle powder ; consc quent- 
ly capable to penetrate the stuffs easily, and give 
them a shining colour- The v/oad, on the con- 
trary, is only a gross plant, loaded with many 
earthy parts, which slacken the action and mo- 
tion of the finer parts, and prevent them from 
acting effectually. 

*' I knovv but one way to remove this incon- 
veniency, that is, to prepare the woad after the 
same manner the indigo is prepared ; by this 
means.the colours obtainedfrom the woad would 
acquire the lively and bright qualities of those 
procured from the indigo, without diminishing 
\x\ the least the excellency of the colours pro- 
duced by the woad. 

" I have already made in small^ experiments 

^ As this ingenious man has succeeded in small experi- 
ments, it is probable he would also in the large ones ; and 
then this plant easily cultivated in America would WCU Ig-v 
crbmpence the pams of the husbandman, 

dyer's companioit. 131 

©n what I propose, and those experiments have 
' succeeded, not only in the preparation of the 
powder of woad, but also in the use of this pow- 
der for dying." 

It is incumbent on those who have the pub- 
lic good at heart, to cause trials at large to be 
made, and if they have the success that can rea- 
sonably be expected,it will be proper to encourage 
those who cultivate woad, to follow this new 
method of preparing it, and ciFer premiums to 
enable them to sustain the expenses this new 
pactice will engage them in, until the advantage 
they will reap from it may be sufficient to deter- 
mine them to follow iu 

I shall now propose the means to succeed in 
Mr- Astruc's experiments, and these means na- 
turally result from considering the method used 
in Languedoc for the preparation of woad, and 
the ingenious method by which they separate 
the fecula of the anil in America. I shall give 
the preparation of this last in the sequel ; those 
who desire a fuller description may consult 
VHistoire des Antiles du P du Tertre &? du 1\ 
Labat. The following preparation of the pastel^ 
or garden woad, is thiA described by Mr. As- 

The preparation of indigo and potash- — The 
preparation of potash requires no other perform- 
ance than to dissolve it in warm water, w^ith 
constant stirring ; say one gallon^ of water to 
every two pounds of potash, let it stand and 
cool, and keep it fronri filth and dirt, be care- 
ful and not have it disturbed, that the earthly- 
parts may settle to the bottom, and the lie pour- 
ed offby inclination, leaving the lees to be cast 
away ; the pot and pearl-ashes must be kept in a 
clean tight vessel; to exclude it from the air, 
otherwise it v^ill dissolve and loose its sub- 
stance, and you cannot ascsrtaiui its qualities* 


For indigo. — All indigo requires to be pul^ 
verized to a powder, or ground to a paste, let it 
be used in what dye it will, but for blue I shall 
give the several processes that I conceive to be 
the most correct. In the first place, take and 
weigh the quantity of indigo required for setting 
or recruiting your dye ; then wash it with clean 
water, pour off the water, it will take all the 
loose dirt ; then beat it small that the balls or 
grinding may be performed, then take as niuch 
of the potash lie, prepared as above, as is 
necessary to have the balls run free, and the grind- 
ing done with ease, grind it to a paste ; or if this- 
is neglected ^ and it is not ground to a paste or 
powder, the indigo is lost, for it will not dissolve 
in the dye, as some erroneously imagine, but be-- 
eomes coated and congealed, and looses its active 
part with the other ingredients. This is the 
preparation of indigo for the blue vat, let it al- 
ways be ready ground before setting your vat ; 
set it aside, covered close to prevent evaporation,, 
and to keep the dirt and filth from it. Some in- 
digo will be differently prepared, or with dif- 
ferent alkalis, but the grinding must be the same. 
Lime waters : (after the, ^preparation of the lime,, 
which will be given hereafter,) when it is ne- 
cessary to use the lie of lime, take two quarts 
of lime to every gallon of water, put them in a. 
tub, stir them well together, let stand twelve 
hours ; then pour off the lie to your indigo to. 
your liking ; some processes will be to use. 
sig or urine, when this is necessary take one 
bushel of ashes, one peck of stone lime, put 
them in a leech, wet them with warm water, 
then leech as much sig till the strength is out of 
your leech, wet your indigo, &c. ; to dissolve 
the indigo with vinegar, a vegetable acid, the. 
indigo is placed with the vinegar in a kettle over 
a moderate fire and kept warm twenty-fuur 
hours, that the acid may evaporate, &c» 

byer's eoMPANio^T. 133 

Preparation of Lime, 

That the lime may be properly^ slacked foi? 
the dyer's uscy take some convenient place to 
pour water on the lime till it begins to slack and 
crack, then cast it into an empty vessel, where the 
lime finishes slacking, and reduces itself to po\Y- 
der, considerably augmenting its bulk ; it i$ 
afterwards sifted through a canvas, and kept 
in a dry hogshead. 

Sour liquors are not only necessary in some 
circumstances of setting a woad vat, but also 
in some of the preparations given to wool and 
Stuffs previous to their^ being dyed ; they are 
prepared after the following manner : 

Preparation of sour Liquors. 

A copper of the size required is filled with 
river water, and when it boils, it is flung into 
a hogshead, where a sufiicient quantity of bran 
has been put, and stirred with a stick three or 
four times a day. The proportion of bran and 
water is not very material ; I have made a good 
liquor by putting three bushels of bran into a 
vessel containing seventy gallons. Four or five 
days after, this water becomes sour, and conse- 
quently fit for use in ail cases, where it will not 
be detrimental to the preparations of wool that 
are independent of dying. 

For it may happen, that wool in the fleece 
which has been dyed in a liquor where too great 
a quantity of sour water has been put, will be 
harder to spin, as the sediment of the bran 
forms a sort of starch that glues the fibres of 
the wool, and prevents them from forming an 
even thread. I must here take notice of the 
bad custom of letting sour liquors remain in 
copper- vessels, as I have seen in some eminent 


dye-Iiouses ; for this Ijqaor being an acid, cor-^ 
rodes the copper, and if it remains long enough 
to take in a portion of this metaL it will cause 
a defect both in the dye and in the quality of 
the stuff: in the dye, because the dissolved 
copper gives a greenish cast ; in the quality of 
the stuff, because the copper dissolved preys 
on all animal substances- The dyers are often 
ignorant of die cause of these defects. 

I flatter myself I shall omit no essential 
point on the woad vat : if any difficulties or ac- 
cidents, which I have mentioned, are not found, 
in the practice they are not considerable, and 
an easy remedy will be found by those who 
make themselves familiar with the working, 

The readers who have no idea of this work, 
may think me too prolix, and find repetitions ; 
but those who intend to make use of what I 
have taught in this chapter, vvill perhaps re-^ 
proach me for not having said enough on the 

Those that read this chapter vvith attention, 
will not be surprised that the master-piece for 
apprentices to dyers of the great dye, is, to set- 
the woad vat and work her. 

Receijit \20th. To set a vat of24i barrels^ as /iracfised 
in America, 

Take 121b. of potash, dissolve as before des- 
cribed ; 161b- of good indigo prepared and 
ground as before directed, (or if you have woad 
omit 41b. of indigo,) and add 161b. of woad, 
take 161b of madder and 16 quarts of wheat 
bran, and weigh 3-4 of a pound of borax. 

The setting. — To cleanse the water, take 
about twelve bushels of ashes with a half bush, 
el of stone lime and let all the water run through 
this leech to cleanse it for your blue, when the 


-water is thus prepared, fill the vat with it scald- 
inghot; then fill your boiler with the leeched wa- 
ter, then add the madder, wheat bran, and half 
the potash lie that remains after grinding the 
indigo already prepared ; heat this near boiling 
hot with constant stirring, then empty this in 
the vat by a spout, wdth the vat covered close; 
then fill the boiler as before, put in the indigo 
and the remaining potash lie, leaving the sedi- 
ment behind, then the w^oad, (if you have any] ; 
all to be added when cold, heat moderately. 
With constant stirring till it boils, empty it 
in the vat, fill the vat to within tw^elve inches 
of the top, rake well, cover close, and let stand 
three hours ; then add the borax, rake wdl 
and let stand ten hours ; then have all rea- 
dy prepared ; if necessary and the dye has not 
come to W'ork, have lime water prepared as be- 
fore described, to four gallons water, eight quarts 
of lime ; add one gallon of the lie, rake w^ell and 
add of the lime lie every three hours, till the lime 
water is used ; if it does not come to work, have 
another liquor prepared, take two bushels of 
ashes, and one peck of lime, wet with w arm 
ivater, then leech through ten gallons of sg ; 
feed the dye with this when you rake, tiB it 
comes to w^ork, observing to keep the vat cover- 
ed close to let the heat be kept regular and not 
too low, if it cools too much keep a small fire 
in the flew. Another sure remedy, have a few 
gallons of good lively m^tlt, and plenty of hops- 
beer in fermentation fit for drhiking. add this if 
necessary, if the dye does not come to work in 
time, forty-eight hours, rake well, (or you may 
add a pound or two of pearlash and rake well.) 

To know when a dye has come to work. 

A vat is fit to work when the grounds are of a 
green brown, when it changes, on its being taken 


out of the vat, when the flurry is of a fine Turk- 
ish or deep blue, and when the pattern, which 
has been dipt in it for an hour, comes out of a 
fine deep grass green. When she is fit to work, 
the bever has a good appearance, clear and red- 
dish, and the drops and edges that are formed 
under the rake in lifting up the bever are brown. 
Examining the appearance of the bever, is lift- 
ing up the liquor with the hand or rake, to see 
what colour the liquor of the vat has under its 
surface. The sediment or grounds must change 
colour (as has been already observed) at being 
taken out of the bever, and must grow brown 
by being exposed to the external air. The 
bever or liquor must feel neither too rough nor 
too greasy, and must not smell either of lime or 
Ue. Tliese are the distinguishing marks of a 
yat that is fit to work. 

Wool and woollen stuffs of all kinds, are dyed 
blue without any other preparation then wetting 
them well inluke-warm water, with the addition 
of pearlash as before described, squeezing them 
well afterwards, or letting them drain : this pre- 
caution is necessary, that the colour may the 
more easily insinuate itself into the body of the 
wool, that it may be equally dispersed through- 
out ; nor is this to be omitted in any kind of 
<:olours, whether the subject be wool or cloth. 

When the vat has come to work, it must 
stand one hour after raking, then open it, take 
oiFthe flurry or head with your skimmer, and 
put it in a tub and cover close, that it may be 
returned into the vat again, when you cover and 
rake, after dipping your goods. 

The vat being come to work, the cross must 
be let down, and about thirty ells of cloth, or the 
equivalent of its weight of wool well scoured, 
(which is first intended to be dyed of a Persian 
blue to make a black afterwards), having return. 


cd this stiiTing several times, which must have al- 
ways been covered with hquor,the cloth must be 
twisted on the rings fastened to the jack at the 
top of the vat ; if it be wool, it is to be dipt 
with a net, which will serve to wring it: tlie 
cloth must be opened by its lists to air it, and to 
cool the green, that is, to make it lose the greea 
colour it had coming out of the vat, and take 
the blue. 

In the preceding w^ork, I gave particular di- 
rections for the utensils, and the management of 
the cloths while in the vat ; the same processes 
are to be observed in the management of the 
blue for cloths ; wool is placed in a net and kept 
loose and open by poles for that purpose, that 
a man may raise the wool and loosen it by keep- 
ing one end of the pole in his hand, and the other 
in the dye with constant stirring, raising the vvcol 
but not exposed ro the air, till taken up by the 
net for that purpose, for if the air turns it from 
the green to blue before it comes out of the vat, 
it vail cause it to take the dye uneven, caution 
must be used not to crowd the dye too fast, and 
never to keep the vat long open, not to exceed 
three hours at a time, before you return your 
head, cover close and rake well ; if the dye does 
not colour quick or active enough, add when 
your cover and rake ; one pound of pearlash 
or more according to the state of the dye, judg- 
ment must be used ; be ever mindful to keep 
the heat regular, if it gets too low, it will retard 
business, and you nmst let it stand some hours, 
it is not good to have it over hot, the dye will 
not turn to as much profit ; keep it near to 
scalding heat, these kind of vats are very easily 
managed with attention, as the dye does not re« 
qnire shifting ^) reheat as -the other vats, till the 
dye is worked oft^ no additions are to be ma Ic 
unle{>s the dye works too slow, then you may 


add pearlash or sig leech, and some madder if 
necessary, and wheat bran. When the dye has 
lost its colour, recruit in manner and form as 
in setting ; if the dye grows thick, dirty and 
glutinous by use, dip off the top of the dye 
carefully and let the sediment be cast away, and 
the dye boiled and skimmed. These directions 
are to be general in all blue dying, except other- 
wise directed ; almost every blue dyer pretends 
to a peculiar skill or secret in bUie dying, and 
yet the principle is the same, for the colouring 
substances indigo and woad,we all depend upon, 
and the power that operates them, the alkali, pot 
and pearl. ashes, lime, ashes, sig, &c. All the 
difference is the changing the order of them, 
and applying the assisting subjects, as madder 
and wheat bran ; I shall make my observations 
general under this, both for indigo and woad, in 
the management of the cloth, wool, and vat ; 
then show the different methods in practice. 
To return to the vat ; 

If ^the vat be in good order at the first open- 
ing, three or four stirrings or dippings may be 
made, and the next day, two or three more, only 
observing not to hurry her, or to w^ork her as 
strong as at first. That the vat may turn to as 
much profit as possible for the shades of blue ; 
first, all stuffs intended to be black, are dyed ; 
then the king's blue ; after these the green 
brown : the violets and Turkish blues are com- 
monly done in the last rakings of the jsecond 
day of the opening. The third day, if the vat 
appears much diminished, she must be filled 
with hot water within four inches of the brim. 
This is called filling the vat. 

The latter end of the week, the light blues 
are made, and on Saturday night, having r ikd 
the vat, she is to be served a little more than riic 
preceding day, that slie may keep till Monday,, 

dyer's companion. 139 

Monday morning the bever is put on the fire^ 
by passing it from the vat into the copper by a 
trough, which rests on both ; this clear bever 
is emptied to the grounds, and when it is ready 
to boil it must be returned into the vat, raking 
the grounds, as the hot Hquor falls from the 
trough ; at the same time have your indigo pre- 
pared, and the same process is to be observed as 
m setting ; it generally comes to work much 
sooner, (in about fourteen hours) ; manage in 
manner and form as before described, till you 
obtain the colour and shade required. 

The Woad or Pastel vat ; how mariaged and honu to 
know when a Vat is cracked by too great or too funalb 
a quantity of Lime ; extremes which must be avoids 

When more lime has been put in than was 
sufficient for the woad, it is easily perceived by 
dipping in a pattern, which instead of turning to 
a beautiful grass green, is only daubed with a 
steely green. The grounds do not change, the 
vat gives scarcely any flurry, and the bever has 
a strong odour of quick lime, or its lees. 

This error is rectified by thinning the vat, in 
which the dyers differ ; some use tartar, others 
bran, of which they throw a bushel into the vat, 
more or less in proportion to the quantity of 
lime used, others a pail of urine. In some 
places a large iron chafing-dish is made use of, 
long enough to reach from the ground'to the top 
of the vat, this chafing-dish or furnace has a 
grate at a foot distance from its bottom, and a 
funnel coming from under this grate, and as- 
cending to the top of the chafing-dish, which is 
to give air to, and kindle the coals which are 
placed on the grate. This furnace is sunk in 
the vat, near to the surface of the grounds, so as 


^ not to touch them, and is fastened with iron bars 
to prevent its rising. By this method the lime 
is raised to the surface of the liquor, which gives 
an opportunity to take off with a sieve what is 
thought superfluous ; but when this is taken 
out, the necessary quantity of ware must be 
carefully restored to the vat. Others again thin 
the vat with pearlash, or tartar boiled in stale 
iirine : but the best cure, when she is too hard, 
is, to put in bran and madder at discretion ; and 
if she be but a little too hard, it will suffice to 
let her remain quiet four, five, or six hours, or 
more, putting in only two quarts of bran and 
three or four pounds of madder, which are to be 
lightly strewed on the vat, after which it is to be 
covered. Four or five hours after, she is to be 
raked and plunged, and accordir^g to the colour, 
that the flurry which arises froui this motion, as- 
sumes and imprints on the whole liquor, a fresh 
proof is made by putting in a pattern. 

If she is cracked, and casts blue only when 
she is cold, she must be If-ft undisturbed, some- 
times whole daj^s w ithout raking ; when she 
begins to strike a tolenible pattern, her liquor 
must be reheated or warme d ; then commonly 
the lime, which seemed to have lost all pov\ er to 
excite a fermentation, acqiures ne\v strength, 
and prevents the vat from yielding its dye so 
soon. If she is to be hastened, some bran and 
madder are to be thrown on, as also one or two 
baskets of new woad, which helps^ the hquor 
that has been reheated to spend its lime-^ 

C.;re must be tnk^^n to put patterns in each 
hour, in order to judge, by the- green colour 
whl h they acquire, how the lime is worked 
on. By these triaK she may be conducted w ith 
more exactness, for when once a vat is cracked, 
bv t'.o great ortr^o sm^ll a q^^antity of lime, she 
is brought to bear with much more difficulty. 


If while you are endeavouring to bring her to 
work, the bever grows a little too cold, it must 
be heated by tak ing off some of the clear, and 
instead therof, adding some warm water ; for 
when the bever is cold, the woad spends little or 
no lime ; when it is too hot, it retards the action 
of the woad, and prevents it from spending the 
lime ; therefore it is better to wait a little, than 
to hasten the vats to come to w^ork when they 
are cracke^d. A vat is known not to have been 
sufficiently servtd with lime, and that she is 
cracked, wl^en the bever gives no flurry, but in- 
ste'id thereof gives only a scum, and when she is 
phmged or raked, she only works, ferments and 
hisses, (this noise is made by a great number of 
air bubbles that burst as soon as the3^ form), the 
liquor has also the smell of a common sewer or 
sink, or rotten eggs ; it is harsh and dry to the 
touch ; the grounds when taken out do not 
change, which generally happens when a vat is 
cracked for want of lime. This accident is 
chiefly to be apprehended v\hen a vat is opened 
and a dip made in her; f ( r if her state has not 
been looked into, both in regard to the smell as 
well as raking and plungii^g, and that the stuffs 
be imprudt ntly put in when the w^oad has spent 
its lime it is to be feared the vat may be lost ; 
for the stufl^s being put in, the small quantity of" 
lime that still remains in a state to act, sticks to 
them, the bever is divested of it, and the stuffs 
only blotted ; these must be immediately taken 
out., and a quick remedy applied to the vat, to 
preserve the remaining part of the dye, which is 
done by putting in three or four measures of 
lime, more or less, according as the vat is crack- 
ed, and that without raking her bottom. 

It is also to be observed, that if in raking and 
plunging the fermentation ceases, and the bad 
smell change, it is then to be supposed diat the. 


bevcr or liquor alone has suffered, and that the 
grounds are not yet in want. When the fer- 
mentation is in part or totally abated, and the 
bever has a smell of lime, and feels soft to the 
tooch, the vat is to be covered and left at rest ; 
and if the flurry still remains on the vat an hour 
and a half, a pattern is to be put in which must be 
taken out one hour after, and you are to be 
guided according to the green ground it will 
take. But generally vats thut are thus cracked, 
are not so soon brought to a state fit for dying. 

I shall make same reflections necessary to at- 
tend a more perfect knowledge of this process. 
The woad vat must never be re-heated but 
when fit for working ; that is, she must have 
neither too much nor too little lime, but be in 
such a state as only to want heating to come 
to work. It is known she has too much lime 
(as has been before observed) by the quick 
smell ; on the contrary, a want is known by the 
sweetish smell, and by the scum which rises on 
the surface by raking, being of a pale blue ; but 
when this w oad vat has come to work the same 
process is to be obserN ed as in the preceding, 
dip and air to give it the blue. 

If the cloth or wool was not deep enough for 
a mazarine blue by the first dipping, it must 
get another, by returning into the vat the end 
of the piece of cloth which first came out ; and 
according to the vtreiigth of the woad, you must 
give to this striking two or three returns, as 
may be thought necessary for the imensity of 
the blue required. If the woad be good, such 
as the true L' Auragais is commonly, after tak- 
ing out the first stirring, a second may be put 
in at this first (opening of the vat. After mak- 
ing this c^penii^g, which is also called the first 
raking, the vat is to be again raked, and served 
with lime at discretion, observiiig ihat it has the 


smell and touch conformable to what has been 
laid down before, and taking notice, that in pro- 
portion as the dye diminishes, so does the 
strength of the woad. 

As has been observed, the latter end of the 
week the light blues are made, and on Monday 
morning the bever or dye liquor is put to boil as 
before described, and a kettle of indigo put in. 

When the vat is filled within fuur inches of 
the brim, and well raked, she must be covered, 
and two hours after a pattern put in, which 
must remain not more than an hour ; Hme must 
be added according to the sh de of the green, 
which this proof pattern shall have ti)ken, and 
at the expiration of an hour or two, if the vat 
has not suffered, the stuff is to be put in ; hav- 
ing conducted it between two waters for abr ut 
half an hour it is wrung, and a dip is ngain giv^^n 
to it, as was done hi the new vat. This vat heat- 
ed again, is conducted in the same manner, 
that is, three r;jkings are made the first day, ob- 
serving at each raking, whether she wants lime ; 
f )r in this case, the quantity judged necessary 
must be given. 

Blue made of woad alone, according to the 
opinion of some persons prejudiced in fav<)ur of 
old custorns, is much better than that which 
the woad gives with the addition of indigo. But 
then this blue would be much dearer, because 
woad gives much less dye than indigo, and 
it has been found by repeated experience, that 
four pounds of fi!ie indigo from Guatimala, pro- 
duced as much as a bale of Albjgeois v\oad or 
pastel ; and five pounds as much as a bale from 
L'Auragais, which generally weighs ti» o hun- 
dred and ten pounds. So the usntg of the in- 
digo with the woad is a great saving, as one vat 
with indigo shall dye as much as three w ith- 
eut it. 

Indigo is generally put into new vats after the 


woad yields its blue, and a quarter or half after 
she is to be served vvith lime ; as this solution 
of indigo is already impregnated with some of 
its dissolution, the lime must be given uith a 
more sp »ring hand than where the woad is used 
alone. At the re- heating, the indigo is put in on 
Saturday niglit, that it may incorporate w ith the 
bever, and that it may serve as furnish by its 
lirne. The indig' > th-it is brought from Guatima- 
la in America is the b^st ; it is brought over in 
the shape of small stones, and of a deep blue ; 
it must be of a de^p violet colour within and 
'Nvhen rubbed on the nail, have a copper hue ; 
the lightest is the best. It is necessary to ob- 
serve that for the better conducting of a wond 
vat, and to prevent accidents, a manufacturer 
ought to have a good woadman, this is the name 
givrn to the journeyman dyer, whose prii^cipal 
business is to conduct the woad ; practice has 
taught him more than this treatise can furnish. 

Care must be taken when a vat is intended to 
be re-heated, not to serve her with lime in the 
evening, (unless in great want of it) for if she 
was too much served with it, she might next 
day be too hard, as the dyers term it ; for l)y 
he:iting her < gain, i? greater action is given to the 
lime, and makes her spend it the quicker. Fresh 
indigo is commonly put into the vat, each time 
she is re. heated, in proportion to the qnantity 
to be dyed. It would be needless to put in 
any, if there was but little work to do, or only 
light colours wanted. It was not permitted by 
the ancient regulations of France, to put more 
than six pounds of indigo to each bale of woad, 
because the colour of the indigo was thought 
not lasting, and that it w^as only the great quan- 
tity of woad which could secure and render it 
good; but it is now ascertained, both by the 
experiments of Monsieur Dufay, and those 
which I have since made, that the colour of in- 


digo, even used alone, is full as good, and re- 
sists as much the action of the air, sun and rain, 
as that of pastel or woad. 

When a vat has been heated two or three 
times, and a good part has been Vv^orked off, the 
same liquor is often preserved, but part of the 
grounds are taken out, which is replaced by 
new woad ; (this is called vamping) ; the quanti- 
ty cannot be prescribed on this occasion, for it 
depends upon the work the dyer has to do. 
Practice will teach all that can be wished for on 
this head. There are dyers who preserve liquor 
in their vats sevenil years, renewing them with 
woad and indigo in proportion as they work 
them •, others empty the vat entirely, and change 
the liquor when the vat has been heated six or 
seven^ times, and that she gives no more dye. 
A series of practice alone will show which of 
these is pref rble. It is however more rea. 
sonable to think, that by renew ing it now and 
then, more lively and beautiful colours may be 
obtained, and the best dyers follow this me- 

In Holland they have vats which do not re- 
quire to be so often heated. Mr. Van Robbais 
had some of these made som^* years since for 
their roynl manufactory at Abbeville. The 
upper parts of these vats, to the height of three 
feet, are of copper, and the rest lead. They 
are also surrou^d^d with a smdl brick wall, 
at seven or eight inches from the copper; in 
this interval embers are put, v^ hich keep up the 
heat of the vat a lo^g time, so that she remains 
several days together in a condition to be work- 
ed, without the trouble of heatitig her over 
again. These vats are much more costly than 
the others, but they are very convenient, espe- 
ciallv for the dipping of very light colours ; 
because the vat is always fit to work, though 


she be very weak ; this is not the case of the 
others, which gent^rally make the colour a great 
deal deeper than n quired, unless they are set to 
eool considerably, and then it happens that the 
colour is not so good, nor has it the same 
brightness. To make these light colours in 
common vats, it is better to work some pur- 
posely that are strong with woad and weak of 
indigo ; such give their colours slower, and 
light colours are made with greater eise. 

As to the vats made in the Dutch fashion, 
and which have already been mentioned, the "^ 
four which Mr. Van Robbais has in his manu- 
factory, are six feet in depth, of which three 
feet and a half in the upper part are copper, and 
the two feet and a half of the bottom are lead. 
The diameter at the bottom is four feet and a 
half, and that at the top five feet four inches. 

To return to the observations on heating the 
common vats. If the vat was heated when 
cracked, that is, when she has not quite lime 
enough, she would turn in the heating without 
being perceived, and perchance be entirely lost 
as the heat would soon finish the spending of 
the lime, which was in too small a quantity If 
this is perceived in time, it must be helped by 
pouring it back iuto the vat without more heat- 
ing ; then feed her with lime, and not heat her 
till she is come to work. 

On the re heating, some of the grounds must 
be put into the copper with the liquor or bever ; 
and great care niust be taken not to boil it be- 
cause the volatile necessary in this operation 
would evaporate. There are some dyers, who, 
in heating their vats, do not put the indigo im- 
mediately after the liquor is poured from the 
copper into the vat, but wait some hours till they 
see her come to work : this they do as a precau- 
tiouj lest the vat should fail, and the indigo be 


lost ; but by this method, the indigo does not 
so freely yitid it^ cohnir, as they are obliged to 
work her as soon as she is fit, that bhe may not 
cool, so that the indigo, nut beii^g entirely dis- 
solved, nor altogether nicorporated, has no ef- 
feet. It is therefore better to put it into the vat 
at the same time the liquor is cast in, and rake 
her well nftrr. If the vat is heated over again 
without her coming to work, she must not be 
scummed as in the common heatings as the hidi- 
go would be carried off thereby, whereas, when 
she has worked, this scum is formed of the 
earthy part of the indigo and woad, united with 
a portion of lime. 

When too much lime is put into a vat, you 
must wait for her till such time as she has spent 
it, or it may be accelerated by heating it, or by 
putting in ingredients which destroy in part the 
aciion of the lime, such as tartar, vinegar, honey, 
bran, some mineral acid, or any matter that 
will become sour ; but all these correctors wear 
out the dye of the indigo and woad, so that the 
best method is, to let it vspend of its own accords 
A vat is not commonly ft d with lime, but on 
the first, second? and sometimes the third day^ 
and it is also remarked, not to dip the violets, 
purples, or any other wool or stufis which have 
previously a colour that may be easily damaged; 
the succeeding day after its being fed with lime, 
as it is then too active, it dulls the first colour ; 
the fifth or sixth day the crimsons may be dipt 
to give them a violet, and the yellows for green ; 
following this rule, the colours will always be 

When a vat has been re- heated, she must 
come to work before she is served with lime ; 
if this was done a little too soon, she nmst be 
cracked ; the same thing would h^ippen if some 
of the grounds were put into the copper. The 


most effectual method ia this case is to let her 
rest before she is worked, until she comes to, 
which often happens in two, three, or four 
hours, and sometimes a day. By using light or 
weak lime, she grows too hard ; because this 
light lime rernains in the liquor, and does not 
incorporate with the grounds. This is known 
by the strong smell of the liquor, and on the 
contrary the grounds have a sweetish sme^ll, 
whereas the sniell ought to beequal in both. The 
best way then is, to let it spend itself, by raking 
her often, in order to mix the lime with the 
grounds, until the smell of the vat is restored, 
and the flurry becomes blue.^ 

A woad vat may be set without the addition 
of indigo, but then she yields but little colour, 
and ^ only dyes a small quantity of wool or 
stuffs ; tor one pound of indigo, as has already 
been observed, affords as much dye as fifteen or 
sixteen pounds of woad. I set one of this kind 
to try the qualities of woad by itself, and I could 
not find that indigo was any way inferior to it, 
either for the beauty or solidity of the colour. 
As lirne is always used, and sometimes sour li- 
quors, in tlie setting of a woad yat their prepara- 
tion are spoken of in the preceding. 

Recei/ii \2\sC. Another 7ne hod for blue^ as firacchei 
in America, 

To set a vat of nine barrels, fill your vat 
about half full of boiling water, put two pounds 
of potash dissolved as before described, then 
add twelve q jarts of wheat bran clear from 
the kernel, spr-] kle it into the vat with your 
hand, then take one pound of good madler, then 
with the raj^e mix it with your dj^e, then add 
two pounds of indig ) well ground, wet with 
^ariiue, cover the vat closely ; when you have in- 


troduced all the ingredients, the indigo being the 
last article, rake well and cover close, if possible 
to exclude the circulation of the air ; let it re- 
main eight or nine hours, then plunge and rake 
well with exertion and activity ; bubbles will 
appear by repeating the plunges, and if a thick 
blue froth rises on the surface of the dye, vvliich 
is called the head, continuing to float and the 
dye appears of a darkish green, the dye is in a 
good state, and is fit for colouring ; it may be 
necessary to repeat the plunging and raking 
three or four times, remember after you have 
done raking to cover close ; keep the heat regu- 
lar. If the dye should cool before it comes to 
work you would have to reheat, but if you have 
a flew round your vat you may keep up the 
heat and save trouble ; if the dye when opened 
in the morning appear of a pale blue cast? instead 
of a dark green, a handful or two of madder, say 
half a pound must be sprinkled in the vat ; the 
dye should continue the heat near scalding. If 
the dye appear of a pale colour, two quarts of 
lime water must be added ; be cautious not to 
open the vat often ; let it stand at least two 
hours between each raking. After the vat is 
set and come to a head, let it stand secure till 
employed for dyhig : when the goods are ready 
for colouring, the dye must be heated, and add 
three pounds of indigo as:before,together with the 
same proportions of potash, madder and wheat 
bran, and six pounds of woad, heatjiot, and fill 
the vat within four inches of the top, cover close 
and follow the same processes in plunging and 
raking as before. If the dye is in good state 
there will be ten or twelve quarts of froth or head 
floating on the surface of the dye, the colour o^ 
which will be of a beautiful dark blue and the 
dye of a dark green : this is the proper state of 
the dye ; have your goods prepared in hot v/alcr 


with pearlash, take it up, let drean, open the vat, 
take off the head and follow the same process; 
(if cloth, as in receipt No. 1 ; if wool, as in re. 
ceiptNo. 120), the utejisilsare die same in all 
blue dying of wool and woollen goods, the cloth 
when first taken out of the vat will exhii)it a 
green appearance, by being exposed to the air 
will become blue, fold it over till well exposed 
to the air and all turned blue ; be cautious and 
not expose any part of tli^ goods to the air, to 
take off the green while in the vat, it will make 
the goods uneven ; give your goods three or 
four stirrings or dippings, till your colour suits : 
put back the head, cover close and rake well, 
and let stand one hour, never dip till the sedi- 
ment is well settled ; when the liquor is thick 
and glutinous by use, it must be boiled, and 
the scum taken off and returned into the vat, 
add one gallon of lime w ater to cleanse the dye 
and settle the grounds. In hot weather if you 
are not using your dye, it must be heated as 
often as once in sixty days and raked frequent- 
ly ; when all your goods are dyed open the 
vat and give it the air till cold, then cover to 
keep out the insects, &c. 

Receijit \22d. Of setting and working a vat as firaC" 
tised at Paris j in France, 

It is a vat which is about five feet in height, 
two feet diameter, and becomes narrow towards 
the bottom ; she is surrounded with a wall that 
leaves a space round her, which serves to hold 
embers. In a vat of this size, two pounds of 
indigo may at least be used, and five or six for 
the greatest proportion. To set a vat of two 
pounds of indigo in such a vessel that may con- 
tain about twenty gallons, about fifteen gallons 
Qf river water are set to boil in a copper for the 

dyer's COMPANIO]^, 151 

space of half an hour, with two pounds of pearl . 
ash, two ounces of madder, and a handful of 
bran ; during this, the indigo is prepared after . 
the following manner : ^ 

Two pounds of it are weighed out, and cast 
into a pail of cold water to separate the earthy 
parts. The water is afterwards poured off by 
inclination, and the indigo well ground ; a little 
warm water is put into it, shaking it from side 
to side ; it is poured by inclination into another 
vessel ; w^hat remains is still ground, and fresh 
water put in to carry ofl] the finest parts, and 
thus continued till all the indigo is reduced into 
a powder, fine enough to be raised by the w\ater. 
This is all the preparation it undergoes. Then 
the liquor which has boiled in the copper with 
the grounds is poured into the high and nar- 
row vat, as likewise the indigo ; the whole is 
then raked with a small rake, the vat is covered, 
and embers placed round her* If this work 
was begun in the afternoon, a few embers are 
added at night ; the same is repeated the next 
day morning and night. The vat is also lightly 
raked twice the second day ; the third day, the 
embers are continued to be put round, to keep 
up the heat of the vat ; she is raked twice in the 
day : about this time, a shining copper-colour^ 
ed skin begins to apppear on the surface of the 
liquor, and appears as if it vv^as broken or crack- 
ed in several places. Tiie fourth day, by con- 
tinuing the fire, this skin or pedicle is more 
formed and closer ; the flurry, which rises in 
raking the vat, appears, and the liquor becomes 
of a deep green. 

When the liquor is in this state, it is a sign 
that it is time to fill the vat. For this purpose 
a fresh liquor is made, by putting into a cop- 
per about twenty quarts of water, with one 
pound of pearlash, a handful of bran, and half 
an ounce of madder. This is boiled a quarter 


of an hour, and the vat is served with it; sh& 
is then raked, and causes a great quantity oi 
flurry to rise, and the vat comes to work the 
r.ext day; this is known by the quantity of 
flurry with which she is covered by tiie skin or 
cop>per> scaly crust Vvhich sv/ims on the liquor, 
which, although it appears of a blue-brown, is 
nevertheless green underneath. 

This vat was much longer coming to its co- 
lour than the others, because the fire was too 
strong the second day, otherwise she would 
have been fit to work two days sooner. This 
did no other damage but retarded her, and the 
day she came to work, w^e dipt in serges weigh, 
ing thirteen or fourteen pounds. As this caus- 
ed her to lose her strength, and the liquor be- 
ing diminished by the pieces of stuff that had 
been dyed in her, she was served in the after- 
noon with fresli liquor, made with one pound 
of pearlash, half an ounce of madder, and a 
handful of bran ; the whole was boiled together 
in a copper for a quarter of an hour ; the vat be- 
ing served Vtdth it, she was raked, covered, and 
a few embers put round. She may be preserv- 
ed after this manner several days^ and when she 
is wanted to v/ork, she must be raked over 
night, and a little fire place about her. 

When there is occasion to re-heat, and add 
indigo to this kind of vat, two-thirds of the li- 
quor (which then is no more green, but of a 
blue. brown and almost black) is put into a cop- 
per ; when it is ready to boil, all the scum that 
is formed at the top is taken off widi a sieve ; it 
is afterwards made to boil, and two handfuls of 
bran, a quarter of a pound of madder, and two 
pounds of pearlash are added. The fire is then 
removed from the copper, and a little cold wa- 
ter cast into it to stop the boil ; after which the 
whole is put into the vat, with one pound of 

dyer's companion, 153 

powdered indigo, diluted in a portion of the li- 
quor as before related ; after this the vat is rak- 
ed, covered, and some fire put round ; the 
next day she is fit to work. 

When the indigo vat has been re-heated sever- 
al times, it is necessary to empty her entirely, 
and to set a fresh one, or she will not give a 
lively dye ; when she is too old and stale, the 
liquor is not of so fine a green as at first. 

I put several other vats to work after the same 
method, with different quantities of indigo, from 
one pound to six ; always observing to augment 
or diminish the other ingredients in proportion, 
but always one pound of pearlash to each pound 
of indigo. I have since made other experiments, 
which proved to me that this proportion was not 
absolutely necessary ; and I rnake no doubt but 
tiiat several other means might be found to 
make the indigo come to as perfect a colour. I 
shall, nevertheless, proceed to some other ob- 
servations on this vat. 

Of all those I set to work, after the manner 
descril^ed, one only fiuled me, and that by neg- 
lecting to put fire round her the second day. 
She never came to a proper colour; powdered 
arsenic was put in to no effect ; red-hot bricks 
were also plunged in at different times ; the li- 
quor turned of a greenish hue, but never came 
to the proper colour ; and having attempted se- 
veral other means without success, or without 
being able to find out the cause of her not suc- 
ceeding, I caused the liquor to be emptied and 
cast away. 

All the other accidents that have happened 
me in conducting the indigo vat, have only 
lengthened the operation; so that this process 
may be looked upon as verj' easy v'hen com- 
pared to that of the woad vat. I have also made 
several experiments on both, in which my chief. 


view was to shorten the time of the common 
preparation ; but not meeting with the desired 
success, I shall not relate them. 
^ The liquor of the indigo vat is not exactly 
like that of the woad ; its surface is of a blue- 
brown, covered with coppery scales, and the 
under part of a beautiful green. The stuff or 
wool dyed in this is green when taken out, and ' 
becomes blue a moment after. We have al- 1 
ready ^ seen that the same happens to the stuff ] 
dyed in the w oad vat ; but it is remarkable that ' 
the liquor of the last is not green, and yet pro- 
duces on the vvoad the same effect as the other. 
It nriustalso be observed, that if the liquor of the 
indigo vat be removed out of the vessel in which 
it was contained, and if too long exposed to the 
air, it loses its green and all its quality, so that, 
although it gives a blue colour, that colour is 
not lasting. 

Receipt 123cf. The Cold Vat with Urine. 

A VAT is also prepared with urine, which 
yields its colour cold, and is worked cold : for 
this purpose four pounds of indigo are powdered, 
which is to be digested on warm ashes twenty- 
four hours, in four quarts of vinegar ; if it is not 
then well dissolved, it must be ground again 
with the liquor, and urine is to be added little 
bv little, with half a pound of madder, which 
must be well diluted by stirring the liquor with 
a stick ; when this preparation is made, it is 
poured into a vessel filled with 63 gallons of 
urine ; it matters not whether it be fresh or 
stale ; the Vv^hole is well stirred and raked toge- 
ther night and morning for eight days, or till the 
vat appears green at the surface when raked, or 
that she makes flurry as the common vat ; she 
is then fit to work, without more trouble than 

dyer's tfOMPAKION. 155 

previously raking her two or three hours before. 
This kind of vat is extremely convenient, for 
when once set to work, she remains goodtillshe be 
entirely drawn, that is till the indigo has given 
all its colour ; thus she may be worked at all 
times, whereas the common vat must be pre- 
pared the day before. 

This vat may at pleasure be made more or 
less considerable by augmenting or diminishing 
the ingredients in proportion to the indigo in- 
tended to be made useof; so that to each pound 
of indigo add a quart of vinegar, two ounces of 
madder, 15 or 18 gallons of urine. This vnt 
comes sooner to work in summer that in winter, 
and may be brought sooner to work by warm- 
ing some of the liquor without boiling, and re- 
turning it into the vat ; this process is so simple 
that it is almost impossible to fail. 

When the indigo is quite spent, and gives no 
more dye, the vat maybe charged again with- 
out setting a new one. ^ For this purpose, indigo 
must be dissolved in vinegar, adding madder in 
proportion to the indigo, pouring the whole into 
the vat, and raking her night and morning, and 
evening as at first, she will be as good as before; 
however she must not be charged this way 
above four or five times, for the ground of the 
madder and indigo would dull the liquor, and 
in consequence render the colour less bright. I 
did not try this method, and therefore do not 
ansvver for the success ; but here follows ano- 
ther with urine which gives a very lasting blue, 
and which I prepared. 

Receifit I24r//. Hot Fag with Urine. 

A pound of indigo was steeped twenty-four 
hours in four quarts of clear urine, and when 
the urine became very blue it was run through 


a fine sieve into a pail, and the indigo which J 
could not pass, and which remained in the ^ 
sieve, was put with fore quarts of fresh urine ; 
this was so continued till all the indigo had 
passed through the sieve with the urine ; this 
lasted about two hours. At four in the after- 
noon three liogsheads of urine WTre put into 
the copper, and it wds made as hot as could be 
without boi]ing4. The urine cast up a thick 
scum, which was taken up with a broom and 
cast out of the copper. It was thus scummed 
at different times, till iht^re only remained a 
white and light scum ; the urine, by this means 
sufficiently purified and ready to boil, was 
poured into the wooden vat, and the indigo 
prepared as above, put ^ in ; the vat was then 
raked, the better to mix the indigo with the 
urine : soon after, a liquor w^as put into the 
vat, made of two quarts of urine, a pound of 
roach-allum, and a pound of red tartar. To 
make this liquor, the allum and tartar were first 
put into the mortar, and reduced to a fine 
powder, upon which the two quarts of urine 
were poured, and the whole rubbed together, 
till this mixture, which rose all of a sudden, 
ceased to ferment : it was then put into the vat, 
w^hich was strongly raked ; and being covered 
with its wooden cover, she was left in that 
state all night; the next morning the liquor 
was of a very green colour ; this was a sign she 
was come to vvork, and that she might have 
been worked if thought proper, but nothing was 
dyed in her ; for r:ll that was done, was only, 
pr ^pi rly speaking, the first prepv^ration of the vat, 
and the indigo 'vhich had been put in was only 
intended to feed the urine, so that to finish the 
preparation the vat vvas let to rest for two days, 
a] \ jvs covered, that she might cool the slov/er ; 
tibana second pound of indigo was prepared, 

dyer's companion. 157 

ground with purified urine as before. About 
four in the afternoon all the liquor of the vat 
was put into the copper ; it^ was heated as 
much as possible without boiling ; some thick 
scum formed on it which was taken off, and the 
liquor being ready to boil was returned into the 
vat. At the same time the ground indigo was 
put in, with a liquor made as above of one 
pound of allum, one pound of tartar, and tVv^o 
quarts of urine, a fresh pound of madder w^as al- 
so added ; then the vat was raked, well covered, 
and left so the whole night. The next morning 
she was com^e to work, the liquor being very 
hot, and of a very fine green, she was worked 
with w^ool in the fleece, of which thirty pounds 
were put into the vat. It w^as well extended and 
w^orked between the hands, that the liquor 
might the more easily soak into it ; then it was 
left at rest for an hour or two, according as 
lighter or deeper blues are required. 

All this time the vat was well covered, that 
it might ^ the better retain its heat, for the hot- 
ter she is, the better she dyes, and when cold 
acts no more. When^ the wool came to the 
shade of the blue required, it was taken out of 
the vat in parcels, about the bigness of a man's, 
head, twisted and v.rung over the liquor as they 
were taken out, till from green, as they were 
conriing out of the vat, they became blue. 
This change from green to blue is made in three 
or four minutes. These thirty pounds being 
thus dyed, and the green taken off, the vat was 
raked, and suffered to rest for two hours, being 
all that time well covered ; then thirty pounds 
more were put in, which was well extended 
with the hands, the vat was covered, and in 
four or five hours this wool was dyed at the 
height or shade of the first thirty pounds ; it was 
then taken out in heaps, and the green taken off 


as before. This done, the vat had still some 
little heat, but not sufficient to dye fresh wool ; 
for when she has not a sufficient heat the colour 
she gives would neither be uniform nor lasting, 
so that it must be reheated, and fresh indigo 
put in as before. This may be done as often 
as judged proper, for this vat does not spoil by 
age, provided, that whilst she is kept without 
w^orking, a little air is let into her. 

Re-heating of the Vat with Urine, 

About four in the afternoon, the whole liquor 
of the vat was piit into a copper, and a sufficient 
quantity of urine added to this liquor, to make 
up the deficiency that had been lost by evapo- 
ration during the preceding work. This fiUii g 
commonly takes eight or nine pails of urine the 
liquor w^as then heated and scummed as before, 
and w^hen ready to boil, returned into tlie vat 
with a pound of indigo, and the liquor above 
described, consisting of allum and tartar, of each 
one pound, madder one pound, and two quarts 
of urine. After raking the vat well, and cover .- 
ing her, she was left at rest the whole night. 

The next day she came to work, and sixty 
pounds of wool were dyed in her at twice as be- 
fore. It is after this manner all the re-heatuigs 
must be done the evening before the dyirg, and 
these re-heatings may extend to infinity, as 
the vat, once set, serves a long time. 
^ I must here observe, that the greater the quan- 
tity of indigo put in at once is, the deeper the 
blue : thus instead of one pound, four, five, or 
six pounds may be put in together ; nor is it 
necessary to augment the dose of allum, tartar, 
or madder, of which ingredients the liquor is 
composed but if the vessel hold more than 
tliree hogsheads, then the dose of these must b^ 


augmented in proportion. The vat T iiave 
menrioned held three, and was too small to dye 
at one time a sufficient quantity of wool to nvdke 
a piece of cloth? viz. fifty or sixty pounds ; fjr 
this purpose it would be necessary diat the vat 
should contain at least six hogsheads, and from 
this a double advantage- would arise. 1. All 
the wool will be dyed in three or four hours, 
whereas dying it at twace, it takes eight or ten 
hours. 2. At the end of three hours, in which 
time the w^ool would be dyed, taken out, and 
the green taken off, the vat being yet very hot ; 
after raking and letting her rest a coupk of 
hours the same wool might be returned into 
her, which would heighten the colour very 
much ; for all vvool that has been dyed, aired, 
and the green taken off, always takes a finer 
colour than new or white vv^ool, which might 
remain twenty hours in the vat. 

Great care must be taken to air and take off 
the green of the dyed parcels of wool that are 
taken out of the vat hastily, that the air may 
strike them equally, without which the blue 
colour will not be uniform throughout the wool* 

There are manufacturers who say that cloths, 
whose wool has received this ground of blue 
with urine, cannot be perfectly scoured at the 
fulling mill, even at twice ; others vouch the 
contrary, and I am of opinion the last speak 
the truth ; yet, if the first are right, it might be 
suspected that the animal oil of the urine be- 
coming resinous by drying on the w^ool, or by 
uniting with the oil with which the wool is 
moistened ; for its other preparations more 
strongly resist the fuller's earth and s^xip, than 
a simple oil by expression. To remedy this, 
the wool ought to be well vv^ashed in a running 
w^ater after it is dyed, twisted, aired, the green 
t^en off, and cooled. Be it as it may, the 


woad vat will always be preferred in the great 
dye houses to those kinds of indigo vats made 
with urine or otherwise ; and for this reason, 
that with a good woad vat,^ and an ingenious 
woad man, much mnrt work is despatched than 
with all the other blue vats.^ 

I have described the indigo vats in this trea- 
tise, not with a design to introduce them in the 
large manufactories, but to procure easy means 
to the dyers in small, and small manufactories, 
to whom I wish this work may be of as much 
advantage as to the others. 

Receifit \25t/i, JFor blue vat^ with garden-woad^ or 

The garden-woad is a plant cultivated in 
many parts of Holland and France, and might 
be in America, to the great advantage of the 
husbandman ; it is made up in bales generally 
weighing from one hundred and fifty pounds to 
two hundred ; it resembles little clods of dried 
earth, interwoven with the fibres of plants ; it is 
gathered at a proper season, and laid up to rot, 
and then made into small balls to dry. ^ Several 
circumstances are to be observed in this prepa- 
ration ; on this you may see the regulations of 
Mons. Colbert on dyes ; the best prepared 
comes from the diocese of Alby in France. 

The Vat set to work. 

A copper as near as possible to the vat is fill- 
ed with water that has stood for some time, or, 
if such water is not at hand, a handful of dyer's 
w^oad or hay is added to the water, with eight 
pounds of crust of fat madder. If the old liquor 
from a vat that has been used in dying from 
madder can be procured, it will save the madder 
and produce a better effect. 

dysr's companion. 161 

The copper being filled, and the fire lighted 
about three in the morning, it must boil an hour 
and a quarter, (some dyers boil it from two 
hours and a half to three) ; it is then conveyed 
by a spout into the woad vat, in which has been 
previously^ put a peck of wheat^ bran. Whilst 
the boiling liquor is emptying into the vat, the 
balls of woad nuist be put one after another hito 
the vat, that they may be the easier broken, 
raked and stirred ; this is to be continued till all 
the hot liquor from the copper is run into the 
vat, which, when little more than half full, must 
be covered with cloths somewhat lai^^er than its 
circumference, so that it may be covered as 
close as possible, and left in this state four 
hours. Then it must be aired, that is, uncover- 
ed to be raked, and fresh air let in it ; and to 
each bale of woad, a good measure of ware flung 
in ; this is a concealed name for lime that has 
been slacked. This measure is a khid of wood- 
en shovel, which serves to measure the lime 
grossly ; it is five inches broad and three inches 
and a half long, containing near a good handful; 
the lime being scattered in, and the vat ^vell rak- 
ed, it must be again covered, leaving a little 
space of about four fingers, open, to let in air. 
Four hours, after, she must be raked, without 
serving her with lime ; the cover is then put on^ 
leaving, as before, an opening for the air ; in 
this manner she must be let to stand for two or 
three hours. Then she may be raked well again, 
if she is not yet come to w^ork ; that is, if she 
does not cast blue at her surf ice, and that she 
works or ferments still, which may be known by 
raking and plunging with the fiat of the rake in 
the vat; being well raked, she is to remain still 
for one hour and a half more, carefully observing 
whether she casts blue- She is then to be serv- 
ed with water., ^nd the quantity ofindijojudg- 


ed necessary is to be put in ; it is commonly 
used in a liquid state, the full of a dye-house 
ketde for each bale of woad ; the vat being fill- 
ed within six finger-breadths of her brim, is to 
be raked and covered as before ; an hour after 
filling her with water, she must be served with 
lime, viz. two measures of lime for each bale of 
woad, giving more or less according to the 
quality of the woad, and what may be judged it 
will spend or take of lime. 

I hope the reader will excuse my plainness ; 
this treatise being wrote for the dyer, I must 
speak the language he is used to ; the philoso- 
pher will easily substitute proper terms, which 
perhaps the workman would not understand. 
There are kinds of woad readier prepared than 
others, so that general and precise rules cannot 
be given on this head. It must also be remark- 
ed, that the lime is not to be put into the vat till 
she has been well raked. 

The vat being again covered, three hours af- 
ter a pattern must be put in, and kept entirely 
covered for an hour ; it is then taken out to 
judge if she be fit to work. If she is, the pattern 
must come out green, and on being exposed a 
minute to the air, acquire a blue colour. If the 
vat gives a good green to the pattern, she must 
be raked, served with one or two measures of 
lime, and covered. 

Three hours after, she must be raked, and 
served with what lime may be judged neces- 
sary ; she is then to be covered, and one hour 
^nd a half after, the vat being pitched or settled, 
^ pattern is put in, which must remain an hour to 
£ee the eftects of the woad. If the pattern is of a 
fine green, and that it turns to a deep blue in the 
air, another must be dipt in to be certain of the 
effect of the vat. If this pattern is deep enough 
in colour, let the vat be filled up with hot wa- 

dyer's gompanion. 163 

ter, or if at hand, Avith old liquor of madder, and 
rake her well. Should the vat still want lime, 
serve her vvith such a quantity as you may 
judge sufficient by the smell and handling. 
This done, she must be again covered, and one 
hour after put in your stuffs, and make your 
overture. This is the term used for the first 
working of wool or stuffs in a new vat. 

Receifit 126M. To set afield Woad Vat. 

I HAVE but little to say on this woad vat, 
different from that which has been related of the 
pastel or garden woad. The woad is a plant culti- 
vated in Normandy, and prepared after the same 
manner the garden woad is in Languedoc.^ The 
method of cultivating it may be seen in the 
French *' General Instructions on Dyes," of 
the 28th of March, 1671, from the article 259 
to 288, where it treats of the culture and prepa- 
ration of the pastel and woad. The woad vat 
is set at work after the same manner as that of 
pastel; all the difference is that it has less strength 
and yields less dye. There follows a descrip- 
tion of the woad vat, which I carriedon in small, 
and in a bath heat, similar to that of the pastel 
in the foregoing chapter. 

I placed in a copper a small vessel containing 
fifty quarts, and filled two-thirds with a liquor 
made of river water, one ounce of madder, and 
a little weld, putting in at the same time a good 
handful of wheat bran and five pounds of woad. 
The vat was well raked and covered ; it was 
then five in the evening ; it was again raked at 
seven, nine, twelve? two, and four o'clock ; the 
woad was then working, that is, the vat was 
slowly coming to work, as I have already related 
of that of the pastel. 

Pretty large air bubbles formed themselves, 


but in a small quantity, and had scai'ccly any eo- 
lour. 8he wnb tiien served \vith two ounces of 
lime and raked. At five o'clock a p-ittern was 
put in ; which was taken out at six, raking her ;. 
this pattern began to have some colour ; ano- 
Iher was put in at seven, at eight she was raked, 
and the pattern came out pretty bright ; an 
ounce of indigo was then put in ; at nine another 
pattern, at ten she w^as raked, and one ounce of 
lime was added, because she began to have a 
sweetish smell ; at eleven a pattern, at twelve 
she was raked ; it was thus continued till fiVe» 
then three ounces of indigo were put in, at six 
a pattern, at seven slie vvas raked. It would then 
have been proper to have served her with water, 
as she was at that time perfectly come to work, 
the pattern that was take*: nut being very green^ 
and turning of a bright blue. But besides 
that I was fatigued, hLiving sat up the whole 
night, I chose rather to put her back to the next 
day, to see her eflPcct by day -light ; and for that 
purpose, I put one ounce of lime, which kept her 
up till nine in the morning : from time to time 
patterns were put in, the last that vvas taken out 
was very beautiful ; she Wcfs served with a li- 
quor composed of water, and a small handful of 
bran. She was raked and patterns put in from 
hour to hour ; at five she was come to work ; 
she was afterwards served wdth lime, and raked 
to preserve her till she was to l>e re-heated. 

Some time after I set another with the woad 
alone without indigo, that I migl^t be able to 
]udge of the lasting: of the dye of the woad, 
which upon trial, I found to be as good as the 
pastel or garden woad. Thus all the superif^ri- 
ty the pastel has on the woad, is, that the latter 
yieWs less dve than the former. ^ 

The little varieties that may be observed m 
setting these difierent vats at work, prove, that 
there are many circumstances in these processes 

dyer's companion. 165 

that are not absolutely necessary. It appears 
to me, that the only important point, and that to 
which the greatest attention is to be given, is, in 
the conducting the fermentation with care, and 
not to serve her with lime, but when judged ne- 
cessary by the indications I have laid down. As 
to the indigo being put in at twice, or altogether, 
a little sooner orlater, it appears very indifferent. 
The same may be said of the weld, which I 
made use of twice, and suppressed the two other 
times, and of pearlash, which I added in a small 
quantity in the small pastel vat, and suppressed 
in the woad vat. In short, I believe, and it ap- 
pears to me to a demonstration, that the greatest 
regard is to be had to the proper distribution of 
the lime, throughout the whole course of the 
working of the vats, either to set them at work, 
or to re-heat them. I must also add, that when a 
woad vat is set to work, she cannot be too often 
inspected into to know her state ; for if there 
are some that are backward (which is attributed 
to the weakness of the woad) there are also 
others that very quickly come to work. I have 
seen a middling one of seventy pounds of woad, 
poisoned ; because the woad man neglected to 
inspect her as often as she required, and she had 
been two hours fit to work before he discover- 
ed it ; the grounds were entirely come up to the 
surface of the liquor, and the whole had a very 
sour smell ; it was not possible to bring her 
back, and they were obliged to fling her away, 
as she would in a short time have contracted a 
foetid smell. The retarding of the action of the 
vat may also proceed from the temperature of. 
the air ; for the vat cools a great deal sooner in 
winter than in summer : therefore it becomes 
necessary to watch it attentively, though com- 
monly they are fourteen or fifteen hours befora 
they come to work. 



To the dyer. — Blue and brown requ ire no pre- 
paration, itib sufficient that the wool be well scour- 
ed, which will be noticed in its pnoper place ; 
the wool is to be net as already descriljed for 
blue, it suffices to dip it in the vat, stirring it 
well, and letting it remain in the vat more or 
less time, according to the state of the dye and 
the ground of the colour wanted; many colours 
req.iire a blue shade to be given to the wool. 
It is an easy matter to dye wool blue, when the 
vat is once prepared, but it is not so easy first 
to prepare the vat, which is the most difficult 
part of the dyer's art; fortius reason I have given 
the most ex jct and extensive rules in my pow- 
er, in this and the preceding work. 

I have endeavoured to make my explanations 
general on the properties and effi^cts of dye 
stuffs, and laid down the different processes of 
settiPig and managing the blue vat, both of woad 
and indigo, for woollen. The receipts for cot- 
ton and linen dye, will be noticed under their 
proper head, kc. It is the earnest wish of the 
author, if any attempt to set a blue vat, from this 
book, th^t they attend strictly to the rules and 
directions here laid down, and not let it be a 
momentary study but search to the bottom and 
find out the the principle actors in the dye, and 
rule the dye, and not let it rule you ; upon this 
principle you may do yourself and country jus- 
tice. I shall leave the subject of the blue on 
woollen goods, after giving the process of 
manufacturing woad and indigo. 

The manufacturing of Pastel or Garden IVoad, c^ 
practiaed in France. 

Peasants of Abbigevois distinguish two kinds 
0f woad seed : the one violet colour, the other 
yellow* they prefer the former, because the 


vvoad that shoots from it bears leaves that are 
smooth and polished, whereas tliose that spring 
from the yellow are hairj^ ; this fills them w^ith 
earth and dust, which makes the woad prepar- 
ed from them of a worse quality. This woad 
is called pastelbourg, or bourdazgne. 

The woad at first shoots five or six leaves 
out of the ground, which stand upright whilst 
green; they are a foot long, and six inches 
broad ; they begin to ripen in June ; they are 
known to be ripe by their falling down and 
growing yellow ; they are then gathered, and 
the ground cleared from weeds, which is care- 
fully repeated each crop. 

If there has been rain, a second crop is ob- 
tained in July ; rain or dry weather advances 
or retards it eight days. The third crop is at 
the latter end of August ; a fourth the latter 
end of September ; and the fifth and last about 
the tenth of November. This last crop is the 
most considerable, the interval being longer. 
The plant at this, crop is cut at the root from 
whence the leaves spring. This woad is not 
good, and the last crop is forbid by the regu- 
lations. The woad is not to be gathered in fog- 
gy or rainy weather, but in serene w^eather, 
when the sun has been out some time. 

At each crop the leaves are brought to the 
mill to be ground, and reduced to a fine paste ; 
this is to be done speedily, for the leaves when 
left in a heat ferment, and soon rot with an in- 
tolerable stench. These mills are like the oil 
or bark-mills, that^ is, a mill stone turns round 
a perpendicular pivot in a circular grove or 
trough, pretty deep, in which the woad is 

The leaves thus mashed and reduced to a 
pastCj are kept up. in the galleries of the mill, or 
m the open air. After pressing the paste well 


with the hands and feet, it is beat down anfl 
made smooth with a shovel. This is called the 
woad piled. 

An outward crust forms, which becomes 
blackish ; when it cracks, great care must be 
taken to close it again. Little worms will gen- 
erate in these crevices and spoil it. The pile is 
opened in a fortnight, well worked between 
the hands, and the crust well mixed with the 
inside ; sometimes this crust requires to be beat 
with a mallet to knead it wdth the rest. 

This paste is then made into small loaves or 
round balls, which according to the regulations, 
must weigh a pound and a quarter. These 
balls are well pressed in the making, and are 
then given to another, who kneads them again 
in a wooden dish, lengthens them at both ends^ 
making them oval and smooth. Lastly, they are 
given to a third, who finishes them in a lesser 
bowl dish, by pressing and perfectly uniting 

The pastel or woad thus prepared is called 
Pastel en Cocaigne ;. whence arises the proverb^ 
Pais de Cocaigne ; which signfies a rich coun- 
try, because this country^ where the woad 
grows, enriched itself formerly by the commerce 
of this drug. 

These balls f are spread on hurdles, and ex- 
posed to the sun in fine weather ; in JDad wea- 
ther they are put at the top of the mill. The 
woad that has been exposed some hours to the 
sun, becomes black on the outside, whereas 
that which has been kept within doors is gen- 

* IJ Abigeois \St Lauragoia 

f There is a place in India, the name I do not recollect, 
where the anil is prepared after the manner of the woadi 
and the Indigo comes from it in lumps, containing all the 
useless parts of this plant. It is very difficult to prepare ^ 
Wue vat Y^ith it. 

dyer's companion. 169 

eraily yellowish, particularly if the weather has 
been rainy. The merchants prefer the former ; 
this makes little diftcreiice as to its use ; it is in 
general alv^/ays yellowish, as the peasants most- 
ly work it in rainy weather when they cannot 
attend their rural employments. 

In summer, these balls are commonly dry in 
fifteen or twenty days, whereas in autumn those 
of the last crop are long in drying. 

The good balls when broke are of a violet co- 
lour within, and have an agreeable smell ; 
whereas those that are of an earthy colour and 
a bad smell are not good ; this proceeds from 
the gathering of the woad during the rain, when 
the leaves were filled with earth. Their good- 
ness is also known by their weight, being light 
when they have taken too much air, or roUoti 
by not having been sufficiently pressed* 

Po*:vder of Woad, 

Of these balls well prepared, the powder of 
vvoad is to be made ; for this purpose a hun- 
dred thousand at least are required. A distant 
barn or a warehouse must be procured, larger 
or smaller according to the quantity intended to 
be made. It must be paved with bricks and 
lined with the same, to the height of four or five 
feet ; the walls would be better to be of stone 
to that height, yet often the walls are only coat- 
ed with earth ; this coat breaking oft'and mix* 
ing with the v/oad is a crest prejudice to it. In 
this place the balls are deduced to a^ gross pow- 
der with large wooden mallets. This powder 
is heaped up to the height of four feet reserv- 
ing a space to go round, and is moistened with 
water ; that which is slimy^ is best provided 

* I can see no reason why slimy water, and yet to be clear, 
is preferred* It appears to me tliat clear river water would 


it be clear ; the woad thus moistened, ferment^j 
heats, and emits a very thick stinking vapour. 

It is stirred every day for twelve days, fling- 
ing it by shovels full from one side to the other, 
and moistening it every day during that time ; 
after which no -nore water is fiung on, but only 
stirred every second day; then every third,ifourth, 
and fifth ; it is then heaped up in the middle of 
the place, and looked at from time to time to air 
it in case it should heat. This is the pastel or 
garden woad powder fit for sale to the dyers. 

Mr. As'iruc, to prove that the sale of woad 
formerly enriched the higher Languedoc, 
quotes the following passage from a book enti- ^ 
tied Le, Marchand. 

" Formerly they transported from Toulouze 
to Bordeaux, by the river Garonne, each year 
a hundred thousand bales of woad which on 
the spot are worth at least fifteen livers a bale, 
which amounts to 1,500,000 livers : from 
whence proceeded the abundance of money and 
riches of that country." Castel in his Me^ 
vioirs de^ /' Histoire du Languedoc^ in 1633, p. 

The comparing of these two methods of pre- 
paring the woad and indigo may be sufficient to 
a person of understanding, who might be ap- 
pointed to try, by experiments, the possibility 
of extracting a fecula from the isatis of Langue- 
doc like that of the anil. It is neither the dyer 
or manufacturer that ought be applied to for 
that purpose ; both woiild condemn the project 
as a novelty, and it would require many experi- 
ments, which in general they are not accustom- 
ed to. 

be more secure ; with this they would avoid the inconve- 
niences that must attend a standing water, always filled 
with filth; or of a muddy water, which contains useless 
e^tU and which must make thg dye uneven. 



I could wish this experiment was tried in 
great, so that at least fifty pound of this fecula 
might be got, that several vats might be set in 
case the first should fail. Whoever does try 
it, should be very careful to describe all the 
circumstances of the process. Perhaps it might 
not succeed at the first crop of the leaves of the 
woad, because the heat in June is not sufficient, 
but probably he might meet with success in 

If this succeeds, there are without doubt se, 
veral other plants of the same quality as the isa- 
tis, and which yields a like fecula. 

It is also probable that the dark green of seve- 
ral plants is composed of yellow and blue parts ; 
if by fermentation the yellow could be destroy, 
edthe blue viould remain. This is not a chi- 
merical idea, and it is easy to prove that some 
use might be derivedfrom such an experiment. 

Of making Indigo in America. 

INDIGO is the fecula of a plant named niU 
or anil ; to make it, three vats are placed the one 
over the other, in form of a cascade ; in the 
first, called the steeper, the plant is put in with 
its leaves, bark and flowers*, and filled with wa- 
ter; some time after, the whole ferments, 
the water grows intensely hot, thickens, and be- 
comes of a blue colour bordering on the violet ; 
the plant, according to the opinion of some, de- 
posing all its salts, and according to others, all 
its substance. In this state, the cocks of the 
steeper are turned, and all the w^ater let out 
stained with the colouring parts of the plant into 
the second, called the beater ; because this wa- 

* In the village of Sargussa, near the town of Amadabat, 
the Indians only use the leaves of the anil ; they fling away 
the rest of the plant. The best indigo comes from thence. 


ter is beat by a mill or a machine that has long 
sticks, to condense the substance of the indigo, 
and precipitate it to the bottom. By this means 
the water becomes clear and colourless, like 
common water ; then the cocks are turned, that 
the water may run off from the surface of the 
blue sediment; after w^iich, other cocks are 
turned that are at the bottom that all the fecula 
may fall into the third vat, called the reposer, 
for it is there the indigo remains to dry ; it is then 
taken out to be made into cakes, £<.c. See, on 
this subject, Histoire des Antilles^ pare le Pere 

At Pondicherry, on the coast of Coromandel, 
there are two kinds of indigo, the one a great 
deal finer than the other ; the best is seldom 
used but to lustre their silks, the inferior in dy- 
ing. They augment in price accordmg to their 
quality ; there is some which cost from 15 
pagodas the bar (which weighs 48 pounds) to 
200 pagodas. The most beautiful is prepared 
nigh Agra. There is also a very good kind that 
comes from Masikipatan and Ayanon, where 
the East-India Company have a factory. At 
Chandernagor it is called nil when it is prepared 
and cut to pieces. The indigo of Java is the 
best of all; it is also the dearest, and consequent- 
ly few dyers use it. Good indigo ought to be so 
light as to float on the water ; the more it sinks, 
the more it may be suspected of being adulterat- 
ed by a mixture of earth, cinders, or pounded 
slates It must be of a deep blue, bordering on 
the violet, brillant, lively, and shining ; it 
must be finer within, and appear of a shining hue. 
Its goodness is tried by dissolving it in a glass 
of water ; if it be unmixed and v/e!l prepared, it 
will dissolve entirely ; if sophisticated, the 
foreign matter will sink to the bottom. Another 
method of trying it is by burning ; good indigo 

dyer's companion. 17S 

bwns entirely away, and when adulterated, 
the mixture remains after the indigo is consum^. 

Powdered mdigo is much more subject to 
adulteration than that which is in cakes ; for it 
is a difficult matter that sand, powdered slates, 
&c. should unite so as not to form together in 
different places layers of different matters ; and, 
in this case, by breaking the lump indigo, it is 
easily discovered. 

You will see by the manufacturing of the wo- 
ad and indigo, that a portion of the animal crea- 
tion (reptiles, and insects), live and die in it ; 
this creates an acidous, alkaline, urinous and 
volatile substance, and is the reason why the 
vat requires to be covered close, to prevent the 
evaporation of tlie colouring substances. 


Pecei/it 127 th. On Ydlow Dying, 

YELLOW is one of the five material or pri- 
tnitivt: colours, and the subjects are ma ly, of 
which I shall give a catalogue. Yellow is gov- 
erned by the power of the acid. I shall not in 
this, point out any particular process f r dying 
of cloth, as that has been described in my form- 
er work ; see the receipts for yello'^v, in them it 
was for cloth only, (the wool differs from cloth,) 
to use the same proportion of preparation and 
dye stuff, for twelve pounds of wool you would 
for sixteen pounds of cloth. This is to be a gen- 
eral rule in all dying ; the process for th6 
management of wool when dying, has beea de- 
Scribed 5 it is to be put in a net, and stirred with 



poles, to keep the wool open, that it may re- 
ceive the colour even, &c. 

Of the five primary colours mentioned in the 
introduction, two of them req-iire a pre- 
p ration given by non-c<jlouring ingredients, 
which by the acidity and fineness of their earth, 
dispose the pores of the wool to receive the co- 
lours : the yellow, the red, and the colours de- 
rived from them, must be so treated ; black 
must have a preparation peculiar to itself. 

Of drugs and woods for yellow — They are 
the weld or wold, savory, green-wood, the yel- 
low- wood and the finugrick ; these are those tol- 
erated by the regulations in the good dye ; weld 
gives the brightest dye, green-wood and savory 
are the best for the wool to be made green, as 
they incline and border on the green, the three 
others give good yellows. The yellow^s are 
classed in three, the straw, the pale, and the le- 
mon yellows. 

To the five drugs already mentioned for yel- 
low, may be added a number of the good dye ; 
the bark and root of barbary shrub, the bark of 
the ash-tree, the dock root, the leaves of the 
almond, peach and pear-trees, assmart, and 
saffron flowers, may all be considered in the 
good dye» Those belonging to the false dye, are 
turmerick, which gives a beautiful yellow but 
soon changes ; fustic gives a good colour,but soon 
turns brown, and is excellent in brown ; roucou 
or racourt, the grains of Avignon, and onion 
leaves are mjjch the same, to which maj^be add- 
ed many others ; in short all leaves, barks, and 
roots, which by chewing shew some little astric- 
tion, gives yellows of the good dye, more or 
less fine according to the time they are boiled, 
and in proportion to the tartar and allum used 
in the liquor. There is no colour that produces 
so groat a vai'iety of colouring substances as 

dyer's companiok-. 175 

the yellow ; there is such a difference in tlie 
qualities of these subjects, there can be no rcgu- 
lar system adopted, but must be applied as the 
colour requires. The dyer must use his judg- 
ment for the rule to direct his proportion for 
the dying subjects. 

For dying yellow. — The common preparing 
v/ater with tartar andallum, are used for wool 
orstulTs ; to each pound of wool take one ounce 
of tartar and four ounces of allum, or to every 
hundred w^eight of wool, twenty-five pounds of 
allum and six pounds of tartar ; put this into 
your copper caldron, fill with fair water, heat 
•boiling hot, then immerse the wool, stir with 
poles to keep the wool open, that it may all re- 
ceive the preparation alike ; boil six hours, take 
it up, let cool, place it in a sack, covered close, 
to lay twenty-four hours that the pores of the 
wool may inhale the salts, and be the better 
prepared ; then rince well and shift the liquor 
from your copper, clean well, fill with clean fair 
water; if the waters are hard, or impregnated 
with minerals, to every hundi'ed gallons of wa- 
ter, take four quarts of wheat bran, enclose it 
in a clean Irnen bag, let it boil one hour, or you 
may add three or four pails full of sour water ; 
map off the scum that rises !)y the heat. The 
hard and rough waters which are natural to 
some wells and places, by this process may be 
rendered soft and fit for any colour ; the cleans, 
ing of the waters requires strict attention in all 
light and bright colours, as the yellow, the red, 
&c. ; when the water is thus prepared, add of 
your colouring substances be they v/eld, yellow 
wood, roots, leaves or plants, they all require 
boiling ; add, boil and run, or stir, till you ob- 
tain the colour required. 

Light shades of yellow are obtained in the 
same manner as all others spoken of, ouly the 


preparing liquor for these light yellows must be 
weaker. I recommend twelve pounds and a 
halfof allum for each hundred pounds of wool, 
and the tartar in proportion ; but these light 
shades do not resist the proofs as deeper shades 
dc\ made with the full proportion of tartar. 

Some dyers endeavouring to help this, leave 
the wool and stuffs for a longer time in the dye, 
because they take it slower in proportion to the 
weakness of the liquor: but if they put at the 
same time in the colouring liquor, wools whose 
preparation shall have been different, they shall 
take at the same time different shades. These 
liquors more or less strong are called half-prepar- 
ing liquors, or quarter-preparing liquors, and 
they make great use of them in light shades of 
wool dyed in the fleece, that is, before being 
spun, and which are intended for the manufac- 
turing of cloths and other mixed stuffs ; be- 
cause the more allum there is in the liquor of the 
wool, the more it is harsh and difficult to spin, 
and it must spin thicker, and conisequently the 
Stuff is coarser. This observation is not of great 
consequence for spun wool which is intended for 
tapestry or for stuffs. I only mention it to 
shev/ that the quantity of ingredients may be 
sometimes varied without danger. 

To avoid the harsh and brittleness of the 
wool, from the preparation that it receives from 
the earthlj^ parts of these salts; step out of the 
old path, diminish the preparation as the shade 
i'cqiiires, for every hundred weight of wool, use 
eight pounds of allum and three pounds of tar- 
tar ; all yellows must undergo a preparation, 
and all colours connected with them. These 
rules for the preparation must be general for the 
yellow dye. To add when your dye is set and 
boiled ready to receive your wool or goods, 
take half a gill of the composition prepared for 


scarlet as will be described hereafter, to every 
hundred gallons of liquor; this may be added 
or diminished to the shade required ; it has a 
tendency to soften and enliven the body of the 
wool and make it pliable ; it is bettc^r than to 
load the bodies of the wool with these earthly 
and astringent salts, that leaves the wool harsh 
and britde. There can be no objection to any 
astringent in any dye if properly applied ; it is 
an affinity on the wool to coat and make a body 
for the reception of the colouring substances ; 
the only objections, are the earth these prepara- 
tory salts contain. 

I have given you the form of the preparation 
for the yellow, and its effects, I shall close with 
some observations on the colouring substances 
for yellow, as to the use and their connections 
with other colours, Sec. 


WELDis a plant that nriaybe cultivated among 
us, and is used grossly, cither green or dry; but 
when in the blossom and not exposed to damage 
by the wet, and kept dry, it yields but little co- 
lour and is numbered the first in this dye ; to 
withstand all trials, it requires six pounds when 
dry, to every pound of wool or stuff, and boil 

The yellow wood is used in chips, or in coarse 
shavings ; by this means it is more divided, and 
yields its dye the better, and a less quantity will 
do ; which way soever it is used, it is put into a 
bag, that it may not mix with the wool or stuffs. 
The same precaution is necessary for the savory 
and greenwood, when they are mixed with the 
weld to change its shade. 

^ Greenwood commonly comes ground ; it 
gives a greenish yellow and is good in greens, 


olives and drabs ; however, for browns sumac 
Vv^ill produce the same effect, and when one can- 
not be obtained the other will answer. 

The other ingredients are hitherto known which 
dye yellow, and I shall only observe here in regard 
to the good dye, that the root of the dock, the 
bark of the ash-tree, particularly that which is 
raised after the first sap, the leaves of almond, 
peach and pear-tree, the root and bark of tlie 
barbary shrub, saffron flowers, the herb peters- 
wort, and in particular theassmart, which gives 
a beautiful yellow if fermented before used in 
d:>ing; its colour will be permanent. The 
woad in Europe, is prepared by a chymical pro- 
cess, and produces a large revenue ; undoubt- 
edly the assmart, which in the northern states is 
troublesome to farmers, might be a profit to 
them and our country, were it suitably prepar- 
ed for a dye stufx'; its extract is highly charged 
with acid and vegetable salts. 

If our government should deem it worth their 
attention, to employ some able chymist to ex- 
plore the qualities of our fossils, woods, barks, 
shrubs, plants, roots, weeds and minerals, per- 
haps the advantages our rising nation might de- 
rive, would soon indemnify us for the extr^ 

In short, all leaves, barks and roots, which by 
che .ving shew some little astriction, give yellows 
of the good dye more or less fine, according to 
the time they are boiled, and in proportion to the 
tartar and allum used in the liquor: a proper 
quantity of allum brings these yellows to^ the 
beautiful yellow of the weld. If the tartar is in 
greater quantity, these yellows will border on the 
orange ; and lastly, if these ingredients are too 
much boiled, let them be n ots, barks, or leaves, 
the yellow obscures itself, and takes brown 


Although some dyers use turmeric in the good 
dye, which gives an orange yellow, this practice 
is to be condemned, for it is a colour that soon 
passes in the air, unless it be secitrcd by sea- 
salt, which some dyers do, who take care to 
keep this imposition to themselves. Those who 
make use of it in common scarlets, to spare 
cochineal, and to give to their stuff a red border- 
ing on the orange, are blameable, for the scarlets 
that have been dyed after this manner lose in a 
short time that bright orange ; as 1 have already 
said, they brown considerably in the air. Yet 
these falsifications are obliged to be in some 
measure tolerated ; for at this time that bright 
orange being in fashion, it would be impossible 
to give it to scarletjwithout putting a larger dose of 
composition, whose acids would greatly hurt the 
cloth The fustic wood is now preferred in 


THE turmeric is a root that is brought from 
the East Indies, w hich dyes a yellow ; with- 
out it neither a good yellow, green or straw co» 
lour can be imprest on silks. Turmeric is a 
small root ; if it be good, when broken it will 
be a dark yellow, have a strong flavour and be 
very bitter to the taste. 

That vyhich comes from P-tna is most valued. 
The Indian dyers call it haltli ; it is also called 
concome in the regulations of M. Colbert. It is 
reduced to a very fine pov\ der, and used pretty 
near the same way as the grain of Avignon, but ia 
much less quantity, on account of its yielding a 
great deal of dye. It is somewhat better than 
the other yellow ingredients that will be spoken 
of in the sequel, but, as it is dear, it is a suf- 
ficient reason for seldom or never using it in the 
lesser dye. 


It is sometimes used in the great dye to gild 
the yellows made with weld, and to brighten cind 
orange the scarlets; but this practice is to be 
condemned ; for the air carries off all the colour 
of the turmeric in a short time, so that the gild- 
ed ydlows return to their first state, and the scar- 
lets brown considerably ; when this happens to 
these sort of colours, it may be looked on as 
certain that they have been falsified with this in- 
gredient, which is not lasting. 


FUSTIC is much used in this country. The 
colour it naturally produces, is an orange yel- 
low, and turns brown when long exposed to the 
air. it is employed in colouring saxon greens 
and olives; in short, it may be used in all colours 
where the ground requires a yellow ; it is a 
clean w^ood, an astringent, and leaves the goods 
soft and pli ^ble. There is not one among the 
ranksof the \ellow materials that is so useful 
as the fustic for browns ; as it changes it be- 
comes darker and inclining to red, is useful in 
smokes, snuffs and cinnaipon colours ; it is good 
in black, and excellent in drabs. It is a close 
and h :rd wood, hard to split and full of splinters ; 
the root and that part of the wood that is most 
knotty is the best, when split it should appear of a 
bright yellow ; if it is rotten or otherwise injured 
it will not answer. Some condemn this wood 
becaur.e it is not good for the yellow, and will 
not tolerate it in the good d\ e ; here are the rea- 
sons given by Mr. HcJigh, dyer of Leeds : 

" If a stuff dyed with fustic is dipped in the 
woad vat, a disagreeable olive ensues, which 
does not resist the air, but >^oon loses its colour." 
And that '' fusric was made use of in Languedoc 
for making of lobbter colours for foreign markets, 

dyer's companion. l&l 

as it greatly saves cochineal. For this purpose 
they mix weld, fustic, and cochineal, with a lit- 
tle cream of tartar, in the same liquor, and the 
stuff boiled in this liquor comes out of a lob- 
ster colour, and accordingly, to the quantity of 
these diff rent ingredients, it becomes more or 
less red, tending to the orange. Although the 
method of mixing together ingredients of the 
good with those of the lesser dye ought to be con- 
demned, yet in this case, and for this colour only, 
which is in considerable demand in the Mediter- 
ranean, it appears that the fustic may be tolerat- 
ed ; for having attempted to make the same co- 
lour, with only the ingredients of the good dye, 
I did not get a more lasting colour. 

" The change which the air produces in the 
lobster tolour made with fustic is very sensible, 
but it is not so disagreeable as the changes in- 
cident to several other colours ; for all the shade 
goes off and weakens at once, so that it is ra- 
ther diminution than a change of colour ; where- 
as the lobster colour made with the yellow W'ood 
becomes of a cherry colour " 

It appears Mr. Haigh's remarks are groundless 
and without foundation, he condemns it for no 
other reason than because it does not answer allhis 
purposes, yet gives itthepreferancein the scarlet 
to the turmeric, and cannot well make the flame 
coloured scarlet w ithout one or both of these 
substitutes, as those of the good dye give so lit- 
tle colour, that it will consume the red of the 
cochineal, &c. 

Yellow o'lk bark produces a strong colour, 
green or dry, but it is better to have it roped and 
ground as for tanning ; it is ulso good in browns 
and blacks. Walnut or hickory bark may 
be used for the same colours ; it makes a bright- 
er yellow than the oak, both are durable. In the 
use of some of these yellow subjects^ may be 


added a little bine vitriol to the dye, it will make- 
it very brillicint and fine ; oil of vitriol may also 
be added, but it will not answer to make it 
general, only in cases of necessity, &c. 


THE roiicou or racourt is a kind of dry paste 
brought from America ; this ingredient gives 
an orange colour pretty near the same as the fus- 
tic, and the dye is not more lasting. However 
it is not by the proof all um that the quahty of 
the roucou is to bejudged, for this does not in 
the least alter its colour ; on the contrary, it be- 
comes finer and brighter, but the air carries it 
off, and effaces it in a short time ; soap has the 
same effect, and it is by this it must be tried ac- 
cording to the instructions^ on these kind of 
proofs. The place of this ingredient is easily 
supplied in the good dye by weld and madder 
mixed together, but roucou is made use of in the 
lesser dye after the following manner. 

Pearlash is dissolved in a copper with a suf- 
ficient quantity of water ; it is well boiled for 
one hour, that the ashes may be totally dissolv- 
ed ; then as many pounds of roucou as there 
are of ashes, are added ; the liquor is well naked 
and suffered to boil for a quarter of an hour ; 
the wool or stuffs that are to be dyed are then 
dipped without any preparation, except dipping 
them in luke-warm water, that the colour may 
si^read itself equally. 

They arc left in this liquor, working them 
continually until they are come to the desired 
shade, after which they are washed and dried. 

The roucou is often mixed vvith other^ ingre- 
dients of the lesser dye, but I cannot give any 
instructions on these mixtures, as they depend 
on the shades you wish to make, and are in 
themselves attended with no difficulty. 



I have boiled the stuff in allum and tnrtar be. 
fore I dyed it with roucou, but though the colcur 
was more lasting it was not sufficiently so to be 
deeined of the good dye. On the whole, the 
roucou is u very bad ingredieiit fr dying of 
w^ool, and isnotniade much use of, for it is dt c>r, 
and other ii.gredients, that are cheaper and hold 
better, art- ust d in its stead. 

Wool dyed with roucou, and afterwards dipt 
in the indigo or woad vat, take a reddish olive, 
w hich in a very short time becomes almojrt blue 
in the air, the colour given by the roucou dis- 

Of the Grains of Avignon, 

THE grains of Avignon are but little used 
in dyiiig, they give a pretty good yellow, but 
not lasting, no more than the green, produced 
by dipping in the same liquet, a stuft'that has a 
ground of blue. To work it, the stuff must be 
boiled in allum and tartar as for weld. Then a 
fresh liquor is made with grains, and the 
stufl'is dipt, and must lie in it longer or shorter, 
according to the shade that is wanted. There 
is no difSculty in w orking of it, so 1 need only 
observe that it ought never to be used but when 
all other ingredients for dying yellow are \\ ant- 
ing ; this must seldom happen, as they are nei- 
ther scarce nor dear. 

The yellows are easily obtained, more so than 
any other colour, but two simple processes are 
required ; first, the preparation, then the dye 
and the colour required. 

This is all that remains for me to say on the 
ingredients for yellow for the great or the less« 
er dye ; the dye of the lesser dye is to be used 
for common and low-priced stuffs, ii is not 
that I think it impossible to extract lasting co- 


lours from them, but then those colours will not 
strictly be the same which these ingredients 
yield naturally, or by the ordinary methods, as 
that gum and astriction which is wanting in 
them must be added, and then they are no more 
of the same quality ; consequently the rays of 
light will be differently reflected, and the colour 
will be different- 



HED is one of the material or primitive co- 
lours, as has been before observed, and is de- 
pendent on the power of the acid always ; the 
alkali is sometimes admitted when the goods 
have received too much acid, and to change the 
red to a crimson. Crimson is considered by 
some as one of the reds, but I consider it as 
compounded, as you may see in the preceding 
work ; however it is so much connected with 
the reds, I shall class it with them ; violets, pur- 
ples and all browns that the ground is red, arc 
connected with the red, as will be shown in the 
sequel. Neutral s\ibstances are frequently in- 
troduced in the red dye, as verdigrease, blue vi- 
triol, &c. these tend to sadden the goods, as the 
alkali, when they have received too much acid, 
and are bordering on the orange or yellow, and 
the red wants raising in the great dye : there 
Jire four principal reds, which are the basis of 
the rest, these are : 

1. Scarlet of gr-iin. 2. The scarlet, now in 
use, or flame coloured scarlet, formerly called 
Dutch scarlet. 3. The crimson red. And, 

4. The ijiadder red. 


There are also the bastard scarlet and the bas- 
tard crimson ; but as these are only mixtures 
of the principal reds, they ought not to be con- 
sidered as particular colours. 

The red, or nacaret of bourre^^ was formerly 
permitted in the great dye. 

Ail these different reds have their particular 
shades from the deepest to the lightest, but they 
form separate classes, as the shades of the one 
never fall into those of the other. 

The reds are worked in a different manner 
from the blues, the wool or stuffs not being im- 
mediately dipped in the dye, but previously 
receiving a preparation which gives them no co- 
lour, but prepares them to receive that of the 
colouring ingredient. 

This is called the water of preparation ; it is 
commonly made with acids,suchas sour waters, 
allum and tartar, aquafortis, aqua regalis, &c. 
These preparing ingredients are used in dif- 
ferent quantities, according to the colour and 
shade required. ^ Galls are also often used, and 
sometimes alkaline salts. This I shall explain 
in the course of this treatise, when I come to 
the method of working each of these colours. 

It has been the opinion of some dyers, that the 
•waters of America would not answer for a scar- 
let, and also that a vessel of silver or pure block 
tin was necessary to contain the scarlet dye; ex- 
perience has taught us that these opinions are 
groundless, the waters of this country are as 
pure and soft as those of Europe ; a brass or 
copper caldron, if well cleansed will leave the 
colour as bright as any vessel whatever : br:\ss 
is preferred, as it is easier kept clean, as may be 
seen in the prer.eding work of the diffc^rent ex- 
periments in Europe. As scarlets are generally 

*This colour is given with weld and goat's hair boiled In 
tiotash, and is a bright orange red.- 



dyed in the cloth, it is necessary they should be 
fulled and finished fit for the press, as soap will 
critnson it, and the hand, &c. would tarnish it in 

Of Flame-Coloured Scarlet, 

FLAME-coloured scarlet, that is, briglit-co- 
loured scarlet, known formerly under the name 
of Dutch scarlet, (the discovery of which Kun- 
kei attributes to Kustcr, a German chymist) is 
the finest and brightest colour of the dye. It 
is also the most costly, and one of the hardest 
to biing to perfection. It is not easy to deter- 
mine the point of perfection, for independent of 
diiFerent tastes concerning the choice of co- 
lours, there are also general fancies^ which make 
certain colours more in fashion at onetime than 
another ; when this happens, fashionable co- 
lours become perfect ones. Formerly scarlets 
were chosen full, deep, and of a degree of 
brightness which the sight easily bore. At this 
time they must be on the orange, full of fire, 
and of a brightness which dazzles the eye. I 
shall not decide which of these two fashions de- 
serve the preference, but shall give the method 
of making them both, and all the shades w^hich 
hold a medium between these extremes. 

Cochineal, which yields this beautiful colour, 
and is al30 called mestick, or tescalle, is an in- 
sect that is gathered in great quantities in Mexi- 
co. The natives and Spaniards, who have but 
small establishments there, cultivate them, that 
is, carefully gather them from the plant on 
which they feed before the rainy season. They 
kill and dry those designed for sale and pre- 
serve the rest to multiply when the bad season 
is over. The insect feeds and breeds upon a 
kind of prickly optmtia, which they call topal. 

dyer's companion. 187 

It may be preserved in a dry place for ages 
without spoiling. 

The cochineal sylvestre, or campessiane, is 
also brought from Vera-Cruz. The Indians of 
Old and New Mexico gather this kind in the 
woods ; it feeds, grows, and generates there on 
the wild uncultivated opuntias ; it is there ex- 
posed in the rainy season to all the humidit^^ of 
the air, and dies naturally. This cochineal is 
always smaller than the fine or cultivated ; the 
colour is more holding and better, but has not 
the same brightness, neither is it profitable to 
use it, since it requires four parts, and some- 
times more, to do what may be done with one 
of fine. 

Sometimes they have damaged cochineal at 
Cadiz ; this is fine cochineal that has been wet 
with salt water, occasioned by some ship- 
wreck or leakage- These accidents consider- 
ably diminish the price, the sea-salt saddening 
the dye. This kind serves only to make pur- 
ples, and even those are not the best. How- 
ever a person in 1735, found the secret to turn 
this to almost as much advantage for scarlet as 
the finest cochineal. The discovery of this se- 
cret is easy, but let him that possesses it enjoy 
it, I shall not deprive him of the advantage he 
might have in it. 

Almost every dyer has a particular receipt 
for dying scarlet, and each is fully persuaded 
that his own is preferable to all others ; yet the 
success depends on the choice of the cochineal, 
of the water used in the dye, and on the manner 
of preparing the solution of tin, which the dyers 
call composition of scarlet. 

As it is this composition which gives the 
bright flame colour to the cochineal dye, and 
which without this acid liquor would naturally 
be of a crimson colour, I shall describe the pre- 


paration that succeeded best with me, and then 
point out the different processes as practised in 
Europe and their success, and opinions in the 
manner of using the preparations and applying 
the colouring substances. We furnished 
in the good or great dye, with four colouring 
substances for red, the kermes, the cochineal, 
gum lacque and madder, there is a number 
in the false dye, as red-wood or brazil, nicaragua, 

Receipt ]2St/2, For ScarLt^ as firactised in America, 

WHEN your cloth or goods are prepared for 
dying, to ever3^ fourteen pounds weight take 
twelve ounces of cochineal, ten ounces of cream 
of tartar, two pounds of double aquafortis, two 
ounces of salts of sal ammoniac, two ounces of 
sal nitre or salt petre, six pounds of wheat bran, 
two ounces of turmeric and six ounces of gran- 
ulated tin. 

Comfiosition for Scarlet, 

TAKE twelve pounds of double aquafortis, 
to which add gradually t\^elve pounds of clear 
clean vv ater, put in a large glass vessel ; then r-dd 
three-quarters of a pound of salts of sal ammo- 
niac made fine, put it in gradually, then t;^ke 
three-quarters of a pound of sal nitre or saltpetre, 
pulverized and pdded slowly, shake them all to- 
gether til the salts iTe all dissolved, then add two 
pounds and a quarter of granulated tin, droppir>g 
it in by little and little, as it dissolves it will cause 
a great fermentation, and you must not be in too 
great ha:^te in adding the tin ; when the tin is 'A\ in 
and the ebullition ceases, then stop it tight with a 
glciss or Wctx stopper, put it where it nn^iy not he 
disturbed or shaken up, for the sediment will 

dyer's companion. 189 

injure the dye, let stand for use ; it must be 
prepared twenty- four hours before using : if you 
keep it stopped close you may keep this com- 
position good several months ; this is the com- 
position for scarlet. 

To firefiare or granulate the Tin, 

TAKE of the purest block tin or grain tin, 
that is a metal by itself; it comes in various 
sizes, from half an ounce to one pound in 
weight, it has a bright appearance. Take the tin 
and melt it over a hot fire, then hold it two feet 
above a pail of clean cold water, and pour it 
gradually into the water, then take it out and 
dry it for use. 

The cloths and composition all prepared, 
then clean the copper clean as described in the 
preceding work, have all the dying utensils new^ 
and clean, or that have not been u-»ed in an;^ 
other dye ; then fill vvith fair water and clean, 
and your goods clean and wet with clean water ; 
to fourteen pound weight of cloth, take six 
pounds of wheat bran, put it in a clean linen bag 
tied close, boil it two hours ; then take up the 
bag, let it drain, then take twelve ounces coch- 
ineal and ten ounces of cream of tartar, have it 
well pulverized together in a glass or marble 
mortar and glass pestel, sifted through gauze; 
when thus prepared, add oncrthird of this com- 
pound of cochineal, &c. to the boiling liquor, 
run your goods two hours boiling, turning live- 
ly, then take up and air ; this is called the scar, 
let boiling ; then shift the liquor from your cop. 
per, fill with clean w^ater, and heat boiling hot ; 
then add half of the remaining compound of 
cochineal, and two pounds and four ounces 
of the composition, carefully turned off that 
you get none of the sediment* for that will in- 


jure the dye, boil well, run your cloth one hour 
with the dye boiling, tend lively, air, and add 
the rennainder of the cochineal, &c. and as much 
more of the composition as before, and two 
ounces of turmeric made fine, boil well and run 
as before. If your dye stuff and composition 
are good, your cloth and utensils clean, you will 
have as good a scarlet as was ever made in Eu- 
rope. I can vouch for this form being used with 
success in the United States, and was equal to 
any scarlet 1 ever saw. 

Hcceifit \29 th. Of Scarlet of Grain. 

THIS colour is called scarlet of grain, because 
it is made with the kermes, which was long 
thought to be the grain of the tree on which it is 
found. It was formerly called French scarlet, 
imagining it to be first found out in France, and 
is now known by the name of Venetian scarlet, 
being much in use there, and more made than 
in any other place. The fashion passed from 
thence into France and other countries. It has 
indeed less lustre, and is browner than the scar- 
let now in fashion ; but it has the advantage of 
keeping its brightness longer, and does not spot 
by mud or acid liquors. 

The kermes is a gall insect, which is bred, 
lives, and multiplies \\\) m the ilex acculeato 
cocci glandiscra, C. B. P. Some comes from 
Narbonne, \m\x greater quantities from Alicant 
and Vaientia, and the peasants of Languedoc 
yearly bring it to Montpelier and Norbonne. 
^rhe merchants who buy them to send abroad,, 
spread them on cloths, and sprinkle them with 
vinegar, in order to kill the little insects that are 
\Vithin, which yield a red powder, which is sepa-^ 
rated from the shell after drying, and is then 
passed through a sieve ; this is done particular- 
ly in Spain, 

dyer's companion. 191 

They then makeit up in bales, and in the mid- 
dle of eich a quantity of this powder is inclos- 
ed in a leather bag> in proportion to the whole 
b.ile. Thus each dyer has his due proportion of 
this powder. These bales are generally sent to 
Marseilles, from whence they are exported to 
the Levant, Algiers, and Tunis, where it is 
greatly m;ide use of in dying. 

The red draperies of the figures in the ancient 
tapestry of Brussels, and other manufactories of 
Flanders, are dyed with this ingredient ; and 
some that have been wrought upwards of two 
hundred years, have scarcely lost any thing of 
the brightness of the colour. I shall now pro- 
ceed to give the method of making this scarlet of 
grain, which is now seldom used but for wools 
designed for tapestry. 

Prefiaration of the n^oolfor Scarlet of Grain. 

Twenty pounds of wool and half a bushel of 
bran are put into a copper, with a sufficient 
quantity of water, and suffered to boil half aa 
hour, stirring it every now and then ; it is then 
taken out to drain. 

It is necessary to observe, that whenever spun 
wool is to be dyed, a stick is passed through 
each hank (which commonly weighs one pound) 
and they remain on the stick during the course 
of the work to prevent their entangli^ig. This 
stick also enables the dyer to return the hanks 
with niore ease, by pluriging each part succes- 
sively in the liquor, by which they take an equal 
dye ; by raising the hank with a stick, and 
drawing it half way out of the copper, seizing 
the other end of the hank with the other hand, it 
is plunged to'vards the bottom. If the ivool be 
too hot, this may be doiie with two sticks, and 
the oftener ,this is repeated, the moreeveii will 


be the dye ; the ends of the sticks are then plac^ 
ed on two poles to drain. These poles are fix- 
ed in the wall above the copper. 

Liquor for the Kermes. 

WHILE this prepared wool is draining, the 
copper is emptied, and fresh water put in, to 
which is added about a fifth of sour water, four 
pounds of Roman allum grossly powdered, and 
two pounds of red tartar. 'I'he whole is brought 
to boil, and that instant the hanks are dipped in 
(on the sticks) which are to remain in for tuo 
hours, stirring them continually one after the 
other after the method already laid down. 

I must in this place observe, that the liquor in 
which the allum is put, when on the point of 
boiling sometimes rises so suddenly that it 
comes over the copper, if not prevented by add- 
ing cold water. If, when it is rising, the spun 
wool is instantly put in, it stops it, and produces 
the same eifects as cold water. 

The liquor does not rise so suddenly when 
there is a large quantity of tartar, as in the pro- 
cess ; but when the allum is used alone, some- 
times above half the liquor comes over the cop- 
per when it begins to boil, if not prevented by 
the method described. 

When the wool has boiled two hours in this 
liquor, it is taken out, left to drain, gently 
squeezed, and put into a linen bag in a cool 
place for five or six days, and ^sometimes longer ; 
this is called leaving the w^ool in preparation. 
This is to make it penetrate the better, and helps 
to augment the action of the salts, for as a part of 
the liquor always flies off, it is evident that the 
remaining, being fuller of saline particles, be- 
comes more active, provided there remained a 
sufficient quantity of humidity ; for the salts 


being crystalized and dry, would have no more 

1 have dwelled much longer on this preparing 
liquor, and the method of m^-king it, than 1 shall 
in the sequel, as there are a greiit number of co- 
lours for uhich it is prepared pretty near in the 
same proportion, so that when this happens, I 
sh.dl slightly describe it, mentioning only the 
changes that are to be made in the quantity of 
allum, tartar, sour water, or other ingredients. 

Afi^cr the spun wool has been covered five 
or six days, it is fitted to receive the dye. A 
fresh liquor is then prepared according to the 
quantity of wool to be dyed, and when it begins 
to be lukewarm, take 12 ounces of powdered 
kermes ior each pound of wool to be dyed, if a 
full and well-coloured scarlet is wanted. If the 
kermes was old and flat, a pound of it v/ould 
be required to each pound of wool- Vv^hen the 
liquor begins to boil, the yarn (still moist, which 
it will be if it has been well w rppped in the 
bag, and kept in a cool place) is put in. If it 
had been boiled a long time before^ and grown 
dry, it must be lighdy passed through lukewarm 
water, and well squeezed befi;re it is dyed. 

Previous to its being dipped in the copper 
with the kerm^es, a handful of \\ ool is cast in, 
which is let to boil for a minute : this takes up 
a kind of black scum, which the cast 
up, by which the wool that is afterwards dip- 
ped acquires a finer colour. This handful of 
wool being taken out, the prepared is to be put 
in. The hanks are passed on sticks as in the 
preparation, continually stirring, and airing 
them one after the other. It must boil after 
this manner an hour at least, then taken out and 
placed on the poles to drain, afterwards wrung 
and washed. 

The dye still remaining in the liquor, may serve 


to dip a little fresh parcel of prepared wool; it 
will take some colour in proportion to the good- 
ness and quality of the kermes put into the cop- 

When different shades are wanted, a less 
quantity of kermes is used, so that for twenty 
pounds of prepared wool seven or eight are suf- 

The quantity of wool that is to have the 
lightest shade is first to be dipped, and to re- 
main no longer in than the time sufficient to 
turn it and make it take the dye equally. Then 
the next deepest shade intended is dipped, and 
left to remain some time longer ; after this 
manner the work is continued to the last, which 
is left as long as requisite to acquire the neces- 
sary shade. 

The reason of working the lightest shades 
first, is, that if the yarn is left too long in, no 
damage is done, as that hank may serve for a 
deeper shade ; whereas, if they begin by a 
deeper, there would be no remedy if a failure 
happened in some of the lighter sliades* The 
same caution is to be taken in all colours whose 
shades are to be different. 

There are seldom more shades than one from 
the colour now spoken of ; but as the working 
part is the same for all colours, what has been 
said on this subject will serve for the rest. 
^ The yarn thus dyed, before bringing it to the 
river, may be passed through lukewarm water, 
in which a small quantity of soap has been per- 
fectly dissolved : this gives a brightness to the 
colour, but at the same time saddens it a little, 
that is, gives it a little cast of the crimson. As 
I shall often make use of the terms roiizmg 
and saddening, especially in the acids, it is ne- 
cessary to explain their meaning. 

Saddening, is giving a crimson or violet cast 
to red ; soap and alkaline salts, such as lie of 


ashes, potash, lime, sadden reds; thus they 
serve to bring them to the shade reqiiired when 
too bright, md that they are too much rouzed. 

Rouzing, IS doing quite the reverse ; it is giv- 
ing a lire to the red, by making it border on the 
ydlovv or orange. This is performed on wool by 
the means of acids, as red or white tartar, cream 
of tartar, vinegar, lemon juice, and aquafortis. 
These a'idsare added more or less, according to 
the depth of the orange colour required. For 
example, if the scarlet of grain was wanted to be 
more bright, and approach somewhat nearer to 
common scarlet, a little of the scarlet composi- 
tion, which has been spoken of, must be pour- 
ed into the liquor after the kermics is put in, 
and the brown colour of that liquor would im- 
mediately be brightened by the acid, and be- 
come of a brighter red ; the wool dipped in 
would be more liable to be spotted by mud and 
acid liquors : the reason will appear in the next 

I have made various experiments on this co- 
lour, in order to make it fitter and brighter than 
what it generally is, but I never could extract 
a red that was to be compared to that of cochi- 

Of all the liquors which I made for the pre- 
paration of the wool, that which was made with 
"the preparations just mentioned succeeded best. 
By changing the natural dye of the kerrnes, by 
difterent kinds of ingredients of metallic solu- 
tions, &c. various colours are made, which I 
shall immediately speak of. 

I shall say but little about dying stuffs with this 
red, as the proportion cannot be prescribed 
for each yard of stuff, on account of their 
breadth and thickness, or the quantity of wool 
entering their composition \ practice alone will 
teach the necessary quantity for each sort of 


Stuff; however, not to work in the dark, or t6 
try experiments at random, the surest way will 
be to weigh the stuffs, and to diminish about 
one-fourth part of the colouring ingredients laid 
down for spun wool, as stuffs take up less co- 
lour inwardly, their texture being more com- 
pact, prevents its penetration, whereas yarn or 
wool in the fleece receives it equally within and 

The allum and tartar for the Hquor of prepa- 
ration for the stuffs must be diminished in the 
same proportion, and they are not to remain in 
the preparing liquor as long as the wool. It 
may he dyed the next day after boiling. 

If wool in the fleece is dyed with the red of the 
kermcs, either to incorporate it with cloths of a 
mixed colour, or to make full cloths, it will have 
a much finer effect than if the wool had been 
dyed in the red of madder. I shall mention this in 
describing the compound colours in which the 
kermes is used, or ought at least be used in 
preference to madder, which does not give so 
fine a red, but, being cheaper, iscommonly sub- 
stituted for it. 

Half grain scarlet, or bastard scarlet, is that 
which is made of equal parts of kermes and 
maddtr. This mixture affords a very holding 
colour, not bright, but inclining to a blood red. 
It h prepared and worked in the same manner 
as that made of kermes alone. This dye is 
much clieaper and the dyers commonly make it 
less perfect by diminishing the kermes and aug- 
menting the madder. 

By the proofs that have been made of scarlet of 
grain or kermes, whether by exposing it to the 
sun, or by different proofs, it is certain there is 
not a more holding or a better colour ; yet^ the 
kermes is no where in Use but at Venice. The 
mode of thii colour has been entirely out since 

©ver's companion. 197 

(he mating of flame-coloured scarlets. ^This 
scarlet of grain is now called a colour of bul- 
lock's blood : nevertheless, it has great advan- 
tages over the other, for it neither blackens nor 
pots, and grease may be taken out without pre- 
judice to its colour ; but it is out of fashion and 
that is sufficient. This has entirely put a stop 
to the consumption of kerrnes in France. Scarce 
a dyer knovv^s it, and when Monsieur Colbert 
wanted a certain quantit^^ for the experiments 
above related, he was obliged to send for it to 
Languedoc, the merchants of Paris keeping only 
a sufficiency for medicinal purposes. 

When a dyer is obliged to dye a piece of 
cloth, known yet under the name of scarlet of 
grain, as he has neither the knowledge of the 
kermes, nor the custom of using it, he makes it 
of a cochineal, as I shall relate in the following 
receipt ; it comes dearer, and is less holding 
than that made of the kermes. The same is 
done in regard to spun wool designed for tapes- 
tries, and as this shade is pretty difficult to hit 
with cochineal, they commonly mix brazil 
wood, which hitherto has been a false ingredient, 
permitted only in the lesser dye. For this rea- 
son all these kind of reds fade in a very short 
tirne,and though they are much brighter than re- 
quired, coming out of the hands of the workman, 
they lose all their brightness before the expira- 
tion of a year : they whiten or become exceed- 
ing grey ; it is therefore to be w ished that the 
use of kermes was again established. 

It is also certain, that if some dyer set about 
using it, there are several colours that might be 
extracted from it with more ease and less expence 
than the common method ; for these colours 
would be better and more holdhig, and he would 
thereby acquire a greater reputation. I have 
made above fifty experiments with the kermes. 


from which some use in practice may arise ; I 
shall only relate such as have produced the most 
singular colours. 

By mixing the kermes with cream of tartar, 
M'ithout allum, and as much of the composition 
as would be used for the making of scarlet with 
cochineal, you have in one liquor an exceeding 
bright cinnamon, for nothing but the acid enter- 
ing in the mixture, the red parts of the kermes 
become so minute that they almost escape the 
sight. But if this cinnamon colour be passed 
through a liquor of Roman allum, part of this 
red appears again ; whether it be by the ad- 
dition of the allurn that drives out a part of the 
acid of the composition, or the earth of the allum 
precipitated by the astriction of the kermes, 
which has the eflPtct of galls, I know not ; but 
this red thus restored is not fine. 

With cream of tartar (the composition for 
scarlet) and allum, in greater quantity than tar- 
tar, the kermes gives a lilac colour, which varies 
according a^ the proportion of ingredients are 

If in the place of allum and tartar, ready pre- 
pared tartar of vitriol is substituted, which is a 
very hard salt resulting from the mixture ot the 
vitriolic acid and a fixed alkali, such as the oil 
of tartar potash, &c. and if, I say, after boiliiig 
the kermes in a solution of a small quantity of 
this salt, the stuff be dipped in and boiled one 
hour, it acquires a tolerable handsome agath 
grey, and in which very little red is seen, for the 
acid of the couiposition having too much divid- 
ed the red of the kermes, and the tartar of vi- 
triol, not containing the earth of the allum, it 
could not re- unite these red atoms, dispersed by 
precipitation. These agath greys are of the 
good dye, for, as I have observed in the chapter 
treating of indigo, the tartar of vitriol is a hard 

dyer's companion. 199^ 

salt, which is not calcined by the sun, and is in- 
dissoluble in rain water. 

Glauber salts mixed with the kermes entirely 
destroy its red, and give an earthy grey that 
does not stand the proof, for this salt neither re= 
sists cold water nor the rays of the sun, which 
reduce it into powder. Vitriol or green cop-, 
peras, and blue vitriol separated substituted for 
allum, but joined to the crystal of tartar, equal- 
ly destroy or veil the red of the kermes, which 
in these two experiments produce the same ef- 
fect as if galls or sumac had been made use of; 
for it precipitates the iron of the green vitriol, and 
dyes the cloth of a grey brown, and the copper 
of the blue vitriol dyes it of an olive. 

Instead of blue vitriol, I used a solution of 
copper* in aquafortis, which also produced an 
oHve colour ; a convincing proof that the ker- 
rnes has the precipitating quality of the galls, 
since it precipitates the copper of the vitriol as a 
decoction of gall-nut would. 

There is great probability that what renders 
the red of the kermes as holding as that of mad- 
der, is from the insects feeding on an astringent 
shrub, which, notwithstanding the changes made 
by the digestion of the juices of the plant, still 
retains the astringent quahty of the vegetable, 
and consequently the virtue, and so gives a 
greater spring to the pores of the wool to con- 
tract themselves quicker and with greater 
strength,^ when it comes out of the boiling wa- 
ter, and is exposed to the cold air ; f >r I have 
observed that all barks, roots, wood, fruits, and 
other matters that have some astriction, yield co- 
lours of the good dye. 

* Verdigrease. 


^eceifit \ZOth. Flame coloured scarlet^ as firactised c^ 
Leeds and in France. 

Composition for Scarlet. — Take eight ounces 
of spirit of nitre, (which is always purer than 
the common aquafortis mostly used by the dy. 
€rs) and* be certain that it contains no vitriolic 
acid ; weaken this nitrous acid by putting it in- 
to eight ounces of fikered river water : dissolve 
in it, little by little, half an ounce of very 
white salt ammoniac, to make it an aqua regia, 
because spirits of nitre alone will not dissolve 
block-tin. Lastly, add two drachms of salt 
petre ; this might be omitted, but I observed 
that it was of use in making the dye smooth 
and equal. In this aqua regia thus weakened, 
dissolve one ounce of the best block-tin, which 
is first granulated or made small while melted 
by casting it from a height into a vessel of cold 
water. These small grains of tin arc put into 
the dissolvent one by one, letting the first dis- 
solve before putting in others ; this prevents tlie 
loss of the red vapours, which would rise ir> 
great abundance, and be lost if the dissolution 
of the metal was made too hastily ; it is neces- 
sary to preserve these vapours, and, as Kunkel 
observed, they greatly contribute towards the 

* Dissolve in a small quantity of spirit of nitre as nauch sil- 
ver as it will take ; put a few drops of this into some of the 
spirit of nitre that is to be proved ; if this spirit remains 
transparent, it is pure ; but if a white cloud be perceived, 
which will afterwards form a sediment, it is a sign that there 
is a commixture of vitriol or spirit of salt. In order there- 
fore to render the spirit of nitre absolutely pure, drop the 
solution of silver gradually into it, so long as it shall produce 
the least turbidness, time being given for the spirit to be- 
come clear betwixt each addition. The spirit of nitre be- 
ing then poured off from the scdiment.will be perfectly pure ; 
and if this sediment, which is the silver precipitated, be 
evaporated to dryness, and then infused in a crucible with 
a small quantity of any fixed alkaline salt, it vviUbe reduced 
to its proper metalline state. 

dyer's gompakion. 201 

brightness of the colour, either because these 
vapours are acids that evaporate and are lost, 
or contcjin a sulphur peculiar to salt peTre, 
which gives a brightness to the colour This 
method is indeed much longer than that used 
by the dj^ers, who immediately pour the aqua^ 
fortis upon the tin reduced to small pieces, and 
wait till a strong fermentation ensues, and a 
great quantity evaporates before they weaken it 
with common water. When the^ tin is thus 
dissolved, this scarlet composition is made, and 
the liquor is of the beautiful colour of dissolved 
gold, without any dirt or black sediment, as I 
used very pure tin without allay, and such as 
runs from the first melting of the furnaces of 
Cornwall. This solution of tin is very trans- 
parent w^hen newly made, and becomes milky 
and opaque during the great heat of summer ; 
the greatest part of the dyers are of opinion, that 
it is then changed and good for nothing ; yet 
mine, notwithstanding this defect, made as 
bright scarlet as if it had remained clear ; be- 
sides, in cold weather what I made recovered its 
first transparency. It must be kept in a glass 
bottle with a stopper, to prevent the evaporation 
of the volatile parts. 

As the dyers do not attend to this, their com- 
position often becomes useless at the end of 
twelve or fifteen days. I have laid down the 
best method, and, if they seek perfection, they 
will abandon their old practice, which is imper- 

The dyers in France first put into a stone 
vessel, with a large opening, two pounds of 
salt ammoniac, two ounces of refined saltpetre, 
and two pounds of tin reduced to grains by 
water, or, which is still preferable, the filings 
of tin ; for vyhen it has been melted and granu- 
lated, there is always a small portion converted 


into a calx Avhich does not dissolve. They 
weigh four pounds of water in a separate ves- 
sel, of which they pour about two ounces upon 
the mixture in the stone vessel ; they then add 
a pound and a half of common aquafortis, which 
to it produces a violent fermentation. When the 
ebullition ceases, they put in the same quantity 
of aquafortis, and an instant after they add one 
pound more. They then put in the remainder of 
the four pounds of water they had set aside ; the 
vessel is then close covered, and the composi- 
tion let to stand till the next day. 
^ The salt petre and salt ammoniac are some- 
times dissolved in the aquafortis before the tin 
is put in; they practise both methods indiscri- 
minately, though it is certain that this last me- 
thod is best. Others mix the water and aqua- 
fortis together, and pour this mixture on the tin 
and salt ammoniac. In short, every dyer fol- 
lows his own method. 

Water for the Prefiaration of Scarlet, 

The day after preparing the composition, the 
water for the preparation of scarlet is made, 
which differs from that made in the preceding 

Clear the water w^ell. For each pound of 
spun wool, put twenty quarts of very cle^r ri- 
ver water Chard spring water will not do) into a 
small copper. When the water, is a little more 
than lukewarm, two ouncesof the cream of tartar 
finely powdered, and one drachm and a half of 
powdered and silted cochineal is added. The fire 
is then made a little stronger, and when the li- 
quor is ready to boil two ounces of the compo- 
sition are put in. This acid instantly changes 
the colour of the liquor, which, from a crimson, 
becomes of the colour of blood. 

As soon as this liquor begins to boil, the 

dyer's companion. 203 

wool is dipped in, which must have been pre- 
viously wetted in warm water and wrung. 
The wool is continually worked in this liquor, 
and left to boil an hour and a half; it is then 
taken out, slightly wrung, and washed in fresh 
water. The wool coming out of the liquor is 
of a lively flesh colour, or even some shades 
deeper, according to the goodness of the cochi- 
neal, and the strength of the composition. The 
colour of the liquor is then entirely passed into 
the wool, remaining almost as clear as common 

This is called the water of preparation for 
scarlet, and the first preparation it goes through 
before it is dyed ; a preparation absolutely neces- 
sary, without which the dye of the cochineal 
Would not be so good. 


To finish it, a fresh liquor is prepared with 
clear water, the goodness of the water being of 
the greatest importance towards the perfection 
of the scarlet. An ounce and a half of starch 
is put in*, and when the liquor is a little more 
than lukewarm, six drachms and a half of coch. 
ineal finely powdered and sifted is thrown in. 
A little before the^ liquor boils, two ounces of 
the composition is poured in, and the liquor 
changes its colour as in the former. It must 
boil, and then the wool, is put into the copper, 
and continually stirred as in the former It is 
likewise boiled an hour and a half; it is then 
taken out, wrung, and washed. The scarlet is 
then in its perfection. 

One ounce of cochineal is sufficient for a 
pound of wool, provided it be worked with at- 

♦ Starch softens it. 


tention, and after the manner laid down, and 
that no dye remains in the liquor. For coarse 
cloth less would do, or half as much for worst- 
ed. However, if it was required to be deeper 
of cochineal, a drachm or two might be added, 
but not more, for it would then lose its lustre 
and brightness. 

Though I have mentioned the quantity of the 
composition, both in the w;iter of the prepara- 
tion and the dye, yet this proportion is not to be 
taken as -i fixed rule. 

The aqu ifortis used by the dyers, is seldom 
of an equal strength ; if, tlier^^fore, it be always 
mixed ^vith an equtl quantity of water, the com- 
position would not produce the same effect : but 
there is a method of ascertaining the degree of 
acidity of aquafortis. For example, to use that 
only, two ounces of which would dissolve one 
ounce of silver. This would produce a com- 
position that would be always equal, but the 
quality of the cochineal would then produce 
nesv varieties, and the trifling difference that this 
commonly causes in the shade of scarlet is of no 
great^ signification, as more or less may be used 
to bring it precisely to the colour desired. If 
the composition be weak, and the aforesaid 
quantity not put in, the scarlet will be a deeper 
and fuller in colour. On the contrary, if a little 
more is added, it will be more on the orange, and 
have what is called more fire ; to rectify which, 
add a little of the composition, stirring it well in 
the copper, having first taken out the wool ; for 
if it was to touch any part before it was 
thoroughly mixed, it would blot it. If, on the 
contrary, the scarlet has too much fire, that is, 
too much on the orange, or too much rouzed, it 
must be passed through clear warm water; when 
finished, this saddens it a little, that is, diminish- 
es its bright orange ; if there still remained too 


much, a little Roman allum must be mixed with 
the hr)t water. 

For spun wool that is to have all the various 
shr^des of scarlet, about half the cochineal, and 
half the composition for full scarlet is sufficient. 
The cream of tartar must also be diminished 
proportionably in the water of preparation. The 
wool must be divided into as many hanks or 
skains as there are to be shades, and when the li- 
quor is prepared, tlie skains that are to be lightest 
are first to be dipped, and to remain in but a 
very short space of time ; then those that 
are to be a little deeper, which must remain in 
somewhat longer, and thus proceeding to ' the 
deepest ; the wool is then to be washed, and the 
liquor prepared to finish them. In this liquor, 
each of these shades are to be boiled one after 
the other, beginning always with the lightest, and 
if they are perceived not to be of the proper 
shade they must be passed again through the li- 
quor. The eye of a dyer, will readily judge of 
the shades, and a litde practice will bring this to 

The dyers are divided in opinion of what me- 
tal the boiler should be made. In Languedoc 
they use those made of the finest block-tin, and 
several dyers, in Paris follow the same method. 
Yet that great dyer, M. de Julienne, whose 
scarlets are in great repute, uses brass. The 
same is used in the great manufactory at St, 
Dennis. M. de Julienne, to keep the stufls from 
touching the boiler, makes use of large rope nets 
with close meshes^ At St. Dennis, instead of a 
rope net, they have large baskets, made of wil- 
low stripped of the bark, and not too close work- 

As so much had been said concerning the 
metal of the boiler, I tried the experiment. I 
took two ells of white sedan cloth, which I dyed 


in two separate boilers of equal size ; one was of j 
brass, fitted with a rope net, the other of block ; 
tin. The cochineal,^ the composition, and other i 
ingredients, were weiglied with the utmost ac-j 
curacy and boiled precisely the same time. In 
short, I took all possible care that the process 
should be the same in both, that if any difference 
arose it might only be attributed to the different 
metals of the boiler. After the first liquor, the 
two pieces of cloth were absolutely alike only 
that which had been boiled in the tin vessel ap- 
peared a little more streaked and uneven, which, 
in all likelihood, proceeded from these two ells 
of cloth being less scoured at the mill than the 
two others ; the two pieces were finished each 
in the separate boilers, and both turned out very 
fine ; but that which had been made in the tin 
boiler had a little more fire than the other, and 
the last was a little more saddened. It would 
have been an easy matter to have brought them 
both to the same sliade, but that was not my 

From this experiment, I conclude, that when 
a brass boiler is used, it requires a little more of 
the composition than the tin one ; but this addi- 
tion of the composition makes the cloth feel 
rough ; to avoid this defect, the dyers who use 
brass vessels put in a litde turmeric, a drug of 
the dye, but which gives to scarlet that shade 
which is now in fiishion ; I mean that flame- 
colour, which the eye is scarce able to bean 

This adulteration is easily discovered by cut- 
ting a piece of the cloth ; if there is no turmeric, 
the web will be of a fine white, but yellow if 
there is. When the web is dyed the same as the 
surface, it is said that colour is webbed, and the 
contrary, when the middle of the weaving re- 
mains white. The lawful scarlet is never dyed 
in the web : the adulterated, where the turmeric 
or fustic has been made use ofj is more liaWe to 

dyer's COMPANIOl^^ 207 

change its colour in the air than the other. But 
as the brightest scarlers are now in fashion, and 
must have a yellow cast, it is better to t')ltratc 
the use of turmeric, than to use too great a quan- 
tity of the composition to bring the scarlet to this 
shade ; for in this last case, the cloth would be 
damaged by it, would be suoner spotted by dirt 
from the quality of the acid, ^nid would be niore 
easily torn, because acids stiffen the fibres of the 
wool, and render them brittle. ^ 

I must also take notice, that if a copper vessel 
is ust'd it cannot be kept too clean. I have failed 
several times vv ith my patterns of scarlet, by not 
having the copper s( oured. 

I cannot help condemning the common prac- 
tice of s(^me dyers, even the most eminer.t, who 
prepare their liq«ior over night, and ketp it hot 
till next morning, \^hen they dip it » their stuffs; 
tliis they do, not to lose time, but it is certain 
that the liquor corrodes the copper in that space, 
and by iritroducing particles of copper in the 
cloth, prejudices the beauty of the scarlet. They 
may say thty only put in their composition just 
at the time when the cloth is ready to be dipt in 
the copper ; but the cream of tartar, or the white 
tartar, which they put in over ^nglit, is an acid 
salt sufficient to corrode the copper of the vessel, 
and f rm a verdigrease, althouglt it dilutes itself 
as it forms, still has not a less 
^ It would therefore be better to make use of 
tin boilers, a boiler of this metal must contri- 
bute to the beauty of scarlet ; but these boilers 
of a sufficient size cost much, and may be melt- 
ed by the negligence of the workmen, and there 
is a difficulty in casting them of so great a size 
without sand flaws, which must be filled. Now 
if these sand-holes are filled with solder, there 
must of necessity be places in the boiler that 
contain lead ; this lead in time being corroded 


by the acid of the composition, will tarnish the 
scarlet. Bat ifsuch a boiler could be cast with- 
out any sand-holes, it is certain such a one 
would be preferable to all others, as it contracts 
no rust, and if the acid of the liquor detaches 
some parts, they cannot be hurtful. 

Having laid down the manner of dying spun 
wool m scarlet, and its various shades, which 
are so necessary for tapestry and other work, it 
is proper to give an idea of the dying of several 
pieces of stuff at one tirne. I shall relate this 
operation as it is practised in Languedoc. I 
made the trial on some ells of stuff, which suc- 
ceeded very well, but this scarlet was not so fine 
as the flame coloured. 

There are two reasons why the wool is not 
dyed before it is spun (for fine colours) first in 
the course of the manufacturing, that is, either 
in the spiniiing, carding, or weaving, it would 
be almost impossible in a large workshop, where 
there are many workmen, but that some parti- 
cles of white wool, or some other colour would 
mix, which would spoil that of the stuff by 
blotting it ever so little ; for that reason, the 
reds, the blues, the yellows, the greens, and all 
other colours that are to be perfectly uniform, 
are never dyed before they are manufactured. 

The second reason, which is peculiar to scar, 
let, or rather to cochineal, is, that it will not 
stand che milling, and as the greatest part of 
high stuffs must be milled after they are taken 
from the loom, the cochineal would lose part of 
its colour, or at least would be greatly sadden- 
ed by the soap, which produces this effect by 
the alkaline salt which destroys the brightness 
given to the red by the acid. These are the 
reasons that the cloths and stuffs are not dyed in 
scarlet, light red, crimson, violet, purple, and 
other light colours, but after being entirely mill- 
ed and dressed. 

Dter's comPx^niCn^. 209 

To dye, for example; five pieces of cloth at 
one time of five quarters breadth, and contain* 
ing fifteen or sixteen ells each, the following pro. 
portions are to be observed. Put into a stone 
or glazed earthen pot twelve pounds of aqua« 
fortis, and t^venty pounds of water, to which 
add a poui>d and a half of tin, made in grains by 
running it in water, or filed. The dissolution is 
made quicker or slower, according to the greater 
or lesser acidity of the aquafortis. The whole 
is left to rest twelve hours at least, during which 
time a kind of black mud settles at the bottom 
of the vessel ; what swims over this sediment 
is poured oft' by inclination ; this liquor is clear 
^nd yellow, and is the composition which is to 
be kept by itself. 

This process differs from the first in the quan- 
tity of water mixt with the aquafortis, and in 
the small quantity of tin, little of which must 
remain in theJiquor, since aquafortis alone can. 
not dissolve it, but only corrodes it, and reduces 
it to a calx, as there is neither salt petre, not salt 
ammoniac which would form an aqua regia* 
However, the efftct of this composition differs 
from the first only to tlie eyes accustomed to 
judge of that colour. 

^ This composition made without salt ammo- 
niac, and which has been of long use amongst a 
great number of manufiicturers at Carcassone, 
who certainly imagined that its effect was owing 
to the sulphur of the tin, can only keep thirty- 
six hours in winter without spoiling, and tvven- 
ty.four hours in summer ; at the expiration of 
which it grows muddy, and a cloud precipitates 
to the bottom of the vessel, which changes to a 
white sediment. This is the small quantity of 
tin, which uas suspended in the acid, but au 
acid not prepared for that meta! ; the com. 
position which ought to be yellov/ becom.ets at 


this time as clear as water, and if used In that 
state would not succeed ; it would have the 
same effect as that which would become milky. 

The late M. Baron pretended to have been the 
first discoverer at Carcassoneofthe necessity of 
adding salt ammoniac to hinder the tin from 
precipitating. If so, there was no one in that 
town that knew that tin cannot be really dissolve 
ed but by aqua regia. 

Haying prepared the composition as I have 
described it after M. de Fondriers, about sixty 
cubicalfeet of waterare put into a large copper 
for the five pieces of cloth before mentioned, 
and when the water grows warm, a bag with 
bran is put in, sometimes also sour waters are 
used ; the one and the other serve to correct 
the water, that is, to absorb the earthy and alka* 
line matters which maj' be in it, and which, as 
I have already said, saddens the dye of the coch- 
ineal, for the effect of the water ought to be well 
known, and experience will teach whether such 
expedients should be used, or whether the wa- 
ter, being very pure and denulated of salts and 
earthy particles, can be used without such helps. 

Be that as it will, as soon as the water begins 
to be little more than lukewarm, ten pounds of 
powdered cream of tartar is flung in, that is, 
two pounds for each piece of cloth. The liquor 
is then raked strongly, and when it gro\ys a little 
hotter, half a pound of cochineal is cast in which 
is well mixt with sticks ; immediately after 
twenty -seven pounds of the composition very 
clear is poured in, which is also well stirred, and 
as soon as the liquor begins to boil, the cloths 
are put in, which are made to boil strongly for 
two hours, stirring them continually by the 
help of the wynch : they are then taken out upon 
the scray, and well handled three or four times 
from end to end, by passing the lists between 

dyer's companion. 211 

t^e hands to air and cool them. They are af- 
ter vvards washed. 

After the cloth has been waslied, the copper 
is emptied and a fresh liquor prepared, to which 
if necessary^ a bag with bran or some sour wa- 
ter is added ; but if the water is of a good qua- 
lity, these are to be omitted ; when the Hquor 
is ready to boil, eight pounds and a quarter of 
powdered and sifted cochineal is put in, which 
is to be mixed as equally as possible through- 
out the liquor, and having left off stirring, it 
is to be observed when the cochineal rises on 
the surface of the water, and forms a crust of 
the colour of the lees of the wine ; the instant 
this crust opens of itself in several places, eigh- 
teen or twenty pounds of the composition is to 
be added. A vessel with cold water must be 
at hand to cast on the liquor in case it should 
rise, as it sometimes does, after tlie cc^nposition 
is put in. 

As soon as the composition is hi the copper, 
and equally distributed throughout the whole, 
the cloth is cast in, and the wynch strongly 
turned two or three times, that all the pieces 
may equally take the dye of the cochineal. 
Afterwards it is turned slowly to let the water 
boil, which it must do very fast for one hour, 
ahvays turning the wynch, and sinking the cloth 
in the liquor with sticks, when by boiling it 
rises too much on the surface. The cloth is 
then taken out, and the lists passed between 
the hands to air and cool it ; it is then washed, 
after which it is to be dried and dressed. 

In each piece of the Languedoc scarlet cloth 
there is used, as has been shewn, one pounei 
and three-quarters of cochineal in the dye and 
preparation ; this quantity is sufficient to give 
the cloth a very beautiful colour. If more coch- 
ineal was added, and a deeper orange-colour 


required, the quantity of the composition must 
foe ..ugmented. 

When a great quantity of stuffs are to be dj^ed 
in scarlet, a con idcr-'ble profit arises by do- 
ing tliem together, for the same liquor serves 
for the second dip which was used for the first. 
For example : vvhen the five first pieces are fin- 
ished, there always rernains in the liquor a 
certain quantity of cochineal, which in seven 
pounds may amount to twelve ounces ; so that 
if this liquor be used to dye other stuffs, the 
cloths dipped in it will have the same shade of 
rose colour as if they had been dyed in a fresh 
liquor with twelve ounces of cochineal ; yet this 
<iuantity may vary^ pretty much, according ta 
the quality or choice of the cochineal, or ac- 
cording to the fineness it has been reduced to 
when powdered. But whatever colour may re- 
main in the liquor, it deserves some attention 
on account of the high price of this drug. The 
same liquor is then made use of for other five 
pieces, and less cochineal and composition are 
put in proportion to what may be judged tore- 
main ; fire and time are also saved by this, and 
rose-colour and flesh-colour may also be pro- 
duced from it ; but if the dyers have no leisure 
to make these different liquors in twenty-four 
hours, the colour of the liquor corrupts, growls 
turbid, and loses the rose-colour entirely. To 
prevent this corruption some put in Roman al- 
lum, but the scarlets which are prepared after 
that manner are ill saddened. 

When cloths of different qualities, or any 
©ther stuffs are to be dyed, the surest method is 
io M^eigh them, and for each hundred weight of 
cloth add about six pounds of crystal or cream 
of tartar, eighteen pounds of composition in the 
water of preparation, as much for the reddening, 
and six pounds and a quarter of cochineal. 
Thus in proportion for one pound of stuff use 


one ounce of cream of tartar, six ounces of com- 
position, and one ounce of cochineal ; some emi- 
nent dyers at Paris put two-thirds of the com- 
position and a fourth of the cochineal in the 
water of preparation, and the other third of the 
composition with three- fourths of the cochineal 
in reddening. 

It is not customary to put cream of tartar in 
the reddening, yet I am certain, by experience, 
that it does not hurt, provided the quantity does 
not exceed half the weight of the cochineal, and 
it appeared to me to make a more lasting colour. 
Some dyers have made scarlet with three dip- 
pings ; namely, a first and second water for pre- 
paration, and then the reddening ; but still the- 
same quantity of drugs is always used. 

I observed, in the foregoing receipt, that the 
little use rnade of kermes for the brown or Ve- 
netian scarlets, obliges most dyers to make them 
with cochineal ; for this purpose a water of pre^ 
paration is made as usual ; and for the redden- 
ing, eight pounds of allum are added for each 
hundred weight of stuff ; this allum is dissolved 
by itself in a kettle, with a sufficient quantity of 
water, then poured into the liquor before the 
cochineal is put in. The remainder is perform- 
ed exactly as in the common scarlet ; this is the 
Venetian scarlet, but it has not near the same 
solidity as if made with the kermes. 

There are no alkaline salts which do not sad- 
den scarlet ; of this number are the salt of tartar, 
potash, pearlash calcined, and nitre fixed by 
fire; therefore allum is more generally used; 
and if these alkaline salts be boiled with the 
stuffs, they would considerably damage them, . 
for they dissolve all animal substances. If the 
allum be calcined, it is still the more secure- 

The redder the scarlet is, the more it has been 
saddened ; from thence it appears that these cc- 
T 2 


lours lose m the liquor that browns them a part 
of their ground ; however one cannot brown in 
the good dye but with salts. The late M. Ba- 
ron observes, in a memoir he gave sometime ago 
to the Royal Academy of Sciences, that all the 
salts he had made use of for browning, making 
the colour smooth, and preserving its brightness 
and deepnrss, he h:^d succeeded best with salt 
of urine, but, as he observes, it is too trouble- 
some to make this salt in any quantity. 

I said, in the preceding receipt and the chap- 
ter on yell:»w, that tUv choice of the water for 
scarlet and other bright colours was very mate- 
rial, and as the greatest part of common water 
saddens it, for they mostly contain a chalky, cal- 
careous earth, and sometimes a sulphureous or 
-vitriolic acid ; these are commonly called hard 
waters, that is, they will not dissolve soap or 
boil vegetables well. By finding a method of 
absorbing or precipitating these hurtful matters, 
all waters may be equally good for this kind of 
dye : thus, if alkaline matters are to be removed, 
a little sour water produces this effect ; for if 
five or six buckets of these sour waters are mix- 
ed with sixty or seventy of the hard water be- 
fore it comes to boil, these alkaline earths rise 
in a scum, which is easily taken off the liquor. 

AH that I have iiitberto said in this chapter 
is for the instruction of dyers ; I shall now make 
an attempt to satisfy the philosopher how these 
different effects are produced. 

Cochineal, infused or boiled by itself in pure 
vVarer, gives a crimson colour bordering on the 
purple ; this is its natural colour ; put it into a 
sglass, and drc>p on it spirits of nitre ; this colour 
will become yc Uov*^, and if you still add more, 
you will scarcely perceive that there was origin- 
ally anyred in the liquor; thus the acid destroys the 
red bv dissolving it and dividing its parts so mi- 
nutely that they escape the sight. If in this ax^- 


periment a vitriolic, instead of a nitrous acid 
be used, the first changes of the colour will be 
purple, then purpled lilac, after that a light lilac, 
then flesh- colour, and lasdy colourless. This 
blueish substance, which mixes with the red to 
form a purple, may proceed from that stpall por. 
tion of iron, fromvvhich oil of vitriol is rarely 
exempt. In the liquor of preparation for scar. 
let, no other salt but cream of tartar is used, no 
allura is added as in the common preparing wa- 
ter for other colours, because it would sadden 
the dye by its vitriolic acid ; yet a calx or lime 
is required, which, with the red parts of the 
cochineal, may form a kind of lake, like that the 
painters use, which may set in the pores of the 
wool by the help of the crystal of tartar. 

This white calx is found in the solution of 
very pure tin, and if the experiment of the dye 
is made in any small glazed earthen vessel, im- 
mediately on the cochineal's communicating its 
tincture to the water, and then adding the com- 
position drop by drop, each drop may be per- 
ceived with a glass or lens, to form a small cir- 
cle, in which a brisk fermentation is c irried on ; 
the calx of the tin will be seen to separate, and 
instantaneously to^ take the bright d} e, which 
the cloth will receive in the sequel of the ope» 

A further proof that this white calx of tin is 
necessary in this operation, is that if cochineal 
was used with aquafortis, or spirits of nilre 
alone a very ugly crimson would be obtained ; if a 
solution of any other metal was made use of in 
spirits of nitre, as of iron or mercury, from the 
jBrst would be had a deep cinder- grey, and from 
the second, a chesnut colour with green streaks, 
^ without being able to trace in the one or othei^ 
any remains of the red of the cochineaL There- 
fore, by what I have laid down, it may be r§a^» 


son able to suppose, that the white calx of the 
tin, having been dyed by the colouring parts of 
the cochineal, rouzed by the acid of the dis- 
solvent of this metal, has formed this kind of 
earth^' lake whose atoms have introduced them- 
selves into the pores of the wool, which were 
opened by the boihng water, that they are plais- 
tered by the crystal of tartar, and these pores, 
suddenly contracting by the immediate cold the 
cloth was exposed to by airing, that these co- 
louring particles are found sufficiently set in to 
be of the good dye, and that the air will take off 
the primitive brightness, in proportion to the va- 
rious matters with which it is impregnated. In 
the country, for example, and particularly if the 
situation be high, a scarlet cloth preserves its 
brightness much longer th'an in great cities, 
where the urinous and alkaline vapours are 
more abundant. For the same reason, the 
country mud vvith, which in roads is generally 
but an earth diluted by rain water does not stain 
scarlet as the mud of towns where there are 
urinous matters, and often a greatdeal of dissolv- 
ed iron, as in the streets of great cities, for it is 
well known that any alkaline matter destroys the 
effect which an acid has produced on any co- 
lour whatsoever.^ And for the like reason, if a 
piece of scarlet is boiled in a lie of potash, this 
colour becomes purple, and by a continuation 
of boiling it is entirely taken out ; thus from this 
fixed alkali, and the crystal of tartar, a soluble 
tartar is made, which the water dissolves and 
easily detaches from the pores of the wool : all 
the mastic of the colouring parts is then destroy- 
ed, and they enter into the lies of the salts. 

EeceifLt ISl^r. Scarlet of Gum- Lac que, 

THE red part of the gum-lacque may be 


dter's companion. 217 

also used for the dying of scarlet, and if this 
scarlet has not all the brightness of that made 
of fine cochineal alone, it has the advantage of 
being more lasting. 

The gum-lacqne, which is in branches oi*^ 
small sticks and full of animal parts, is the fit- 
test for dying. It must be red within, and its 
external parts of a blackish brown ; it appears 
by a particular examination made of it by M. 
Geoffroy some years since, that it is a sort of 
hive, somewhat like that of bees, w^asps, &c. 

Some dyers make use of it powdered and tied 
in a linen bag ; but this is a bad method, for- 
there always passes through the cloth sorne re- 
sinous portion of the gum, which melts in the 
boiling water of the copper, and sticks to the 
cloth, where it becomes so adherent \vhen cold, 
that it must be scraped off with a knife. 

Others reduce it to poy/der, boil it in water^ 
and after it has given all its colour, let it cool^ 
and the resinous parts fall to the bottom. The 
water is poured out, and evaporated by the air^ 
where it often becomes stinking, and when it 
has acquired the consistence of thick honey, it 
is put into vessels for use. Under this form 
it is pretty difficult justly to determine the quan- 
tity that is used ; this induced me to seek the 
means of obtaining this tincture separated from 
its resinous gum, without being obliged to evap. 
orate so great a quantity of water to have it dry, 
and to reduce it to powder. 

I tried it with weak lime water, with a de- 
coction of the heart of agaric, with a decoction 
of comfrey-root, recommended in an ancient 
book of physic ; in all these the water leaves a 
part of the dye, and it still passes too full of co- 
lour, and it ^ ought to be evaporated to get all 
the dye ; this evaporation 1 wanted to avoid, 
therefore I made use of mucilaginous or slimy 



roots, which of themselves gave no colour, but 
whose mucilage might retain the colouring 
parts, so that they might remain with it on the 

The great com frey- root has, as yet, the best 
answered my intention : I use it dry and in a gross 
powder, putting half a drachm to each quart" 
of water, which is boiled a quarter of an hour, 
passing it through a hair sieve. It immediate- 
ly extracts from it a beautiful crimson tiixture ; 
put the vessel to digest in a moderate heat for 
twelve hours, shaking it seven or eight times to 
mix it with the gum that remains at the bottom^ 
then pour oif the water this is loaded with co- 
lour in a vessel sufficiently large, that three- 
fourths may remain empty, and fill it with cold 
water : then pour a very sm-^.ll quantity of strong 
solution of Roman allum on the tincture; the 
mucilaginous or slimy dye precipitates itself, 
and if the water which appears on the top ap- 
pears still coloured, add some drops of the so- 
lution of allum to finish the precipitation, and 
this repeat till the water becomes as clear as 
common water,^ 

When the crimson mucilage or slime is all 
sunk to the brittom of the vessel, draw off the 
clear v/ater, and filter the remainder ; after 
which, dry it in the sun. 

If the first mucilaginous water has not extract- 
ed all the colour of the gum-lacque, (which is 
known by the remaining being of a weak straw 
colour) repent the operation until you separate 
all the dye the gum-lacque can furnish; and as 
it is reduced to powder when dry, the quantity 
to be used in the dye is more exactly ascertain. 
ed than by evaporating it to the consistence of 
an extract. 

Good gum-lacque, picked from its sticks, 
yields, dried and powdered, but little more dye 

dter'-s coMPANiaic. 219^ 

than one-fifth of its weight. Thus at the price 
it bears at present, there is not so gr^at an ad- 
vantage as many may imagine in using it in the 
place of cochineal ; but to make the scarlet co- 
lour more lasting than it commonly is, it may 
be used in the first liquor or preparation, and 
cochineal for reddening. 

If scarlet is made of gum-lacque, extracted 
according to the method here taught, and reduc- 
ed to powder, a caution is to be taken in dissolv- 
ing it, which is useless when cochineal is used ; 
that is, if it was put into the liquor ready to hoil, 
the dyer would lose three-quarters of an hour, 
before it would be dissolved entirely ; therefore 
for despatch, put the dose of this dry tincture 
into a large earthen vessel, or into one of tin, 
pour warm water on it, and when it is well 
moistened, add the necessary dose of the com- 
position for scarlet, stirring the mixture well 
with a glass pestel. This powder, which was 
of a dirty deep purple, as it dissolves takes 
fire-coloured red extremely bright ; pour the 
dissolution into the liquor, in which was pre- 
viously put the cry stal of tartar, and as soon as 
this liquor begins to boil, dip the cloth in, keep- 
ing it continually turning. The remaining part 
of the operation is the same as that of scarlet 
with cochineal : the extract of gum-lacque, pre- 
pared according to my method, yields about 
one- ninth more of dye than cochineal, at least 
than that which I made use of for this com- 

If instead of the crystal of tartar and the com- 
position of some fixed alkaline salt or lime wa- 
ter is substituted, the bright red of the gum- 
lacque is changed into the colour of lees of 
wine, so that this dye does not sadden so easily 
as that of cochineal. 

If instead of these alternatives, salt ammoniac 


is used by itself, cinnamon or clear cliesnut co- 
Jours are obtained, and that according as there is 
more or less of this salt. I have made twenty 
Other experiments on this drug, which I shall 
not relate here, because they produced none but 
common colours, and which may be easier had 
from ingredients of a lower price. My experi- 
ments were with a view of improving the red of 
the lacque, and the method I have here laid 
down to extract its colouring parts answers ex- 
tremely well ; the m^ore ingredients that are dis- 
covered for scarlet, the less will be the cost ; 
for, although these experiments made on cochi- 
neal, lacque, and other drugs may appear use. 
less to some dyers, they will not be so to others 
^who study to improve this art.* 

Reteijit I32d. 0/ the Red of Madder. 

THE root of madder is the only part of this 
plant which is used in dying- This- plant may 
be cultivated in the United States of America 
to great advantage ; it is three years after the 
first root is set in the ground before it comes 
to maturity, or the ground filled with roots fit 
for digging or breaking up ; if it remains in the 
ground longer than three seasons, there will be a 
quantity of useless roots ; they may be placed 
foujr feet apart, in the first setting in the ground, 
and hoed the first year to keep it clear from 
weeds ; if the ground has a deep soil it will be 
filled with small roots to the depth of three feet ; 
it yields abundantly ; the time of drying, which 
is in autumn, in the month of October, or the 
last of September, spade up the earth, take the 

* The colouring parts of the gum-lacque may be extract- 
ed by common river water, by makhig it a little more than 
lukewarm, and mclosing the powdered lacque in a coarse 
woollen bag. 

byer's companion. 221 

roots from it^ assort them carefully, and wash 
them clean in cold water and lay them to dry for 
manufacturing. The small bright and young 
roots that have no bark nor pith, are for the good 
or grape-madder. 

Of all the reds this is the most lasting, when 
it is put on a cloth or stuff that is throughly 
scoured, then prepared with the salts with which 
it is to be boiled two or three hours, without 
which, this red, so tenacious after the prepara- 
tion of tlie subject, would scarcely resist more 
the proofs of the reds than any other ingredients 
of the false dye. This is a proof that the p-ores 
of the fibres of the wool ought not only to be 
well scoured from the yolk or unctuous tran- 
spiration of the animal, which may have remain- 
ed, notwithstanding the scouring of the wool af- 
ter the common manner with water and urine ; 
but it is also necessary, that these same pores be 
plaistered inwardly w^ith some of those salts 
which are called hard, because they do not cal- 
cine in the air, and cannot be dissolved by rain 
water, or by the moisture of the air in rainy 
weather* Such is, as has been said before, the^ 
white crude tartar, the red and the crystal of tar- 
tar, of which, according to common custom, 
about a fourth is put into the preparing liquor, 
with two-thirds or three-fourths of allum. 

The best madder roots come generally from 
Zealand, where this plant is cultivated in the 
islands of Tergoes, Zerzee, Sommerdyke, and 
Thoolen. That from the first of these islands is 
esteemed the best ; the soil is clay, fat^ and 
somewhat salt. The lands that are deemed the 
best for the cultivation of this plant are new 
lands, that only served for pasture, which are al^ 
ways fresher and moister than others. The 
Zealanders are beholden to the refugees of 


Flanders for the cultivation and great commerce 
of this root. 

It is known in trade and dying under the 
names of grape-madder, bunch-madder, &c. It 
is however the same root ; all the difference in 
regard to its quality is, that the one kind con- 
tains pith and root, and the other has the small 
fibres from its pricipal root adhering to it. 

Both are prepared by the same work, which 
I shall not relate the particulars of here, as it 
would only serve to lengthen this treatise to no 

They choose the finest roots for the first sort, 
drying them with care, grinding them and sepa- 
rating the rind at the mill, and preserving the 
middle of the root ground in hogsheads, where 
it remains for two or three years ; for after this 
time, it is better for dying than it would have 
been coming from the mill ; for if madder w^as 
not kept close after this manner, the air would 
spoil it, and the colour would be less bright. It 
is <it first yellow, but it reddens and grows brown 
by age ; the best is of a saffron colour, in hard 
lumps, of a strong smell, an^i yet not disagree- 
able. It is also cultivated about Lisle in Flan- 
ders, and several other places of the kingdom, 
where it was found to grow spontaneously. 

The madders which are made use of in the 
Levant and in India, for the dying of cottons, 
are somewhat different from the kinds used in 
Europe, it is named chat on the coast of Coro- 
mandel. This plant thus called, grows abun- 
dantly in the woods on the coast of Malabar, 
and this chat is the wild sort- The cultiv ttd 
comes from Vasur and Tuccorin, and the most 
esteemed of all is the chat of Persia, named 

T^ ey also gather on the coast of Coromandel 
tthe root of another plant called nzy de chaye, or 


root of colour, and ^vhich was thought to be a 
kind oirubm ttnctorum, but is the root of a kind 
of gallium flore alho, as it appeared by observa^ 
tions Stilt irom India in 1748. It has a long 
slender root, which dyesiidotton of a tolerable 
handsome red, when it has received all the 
preparations previous to the d^-e. 

At Kurder, in the neighbourhood of Smyrna^ 
andin the couniriesof Akissar and of Yordas, 
they cuUivate another kind of madder, which is 
called in the country chioc-boya ekme hazala. 
This of all the madders is the best for the red 
dye, by the proofs that have been made of it, 
and far more esteemed in the Levant than the 
finest Zealand madder the Dutch bring there. 
This madder so much vahied is called bv tiie 
modern Greeks lizari^ and by the Ardhs/hiiot/ J^ 

There is another kind of madder in Canada 
called tyssa-voyana. It is a very small root, 
which produces pretty near the same effect as 
the European madder. 

The water of preparation for madder red is 
pretty near the same as for kermes, that is com- 
posed of alhim and tartar. The dyers do not 
agree as to the proportions ; bnt the best appears 
to be four ounces of allum and one of red tartar 
to each povmd of spun wool, and about one- 
twelfth part of sour water, and let the wool boil 
in it for two hours. If it is spun wool, leave it 
for seven or eight days, that it may be well 
imoistened by the dissolution of these salts ; and 
if it is cloth, finish it the fourth day. 

To dye wool with madder, prepare a fresh 
liquor, and when the water is come to a heat to 

* These kinds of madders give brierhter reds than the best 
grape-madder of Zealand, for thev are dyed in the air arid 
not in a stove* 'I'he madder of Languedoc, even that of 
Poitou, succeeds as well as that of lizari, when it is dryed 
without fire* 


bear the hand, put in half a pound of the finest 
gr: pe-maddtr for each pound of wool ; let it be 
well raked and mixed in the copper before the 
wool goes in, keep the wool in an hour, during ' 
which time it must ^^ot boil.* Shades from 
madder are obtained alter the manner laid down 
for other colours, but these shades are little used, 
except in a mixture of several colours. 

When severed pieces of cloth are to be dyed 
at once in madder red, the operation is the same, 
as you may see in the 29th receipt in the pre- 
ceding for^ red with madder, only augmenting 
the ingredients in proportion ; and let it be re- 
marked that in small operations the quantity of 
ingredients must be somewhat greater than in 
great, not only in madder red, but in all other 

These reds are never so beautiful as those of 
the kermes, and much less so than those of the 
lacque or cochineal, but they cost less, and are 
made use of for common stuffs whose low prices 
would not allow a dearer dye. Most of the reds 
for the army are of madder, saddened with archil 
or brazil, (though these drugs be of the safe dye) 
to make tliem finer, and more on the velvet, 
which perfection could not be procured to them 
even witli cochineed, without considerably aug- 
menting the price. 

I have already said that rnadder put on stuffs 
not being prepared to receive it by the allum 
and tartar- water, did in fact give its red colour, 
but that which it dyed was blotted and not last, 
ing, it is therefore the salts that secure the dye ; 
this is common to all other colours red or yellow, 
which cannot be made without a preparing li- 
quor. Now the question is, whether these act 
by taking off the remains of tlie oily and fat 

^ If madder is boiled, its red becomes obscure, and of a 
brick colour. 



transpiration of the sheep, or whether that of the 
two salts, particularly that which even cannot 
be carried by luke-warm water, remains to 
catch, seize and cement the colouring atom, 
opened or dilated by the heat of water to receive 
it, and contracted by the cold to retain it. 

To determine which, use any alkaline salts, 
such as potash, the clarified lays of oak-ashes, 
or any other pure lixivial salt instead of allum 
and tartar, put in a due proportion so as not to 
dissolve the wool, and afterwards dip the stuff 
in madder liquor. This stuff will come out 
coloured, but will not last, even boiling water 
will carry off three- fourths of the colour. Now 
it cannot be said that a fixed alkaline salt is un- 
fit to extract from the pores of the wool the 
yolk or fat of the sheep, since lixivial salts are 
used vvith success in several cases, to take the 
grease out of stufL of what kind soever they be, 
which water alone could not take off. It is also 
Well known, that with fats foreign to the stuff, 
and an alkaline salt, a kind of soap is formed 
which water easily carries off. 

Again, take a piece of stuff dyed in madder 
red, according to the usual method, boil it some 
time in a solution of fixed alkaline salts, a small 
quantity will also destroy the colour, for the 
fixed alkali, attacking the small atoms of the 
crystal of tartar, or crude tartar, which lines the 
pores of the wool, forms a soluble tartar, v.hich 
water dissolves very easily, and consequently 
the pores being opened in the hot water of the 
experiment, the colouring atom came out with 
the saline atom that sheathed it. 

This stuff being washed in water, the remain- 
ing red colour is diluted, and a colour half brown 
and h ilf dirty remains. If instead of an alkaline 
salt, soap is substituted, (which is an alkaline, salt, 
mitigated by oil) and another piece of cloth dyed 


also in madder, be l^oiled for a few minutes, the 
red vill becojnc finer, because the alkali which 
is in the soap being sheathed with oil, it could 
not attack the vegetable acid, and the boiling 
only Carried off the c^>l()uring parts ill stuck to- 
gether, and their numbers dirninishing, what 
remains must app'/ar deeper or clearer. 

I must also add, for further proof of the 
actual existence of salts in the pores of a stuff 
prepared with allum and tartar, befre dying it 
with madder, that more (>r less tartar gives an 
infinite v<iriety of shades with this root only; 
for if the qudntity of allum be diminished, and 
that of the tartar augmented, a cinnamon will 
be had, and even if nothing but tartar alone 
be put into the liquor, the red is lost, and a 
d<x^p cinnamon or brown root colour is obtain, 
ed, though of a very good dye ; for the crude 
tartar, which is an acid salt, has so much dis- 
s<3lved the part which should have produced 
the red colour, that there only remained a very 
small qnantitv, with the ligneous fibres of the 
root, which, like all other common roots, does 
then yield but a brown colour, more or less 
deep according to the quantity used- I have 
already proved that the acid which brightens 
the red, dissolves them if too much is used, 
and divides them into particles so extremely 
minutcy that they are not perceptible. 

If in the place of tartar, any salt which is 
^sily diss= Ived be put with the allum in the li- 
quor, to prepare the stuff for the madder dye, 
such as SB It petre, the greater part of the mad- 
der red becomes useless, it disappears, or does 
not stick on, and nothing is got but a^ very 
bright cinnamon, which will not sufficiently 
star)d the proof, because the two salts used in 
the pr. paring liquor are not of the hardness of 
fhe tartar. 

dyer's companion* 227 

Volatile urinous alkalis which are obtained 
from certain plants, such as the perilia, the ar- 
chil of the Canaries, and other mosses or li- 
chens, destroy also the madder red, but at the 
same time communicate another to it, for on 
experiment, madder prepared after the maniicr 
of archil with fermented urine and quick lime, 
produced only nut colours, but which neverthe- 
less are lasting ; because there entered into the 
liquor only the little portion of urinous vola- 
tile that moistened the madder which the boil- 
ing was sufficient to evaporate, and besides, 
the cloth was sufficiently furnished with the 
salts of the liquor made as usual, to retain the 
colouring parts of the dye. 

When a pure red, that for cochineal an ex- 
ample, is laid upon a cloth first dyed in blue, . 
and afterwards prepared with the liquor of tar- 
tar, and allum to receive and retain this red, a 
purple or violet is produced according to the 
quantity of blue or red. The red of madder 
has not this effect, for it is not a pure red Uke 
that of the cochineal, and as I said above, it is 
altered by the brown ligneous fibres of its root, 
and makes on the blue a chesnut colcur, more 
or less deep according to the preceding intensi- 
ty of the blue first laid on. If this chesnut co- 
lour is wanted to have purple cast, a little cochi- 
neal must be added. 

In order to avoid this brown of the root, the 
dyers who make the best reds of madder take 
great heed to use the liquor of madder a little 
more than luke-vvarm ; the madder tarnishes 
considerably by the heat of the water, extract- 
ing the particles u hich dye brown, and unite 
themselves with the red. 

This inconveniency might be remedied, if at 
the»time that the madder root is fresh a means 
could be found to separate from the rest of this 


root the red circle which is underneath its 
brown pehcle, and which surrounds the mid- 
dle pith ; but this work would augment its 
price, and even then it would not afford so 
good a red as cochineal. However, it might 
be attempted to dye cottons red, whose price 
might bt-ar the expenses of this preparation* 

Madder being of all ingredients the cheapest 
of any that dye red and of the good dye, it is 
mixt with otliers to diminish the price. It is 
with madder and kermes that the bastard scar- 
lets of grain are dyed, otherwise called half- 
grain scarlets, and with madder and cochineal 
the half-common scarlets, and the half-crimsons 
are made. 

To make the half. grain scarlet, the water 
of preparation, and all the rest of the operation 
is to be performed after the same manner as 
scarlet made of the grain of kermes, or the 
common Venetian, only the second liquor is 
composed of half kermes and half grape-mad- 

For the half-scarlet and flame-colour, the 
composition and preparation is as usual, noth- 
ing but pure cochineal being put in, but in 
the reddening, half cochineal and half madder 
is used : here also the sylvestremay be made use 
of, for after having made the pr paration with 
cochineal, for reddening, use half a pound of 
cochineal, a pound and a half of sylvestrei and 
one pound of madder instead of cochineal alone. 

That the wool and stuffs may be dyed as 
equally as possible* it is necessary that the two 
kinds of cochineal be well rubbed or sifted, 
as also the madder, with which they must be 
well incorporated before they are put into the 
liquor. This must be observed in all colours 
where several ingredients are mixt together. 
This half-scarlet is finished jike the common, 




scarlet, and it may be saddened after the same 
manner, either with boiling water or allum. 

The half-crimson is made like the common 
crimson, only using half madder, and half cochi- 
neal, the cochineal sylvestre may be used 
here also, observing only to retrench half of 
the common cochineal, and to replace it with 
three times as much of the sylvestre. if a 
greater quantity of the sylvestre was used, and 
more of the other taken oiF, the colour would 
not be so fine. Various shades may be pro- 
duced by augmenting or lessening the madder 
or cochineal. 

Keceilit 133cf. For Crumon. 

CRIMSON, as I have already observed, is 
the natural colour of the cochineal, or rather, 
that which it^gives to wool boiled with allum 
and tartar, which is the usual water of prepara- 
tion for almost all colours.^ This is the methocj 
which is commonly practised for spun wool ; 
it is almost the same for cloths, as will be seen 

For each pound of wool, two ounces and a 
half of allum, and an ounce and a half of white 
tartar, are put into the copper. When the 
whole boils, the wool is put in, well stirred, and 
left to boil for tw^o hours ; it is afterwards taken 
Gilt slightly wrung, put into a bag, and left thus 
with its water, as for the scarlet in grain, and for 
all other colours. 

For the dye a fresh liquor is made, in which 
three- fourths of an ounce of cochineal is added 
for each pound of wool. When the liquor is lit- 
tie more than luke- warm, the cochineal is put in, 
and when it begins to boil, the wool is cast in, 
which is to be w^ell stirred with sticks ; it is to 
remain thus for an hour ; when taken out, 
wrung and washed. 


If degrees of shades are required, (whose 
names are merely arbitrary) pr )cer^d, as has 
been already related for the scarlet, using but 
half the cochineal at first, and beginning with tne 

The beauty of crimson consists in its border- 
ing as much as possible on the grisdelin, a co- 
lour between a grey and a violet. I made sever- 
al trials to bring crimson to a higher p( rfecMon 
than most dyers have hitherto done, and indeed 
I succeeded so as to make it as fine as the 
false crimson, which is always brighter than the 

This is the principle on which I worked. As 
all alkvilis sadden cocliineal, I tried soap, barilla, 
potash, pearlabh; all these salts brought the 
crimson to the shade I wanted, but at the same 
time, they tarnisihed and diminished its bright- 
ness. I then bethought myself to make use of 
volatile alkalis, and I found that the volatile 
spirit of salt ammoniac produced a very good ef- 
fect ; but this spirit instantly evaporated, and a 
pretty considerable quantity w^as used in the 
liquor, which greatly augmented the price of the 

I then had recourse to another expedient which 
succeeded better, the expense of which is trifling. 
This was to make the volatile alkali of the salt 
ammoniac enter into the liquor, at the very in- 
stant that it comes out of its basis ; and to effect 
this, after my crimson was made after the usual 
manner, I passed through a fresh liquor, in which 
I had dissolved a little of the salt ammoniac. 
As soon as the liquor was a little more than luke- 
warm, I flung in as much potash as I had before 
of salt ammoniac, and my wool immediately 
took a very brilliant colour. 

This method even spares the cochineal ; for 
this new liquor makes it rise, and then less may 

dyer's comp'anioij. 231 

be used than in the common process ; but the 
greatest part of dyers, even the^ most eminent, 
sadden their crimsons with archil, a drug of the 
false dye. 

Very beautiful crimsons are also made by 
boiling the wool as for the common scarlet, ard 
then boiling it in a second liquor, with two 
ounces of allum and one ounce of tartar, for each, 
pound of wool, leaving it one hour in the liquor. 
A fresh liquor is then prepared, in which six 
drachms of cochineal is put for every pound of 
wool. After it has remained an hour in this li. 
quor, it is taken out, and passed immediately 
through a liquor of barilla and salt ammoniac. 
By this method, gradations of very beautifuj 
crimson shades are made by diminishing the 
quantity of the cochineal. It is to be «>bserved, 
that in this process there are but six drachms of 
cochineal to dye each pound of wool, because in 
the first liquor a drachm and a half of cochineal 
is used for each pound. It is also necessary to 
remark, that, to sadden these crimsons, the li- 
quor of the alkaline salt and salt ammoniac be 
not rnade too hot, because the separation of the 
volatile spirit of this last salt would be too quick, 
and the crystal of tartar of the first liquor would 
lose its proper effect by being changed, as I 
have already said into a soluble tartar. 

The same operation may be done by using 
one part of the cochineal sylvestre instead of the 
iine cochineal, and thexolour is not less beauti- 
fill, for commonly four parts of sylvestre have 
not more effect in dying than one part of fine 
cochineal. The sylvestre may also be used in 
dying scarle , but with great precaution ; it 
should only be used in bastard scarlets and half- 
crimsons. I shall speak of this when I treat of 
these colours in particular. 

When a scarlet is spotted or spoiled in the 


operation by some unforeseen accident, or even 
when the dye has failed, the common remedy is 
to make it a crimson, and for that purpose, it 
is dipt in a liquor where about two pounds of 
allum are added for each hundred weight of 
wool. It is immediately plunged in this liquor, 
and left there until it has acquired the shade of 
the crimson desired. 

Receifit 134:'/i. For Languedoc Crimson. 

I shall now shew the method they follow in 
Languedoc to make a very beautiful sort of 
crimson, or the cloths exported to the Levant, 
but which is not so much saddened as that 
which I have just spoken of, and which resem- 
bles much more the Venetian scarlet. For five 
pieces of cloth, the pieces are 25 yards when mill, 
ed of broad cloth one and a half yards wide the 
liquor is prepared as usual, putting bran if ne- 
cessary. When it is more than lukewarm, ten 
pounds of sea-salt are put, instead of crystal of 
tartar, and when it is ready to boil, twenty-seven 
pounds of the scarlet composition, made after 
the manner of carcassine already described, are 
poured in, and without adding cochineal the 
cloth is passed through this liquor for two 
hours, keeping it always turning with the wynch, 
and continually boiling. It is afterwards taken 
out, aired and washed ; then a fresh liquor is 
made, with eight pounds and three-quarters of 
cochineal powdered and sifted, and when it is 
ready to boil, twenty-one pounds of composi- 
tion are added ; the cloth is boiled for three 
quarters of an hour with the common precau- 
tions, after which it is taken out, aired and wash- 
ed : It is of a very fine crimson, but very little 
saddened ; if it is required to be more sad^len. 
ed, a greater quantity of allum is put into the 


first liquor of preparation, and in the second 
less of the composition, the sea- salt is also 
added to this second liquor ; a little practice in 
this method will soon teach the dyer to make 
all the shades that can properly be derived from: 

Whenever cochineal has been used, there is 
found at the bottom of the reddening liquor a 
quantity of very brown sediment, which is 
flung away with the liquor as useless. I exam- 
ined it and foimd, that the liquor for the red- 
dening of scarlet contained a precipitated cahc 
of tin : I united this metal with a great di^eal of 
trouble; the remaining parts of this sediment 
are the dross of the white tartar, or of the cream, 
of tartar, united with the gross parts of the bo- 
dies of the cochineal, which is, as has already 
been said, a small insect. I washed tliese little 
animal parts in cold w^ater, and, by shaking 
this v/ater, I collected, with a small sieve, what 
the agitation caused to raise on the surface. 

After this manner I separated these light 
parts from the earthy and metallic ; I dried 
them separately, then levigated them with 
equal weight of fresh crystal of tartar ; I boiL 
ed a portion with a little allum, and put in a 
pattern of white cloth, which boiled for three 
lauarters of an hour, at the end of which it was 
eyed of a very beautiful crimson. 

This experiment having convinced me, that 
by powdering and sifting the cochineal as is 
commonly practised, all the profit that might 
be extracted from this dear drug is not obtain- 
ed, I thought proper to communicate this dis- 
Govery to tlie dyers, that they might avail them^ 
selves of it by the method following. - 

^ Take one ounce of cochineal powdered and 
sifted as usual ; mix with it a quarter of it^, 
Aveight of very white creanx of tartar very crys^ 

X ■ 


taline and very airy ; put the whole on a hard 
levigating stone, and levigate this mixture till it 
is reduced to an impalpable powder ; make use 
of this cochineal^ thus prepared in the liquor, 
and in the reddening, subtracting from the cream 
of tartar, which is to be used in the liquor, the 
small quantity before used wdth the cochineal. 
What is put to the reddening, although mixed 
with a fourth of the same salt, does not preju- 
dice its colour, it even appeared to me that it 
w^as more sdid. Those that will follow this 
method Hvill find that there is about a fourth 
more profit to be obtained by it. 

Recci/iC I35t/i. The J\atural Crimson in Grain, 

In proportion for every pound of cloth or 
other things, take two ounces of tartar pure, and 
two ounces of allum ; boil them with the goods 
an hour and a half ; then rince the goods very 
well from the boiling. The kettle must be fill- 
ed again with clear water and a few handfuls of 
bran put in, in order to take out the filth of the 
water, as well as to soften it. Scum the scurf 
off when it begins to boil, and put in an ounce 
of well powdered grain, with one drachm of red 
arsenic and one spoonful of burnt wine lees ; 
this gives a pretty lustre ; then wash and rince 
it well, and you have most beautiful colour. 

Jlt'ceiiit I26tli, Scarlet; of the dying of Jiock or goat*^ 

" ^. are two preparations very different 

other in the dying of flock : the 

TWT^H '^^^^'' ^^^ belongs to the great 

r ^"^Vie ^-cond is to dissolve it and 

one fr^^ ..^^^^^^ Mngs to the lesser dye. 

^''\ 'LTdv? the ^ formerly permitted 

^^\rjie of It'; Sris be. ' n' on pxcount of 


J *e gic& dye. but was t«- 


Tts being extracted from madder, than by any 
experiment that had been made concerning its 
durability. I tried it with great attention, and 
found it beyond any doubt that there is no co- 
lour that resists the air less. It is certainly for 
this reason that it was restrained to the lesser 
dye in the new regulation of France in 1737. 
Yet, as by the same regulation, it is not permit- 
ted to the dyers of the lesser dye to use madder, 
Tior even to keep it in their houses ; it has been 
enacted, that only the dyers of the great dye 
should be suffered to madder llock,^ and those 
of the lesser dye to dissolve and use it. 

To madder the flock or goat's hair, four 
pounds of either of them is cut and well sepa- 
rated, that the dye may penetrate the better. 
It is boiled two hours in a sufficient quantity 
of sour water ; then it is drained for an hour, 
and put into a middling copper, half filled 
with water, with four pounds of roach allum,^ 
two pounds of red tartar, and one pound of 
madder. The whole is boiled for six hours, 
putting in hot water as the liquor wastes ; it is 
left all night and next day in this liquor ; the 
third day it is taken out and drained in a bask- 
et. Some dyers let it remain eight days, but 
it often happens that l^y this delay in a copper 
vessel it is tarnished by the liquors corroding 
a part of the copper ; a middling copper is 
then filled to the two-thirds with half sour wa- 
ter, and half common water and when the li- 
quor is ready to boil, eight pounds of madder, 
well cut and crushed between the hands, is ad- 
ded. When the markler is well mixed in the 
liquor, four pounds of flock or hair is put in and 
boiled for six hours ; it is then well \i ashed, and 
the next day it is maddered a second time after 
the same nianner, only putting in four pounds 
of madder instead of eight, which were befor(^ 


used. After this second maddermg, it is wellv 
^vashed and dried ; it is tlien almost black and 
lit for use. 

It appears by this operation, that four pounds 
of flock or hair is loaded with thirteen pounds 
of the d3'e^ of madder, j'et there still remains 
some dye in the liquor, which is then called an 
old maddering, and which is preser\ed for use 
on certain occasions, as in tobacco, cinnamon 
colour, and several others. 

When the flock is t' .-s maddered by tlie dyer 

of the great dye he sells it to dj^rs of the lesser, 

who have then the Hl^erty to dissolve and use 

.t ; this is the common method, v/hich has ma- 

iv diiSculties, and is known but to few dyei-s, 

Jadder is hereby made fine. 

About half an hour after seven in tlie morn^ 

.^ six pails full of clear v/ater are put into 

a middling copper, and when the water is luke- 

vrarm, five pounds of pearlash are put in: the 

hole is boiled till eleven, and the liquor 

.i then considerably diminished, so as to be 

held in a lesser copper, into which it is emptied, 

obsen'ing" first to let the dregs of the pearlash 

subside, that none but the clear may be used. 

A p?jl full of this liquor is afterwards put 
nro the middling copper, having first scoured 
it well, and a lirtle fire made under it ; the four 
pounds of maddered flock are scattered in by 
degrees, and at the same time a little of the 
lukewarm and saline liquor of the small copper 
is added to keep down the boiling, which rises 
from time to time to the top of the copper, in 
which the operation is performing. 

When all the flock and the liquorof the little 
copper are put into the middling one, a pail full 
of clear w ater is put on the dregs of the pearlash 
remaining in the little copper> This water 
serves to fill the middling one as the liquor in ij 

dyer's companiobt. 237 

evtiporates. All this flock melts, or is dissolved 
by the action of the pearlash, and after the first 
half hour, not the least hair is to be perceived. 
The liquor is then of a very deep red. The 
whole is then boiled without any addition, till 
three in the afternoon, that the whole dissolution 
of the flocks may be the more exactly perform- 
ed. Then a stick is placed upon the copper, 
and upon this stick is placed a pail of fermented 
urine, in which pail a small hole has been pre- 
viously made towards its lower part, and a lit- 
tle straw put into it, that the urine may very 
slowly run into the copper ; whilst it is running, 
the liquor is made to boil strongly, and this 
urine makes good what may be lost by evapora- 
tion. This operation continues five hours, dur- 
ing which time three pails full of urine are dis- 
charged into the copper, being made to run fas- 
ter when the boil is stronger, than when moder- 
ate. It is here to be observed, that, on account 
of the small quantity of flock in the experiment 
which I lay down here, five pounds only of 
pearlash are ordered ; for when thirty pounds of 
flock are dissolved at one time which is the 
common custom of the French dyers, they put 
twelve ounces of pearlash to each pound offlock. 
During the whole time of this operation, a 
strong volatile smell of urine is emitted, and 
there swims on the surface of the liquor a brown 
scum, but much more so after the addition of 
the urine. The liquor is known to be suffi- 
ciently done when this rises no more, and that the 
boil rises but gently, that is what happened to 
the operation now related, at eight in the evening. 
The fire is then raked out, the copper covered? 
and thus left to the next day. Patterns had 
been taken at different times of the colours 
of the liquor from three to eight in the evening, 
by dipping in small pieces of paper : the first 



were very brown, and they became continually 
lighter, and they united themselves more and 
m(jre, in proportion as the vtjlatile part of the 
urine acted on the colouring parti of the liquor. 

Nothing now remained but to dye the wool 
in the liquor thus prepared, and vvhich is called 
melting of flock ; this is the easiest work be- 
longing to the dyer. A quarter of an hour be- 
fore the dying is begun, a little piece of very 
clean roach allum is put in, and the copper is 
well raked to melt it. As this liquor which was 
in the middling copper had been covered the 
whole night, and the fire had not been put out, 
the liquor was still so hot as not to suffer the 
hand- The clearest was taken out and brought 
into a small copper, with a sufficient quantity 
of luke vv^arm water, some wool dyed yellow 
with weld was dipped in it ; it immediately be- 
came of a fine orange, bordering on the name 
colour, that is of the colour called nacaret^ and^ 
known to the dyers by the name of nacaret of 
flock ^ because it is commonly made with melted 

Tvyenty hanks of white wool were dipped one 
after the other in the same liquor, beginning by 
those that were to have the deepest ground, and 
leaving them longer or shorter in the liquor ac- 
cording to the shade required. An assortment 
•was made after this manner from the nacaret, or 
bright orange red, to the cherry colour. It 
ought to be observed, that in proportion as the 
liquor was consumed, fresh was taken from the 
middle sized copper, great care being taken not 
to stir the sediment at the bottom ; a little fire 
was also kept under the small copper, to keep 
the liquor always in the same degree of heat. 
The wool is thus dipped until the whole liquor 
is used, and all the colour drawn out.^ But the 
lighter colours could not be dyed in it; fon 


when the colour of the liquor is once \veakened< 
as it ought to be for these colours, it is generally 
loaded with filth, which would take off the 
brightness required in these shades. 

The following is the method of making shades 
lighter than the cherry colour. A copper is 
liiled with clear water, and five or six hai:iks of 
wool dyed of the deepest dye from the flock, 
that is, from the shade that immediately follows 
the nacaret, are put in. As soon as the water 
boils, it takes out all the colour the wool had, 
and it is in this fresh liquor that the other wool 
that is to be dyed is dipped, from the cherry co- 
lour to the palest flesh colour, observing always 
to begin by the deepest shades. 

Most of the dyers who do not know how to 
melt the flock, or who will not give themselves 
that trouble, buy some pounds of this scarlet of 
flock, which they use after this manner, to make 
all the lighter shades, which, as has been said, 
is done with much ease. This operation shows 
what little dependance can be put on the solidi- 
ty of a colour that passes so quickly in boiling 
water. And in fiict, it is one of the worst co- 
lours there is in dying, and on that account the 
new regulation has taken it from the great dye, 
and permits in the lesser for the reason above 

Thus a very bad colour may be had from an 
ingredient which, of all those that are used in 
d\ing, is perhaps the best and the most dura- 
ble ; yet when this hair, dyed with all the ne- 
cessary precautions to insure the colour as much 
as possible, comes to be dissolved or melted in 
a liquor of pearlash, its colour, by acquiring a 
new lustre, loses all its sohdity, and can only be 
ranked in the number of the falsest dyes. 

It may appear that the little solidity of this 
Colour proceeded from the wool having no pre- 


paration, and retaining no salt before its being 
dipped in the dissolved flock ; but I found that 
this was not the cause ; for I dipped in this li- 
quor wool boiled as usual, and other wool dif- 
ferently prepared, without finding that the colour 
of the latter had acquired any more solidity ; 
the lustre was less, that is, it came out more 
saddened than the wool that had been dyed in 
it without any preparation. 

Though I have said that wool receives no 
preparation before its being dyed in a dissolution 
of flock, it is nevertheless necessary to sulphur 
those that are to make clear shades, for that gives 
them a great brightness and lustre, as the dis- 
solved flock is applied on a ground a great deal 
whiter than it would be without the vapour of 
the sulphur, which cleanses it of all its filth. 
The same thing is done for the light blues, and 
for some other colours ; but this operation is 
seldom made use of but for Vv^ool intended foj: 
samples or tapestry. 

The Theory of the Dissolution of Flock. 

The reason why from an ingredient, such as 
the root of madder, perishable colours are pro- 
duced from dissolved flock, is not difficult to 
assign. In the first operation of maddering the 
flock, the red of the madder was fixed in the hair 
by the preparation of allum and tartar as much 
as possible, but as it is overloaded with this 
colour, it is easy to conceive that the superfluous 
colouring atoms being only applied on those 
which already filled the pores of this hair, these 
alone are really retained in the pores, and are 
cemented by the salts. The hair thus reddened 
by the madder so as to become almost black, 
would lose a great deal of the intensity of its 
colour, if it was boiled in any liquor, was it even 

dyer's companion. 2^ 

CiBinmon water ; but to this water, pearlash i$ 
added in equal weight with the flock already 
d>ed, tvhich is to be melted in it ; consequently 
there is a very strong lixivium of fixed alkahne 
salts made. I have said that very strong alkaline 
lies destroy the natural texture of almost all 
animaUsubstances, as also gums and resms ; m 
short, that an alkaline salt is their dissolvent. 
In the present operation, the hxivium or the 
pearlash is verv concentrated, and very acrid, 
and consequently in a state to melt the hair, 
which is an animal substance, v/hich it does very 
quickly, and with a strong fermentation, which 
shows itself by the strong and violent elevation 
of the liquor : consequently it destroys the pat- 
ural texture of each of these hairs, and the sides 
of the pores being at the same time broken and 
reduced to very minute parts, these sides having 
neidier consistence nor spring to retain these 
salts, and the colouring particles that wtrre stick- 
ing to them. Therefore the animal particles of 
the hair, the colouring parts of the madder, the 
saline parts of the liquor, and the alkali of the 
pearlash, are all coiifounded together, and form 
^ new mixture, which cannot afford a lasting 
dye, because from these saline parts mixed to- 
gether there cannot be formed a sufficient quan- 
tity of salts capable of crystalization, and pro- 
ducing moleculas, which can resist cold water 
and the rays of the sun. In short, it could not 
form a tartar of vitriol, because the alkaline 
^alt is in too great a proportion. 

To rouse the deep and overloaded dye of the 
madder first applied on the flock, and I'.fter con- 
founded by the melting of this hair in the mix^ 
ture already spoken of, putrified urine is added 
in a considerable quantity ; this is a further ob- 
stacle to cryjjtalization ; consequently wool not 
T^repared by other salts, and dipped in a liquor 


thus composed, can only be covered by a super- 
flcial colour, wliich finds no prepared pores, or 
any thing saline in those pores, which may 
cement the colouring atoms ; therefore such a 
dye must quit its subject on the least eftbrt of 
what nature soever it be. 

But wool prepared by the liquor of tartar and 
allurn, does not take a more lasting colour, in 
the liquor of the melted flock, than wool not 
prepared by these salts ; for a liquor which 
aboimds with fixed alkaline salts attacks the tar- 
tar left of the preceding preparation in the pores 
of the wool. This tartar changes its nature, and 
from being hard to dissolve, as it was before, 
it becomes a soluble tartar, that is, a salt thatt 
dissolves very easily in the coldest water. 

It may perhaps be objected, that particles of 
allum remain in the pores of the prepared wool, 
that from these particles of allum, as well as 
from a portion of the same salt which is put into 
the liquor, reddened by the melting of the flock, 
the alkali of the pearlash must form a tartar of 
vitriol, which, according to my principles, ought 
to secure the d\^e. 

To this I answer, that the urine hinders the 
combination of these two salts, which is neces- 
sary for the formation of the tartar of vitriol ; if 
even this hindrance did not exist, the quantity of 
this salt, which I have named hard in another 
place, could not be sufficient to cement the 
colour in the pores of the wool, or put them in a 
state to retain the colouring atoms. Further, 
the sharpness of the alkaline salts in this liquor, 
which is capable of entirely dissolving the hair 
boiled in it, would equally be able to dissolve 
the wool, w^ere it boiled as the flock was. But 
yet, though a degree of heat is not given to the 
liquor, which would be necessary for this^ total 
destruction, it is easily conceivedj that if the 

dyer's companion. ^4o 

siirn of the destroying action is not the same^ 
at least a part exists which, is still sufficient to 
corrode the sides of the pores of the wool, to 
enlarge them greatly, and to render them unfit 
to retain the colouring atoms ; to this may be 
added, that the hair is melted in the liquor, and 
consequently mixed with the colouring parts 
of the madder in a great quantity ; that these 
are heterogenious parts, which prevent the im- 
mediate contract of the same colouring pi.rts, 
and that from all these obstacles taken together, 
the colour must be rendered less durable ana 
less holding than any of the lesser dye. This, 
experience sufficiently proves, for if a skain of 
red wool dyed in this manner, be put into boil- 
ing water, the colour will be taken off entirely. 

Receifit \37th» Scarlet of Archil, and the manner of 
using it. 

ARCHIL is a soft paste, of a deep red^ 
which being simply diluted in hot water affords 
a number of different shades ; there are two 
kinds, the most common one which is not so 
good, is generally made in Auvergne, from 
a lichen or sort of moss, very common on 
the rocks of that province : it is known under 
the name of Archil of Auvergne, or Land Ar- 
chil. ^ The other is a great deal finer and bet- 
ter ; it is called the Archil of Herb, or of the 
Canaries, or Cape Verd Archil ; it is prepared 
in France, England, Holland, and other places. 

The workmen who prepare this herb archil, 
make a secret of the preparation, but the par- 
ticulars may be found well related in a treatise 
oiM. Pierre Antviiie Micheliy which bears for 
title. Nova Plantarum Genera^ therefore I shall 
not here give the method of preparing it. 

When a dyer wants to assure himself that the 


archil will produce a beautiful effect, he must 
extend a piece of this paste on the back of his 
hand and let it dry, afterwards washing his 
hand with cold water. If this spot remains 
with only a little of its colour discharged, he 
may udge the archil to be good, and be assur- 
ed it will succeed. 

I shall now give the method of using the 
J^repared archil, but I shall only treat of that of 
the Canaries, and just mention the difference 
between it and that of Auvergne- A copper is 
filled with clear v/ater, and when it begins to 
be lukewarm, the proper quantity of archil is 
put in and well stirred : the liquor is afterwards 
heated almost to boiling, and the wool or stuffs 
are dipped without any preparation, only keep- 
ing those longer in that are to be deeper. 

When the archil yields no more colour at this 
degree of heat, the liquor is made to boil to ex- 
tract the remainder ; but if it is archil of Au- 
vergne, the colours drawn after this manner 
will be sadder than the first, on account of the 
boiling of the liquor. The Canary archil, on 
the contrary, will lose nothing of its brightness, 
if even the liquor boiled from the beginning. 
This last, though dearer, yields much more dye, 
so that there is more profit in making use of it, 
besides its superiority over the other in beauty 
and goodness of colour. The natural colour 
which is drawn both from the one and the other 
archil, is a fine gris rf(?./m,- bordering on the 
violet. The violet, the pansy, the amaranth, 
anci several like colours are obtained from it, 
by giving the stuff a groujjd of blue more or 
less deep before it is passed'inrough the archil. 

It must here be observed, that to have the 
clean .shades of these colours as bright as they 
ought to be, the wool ought to be sulphured, as 
was said in the foregoing receipt either before it 

dyer's companion. 245 

is dipped in the archil, for the gris-de-lin, or be- 
ibre it is dyed blue for the violet, and other like 

This way of using archil is the simplest, but 
the colours that proceed from it are not lasting. 
It may be imagined that the colours would be 
better by giving a preparation to the wool pre- 
vious to its being dyed, as is practised in the 
great dye, when madder, cochineal, weld, Sec. 
are used ; but experience shews the contrary^ 
and I have used the archil on wool boiled in al- 
lum and tartar, which did not resist the air more 
than that which had received no preparation. 

There is notwithstanding, a method of using 
the Canary archil, and giving it almost as much 
duration as the most part of the ingredients of 
the good dye ; but then its natural colour ofgris^ 
de4in is taken off, and it acquires a red or scarlet, 
or rather a colour known under the name of 
bastard scarlet. The colours of the kermes or 
Venetian scarlet, and several other shades that 
border on the red and the orange, may also be 
drawn from it. These colours are extracted 
from the archil by the means of acids, and all 
those that are thus made may be looked upon as 
much more lasting than the others, though 
strictly speaking, they are not of the good dye. 

There are two methods of extracting these red 
colours from the archil. The first is by incor- 
porating some acid in the composition itself that 
is made use of to reduce this plant to a paste 
Csuch as is known to the dyers under the name 
of archil). I have been assured that it may hf- 
made violet and even blue, which probably is 
done by the mixture of some alkalis, but I must 
confess I could not succeed in it, although I 
made above twenty trials for that purpose. I 
shall now proceed to the second method of 
extracting from archil a beautiful and pretty 



iasliiig red, and Vvhich I executed four timeji 
Tvith success. 

Bas^tard Scarlet by Are hit. 

Prepared archil from the Canaries is diluted 
as usual in warm water, and a small quantity of 
the coriimon composition for scarlet is added, 
vvhich is as has been shown in the preceding 
treatise, a solution of tin in aqua regia, weakened 
with water; this acid clears the liquor immedi- 
ately and gives it a scarlet colour. The wool 
or stuff is then to be dipped in this liquor, and 
left till it has received the shade required. If 
the colour should not have brightness enough, 
a little more of the composition must be put in, 
and pretty near the same method must be fol- 
lovv^ed as in the dying of common scarlet : I tried 
to make it in tvvo^ liquors as the scarlet, that is, 
to boil the stuft' with the composition, and a 
small quantity of archil, and afterwards to finish 
it with a greater quantity of both, and I sue 
Gceded equally ; but the operation is longer after 
this manner, and I have sometimes made as fine 
a colour in one liquor. Thus the dyer may 
take his choice of either of these methods. 

I cannot exactly fix the quantity of ingredients 
in this operation. First, as it depends on the 
shade that is to be given to the stuff. Second, 
as it is a new process in dying, I have not had 
sufficient experiments to know with exactness 
the quantity of archil and composition which 
ought to be used : the success also depends on 
the greater or lesser acidity of the composition. 
In short, this method of dying with archil is so 
easy, that by making two or three trials in small, 
more knowledge will be acquired from it than I 
could teach in a large volume : I must only add, 
tljat the more the colour drawn from this ingrc- 

dyer's companion. 247 

dient approaches the scarlet, the n^ore lasting 
it is, I have made a great number of shades 
from the same archil, and which consequently- 
only diftered by the greater or less quantity of 
the composition, and I always found that the 
more the archil went from the natural colour, 
the more lasting it became, so that whtn I 
brought it to the shade known by the name of 
bastard scarlet, it withstood the action of the air 
and every proof almost as well as that which is 
commonly made with cochineal or madder. 

If too much composition be put in the litjuor, 
the w ool will become of an orange colour, and 
disagreeable. The same thing also happens w^ith 
cochineal, so that this is not an inconvenience 
peculiar to this dye ; besides it is easily avoided 
by proceeding gradually in the addition of the 
composition, and by putting a small quantity 
at first. . 

I have tried the different acids in this scarlet 
composition, but none succeeded vv/ell ; vinegar 
did not give a sufficient redness to the liquor, 
and the stuff dyed in it only took a colour of 
lees of wine, which even was not more lasting 
in the air than that of the archil in its natural 
state, and other acids saddened the colour. In 
short, it appears that (as in scarlet with cochi-. 
neal) a metallic basis extremely white must be 
united to the red of the archil, and this basis 
is the clax of tin. I have repeated the same 
operation with the archil of Auvergne, but the 
colours were not near so fine or so good. 

Receiiit IS^th. Red of Brazil or Red-wood. 

UNDER the general name of Brazil w^ood 
is comprehended that of Fernambouc, St. Mar- 
tha, Japan, Nicaragua and some others, which 
I shall not here distinguish, since they are 


all used after the same manner for dying. Some 
give greater variety of colours than others, or 
firier ; but this often proceeds from the parts of 
the wood being more or less exposed to the air 
or that some parts of it may be rotted. The 
soimdest or highest in colour are to be chosen 
for dying. 

All those woods give a tolerable good colour, 
either used alone, mixt with logwood, or with 
other colouring ingredients. It will be shewn 
that, in the false or bastard violet, a little Bra- 
zil was added to the logwood; but in the vinous 
greys, or those which have a cast of the red, a 
great deal more is used. Sometimes only, a 
small quantity of galls is put with the Brazil, 
and it is saddened with copperas; often also 
with logwood, archil, or some other ingredient^ 
it is added according to the shade, from whence 
it is not possible to give any fixed rule for this 
kind of work, on account of the infinite varie- 
ty of shades which are obtained from these dif- 
ferent mixtures. 

The natural colour of the Brazil, and for 
which it is most used, is the false scarlet, which 
appears fine and bright, but far inferior to the 
brightness of the cochineal or gum-lacque. 

To extract the colour from this wood, the 
hardest water, such as will not dissolve soap, 
must be made use of, for river water has not 
near so good an effect ; it must be cut into 
chips and boiled for three hours ; the water is 
then taken out and put into a large vessel, and 
fresh well-water put on the wood and boiled 
again for three hours ; this water is added to the 

This liquor, which is called juice of Brazil, 
must be old and fermented, and rope like an 
oily wine, before it is fit for use. To extract a 
bright red from it, the stuff must be filled with 

dyer's companion. 249 

the salts of the common liquor of preparation, 
but the allum must predominate, for the tartar 
alone, and also sour water, greatly spoils the 
beauty of this colour : in short, acids are hurt- 
ful to it, and dissolve its red colouring part. 
Four ounces of allum for each pound of stuif is 
to be added to the liquor, and only two ounces 
of tartar, or even less. The wool is to be boiled 
in it for three hours ; it is then taken out and 
gently wrung,, and thus kept moist for eight days 
at least, that by the salts being retained it may 
be sufficiently prepared to receive the dye. To 
dye wdth this, one or two pails full of the old 
juice of Brazil is put into a convenient copper, 
and w^ell scummed. Dip the stuff vyhich has 
remained eight or ten days moistened in the pre- 
paring liquor, and it must be well worked in it 
without making the liquor boil too strongly, un- 
til it be smoothly and equally dyed. Care must 
be taken to wring a corner of this stuff now and 
then, as I have already said, to judge of its co- 
lour, for whilst wet, it appears at least three 
shades deeper than when dry. By this method, 
which is somewhat tedious, very bright reds 
are made, perfectly imitating certain colours 
the English sell under the name of Campeachy 
scarlets, which by the proof of dyes, are not 
found to be better than this, only that they seem 
to have been lightly maddered. 

This red, of which I have given the process, 
and which is no where else described, withstands 
the weather three or four months in the v^^inter, 
without losing any of its shade ; on the contra- 
ry, it saddens, and seems to acquire a ground, 
but it does not stand the proof of tartar. 

Some dyers of the great dye use Brazil to 

heighten the red of madder, either to save this 

root, or make its red more bright than usual. 

This is done by dipping in a Brazil liquor a 



Stuff, begun with the madder, but this kind of 
fraudulent dye is expressly forbid by the French 
regulations, as well as any mixture of the great 
dye with the lesser, because it can onlj^ serve to 
cheat, and to pass for a fine madder red, a colour 
which in a few days loses all its brightness along 
with the shade, which has been drawn from the 
Brazil, prepared in the common manner. 

The first colour extracted from this wood is 
not of a good dye, probably because it is an in- 
digested sap, and whose colouring particles have 
not been sufficiently attenuated to be retained 
and sufficiently fixed in the pores of the wool 
dyed in it- When these first gross parts of the 
colour have been carried oft, those that remain 
in small quantity are finer, and mixing them- 
selves to the yellow parts, which are furnished 
by the pure woody parts, the red resulting from 
it is more lasting. 

By the means of acids, of what kind soever, 
all the red colour of this wood is carried off or 
disappears ; then the stuff that is dyed by it takes 
a hind colour, more or less deep in proportion 
to the time it is kept in the liquor, and this co- 
lour is of a very good dye. 

It is said that the dyers of Amboise, have a 
method of binding the Brazil colour in this 
manner ; after their stuffs lightly maddered have 
been passed' through a liquor of weld, and con- 
sequently boiled twice in allum and tartar, they 
put arsenic and pearlash in the juice of Brazil, 
and it is asserted that this colour then resists the 
proofs ; I tried this process, but it did not suc- 

When a very bright red is required from the 
Brazil, I know by experience that it is possible 
to insure the colour drawn from it after such a 
manner, that, having exposed it thirty days to 
the rays of the summer's sun, it will not change. 


but these kind of colours are coffee and chesnut 

To make these, I keep the stufi moistened in 
its liquor in a cellar for fifteen days ; this liquor 
is prepared as for the reds, of which I have 
heretofore spoken ; I fill a copper to two-thirds 
with well water, and the remaining third up with 
Brazil juice, to which I add about one ounce of 
Aleppo galls in very fine powder to every pound 
of stuff, and then boil it one or two hours, as I 
want the shade to be in deepness : the stuff is 
aired from time to time, and wlien it has taken 
the colour desired, it is well cooled before it is 
washed. This stuff being brushed, the nap lay- 
ed and cold pressed, comes out very fine and 
very smooth. 

As to brazil and other subjects for red of the 
lesser dye, they must all undergo a similar pre. 
paration as has been described, and when the 
red of these subjects are connected with other 
dyes, you will see it fully described in the re- 
ceipts of the preceding work. 

I shall close this subject of the red, by giving 
some remarks on the experiments of cochineal 

Zinc dissolved in spirit of nitre changes the 
red of cochineal to a slaty violet colour. 

The salt of lead, used instead of cream of tar- 
tar, makes a lilac somewhat faded; a proof 
that some portion of lead is joined to the colour 
of the cochineal. 

Vitriolated tartar made with potash and vi- 
triol destroys its red, and there only remains an 
agath grey. 

Bismuth dissolved in spirit of nitre, weaken- 
ed by an equal part of common water, and pour- 
ed on the liquor of cochineal, gives the cloth 
a dove-grey, very beautiful and very bright. 

A solution of copper in spirit of nitre not 



weakened, gives to the cochineal a dirty crim- 

Cupullated silver a cinnamon colour a little 
on the brovv^n. 
^ Arsenic added to the liquor of cochineal, 
gives a brighter cinnamon than the preceding. 

Gold dissolved in aqua regia gave a streaked 
chesnut, which made the cloth appear as if it 
had been manufactured with wool of different 

Mercury dissolved with spirit of nitre, pro- 
duces pretty near the same effect. 

Glauber's salts alone destroys the red, like 
the vitriolated tartar, and produces like that an 
agath grey, but not of the good dye: because 
this salt easily dissolves even in cold water, and 
besides it calcines in the air. 

The fixed salt of urine gives a cinder-grey 
oolour, where not the least tincture of red is 
perceived, and like the foregoing is not of a 
good dye, for it is a salt that cannot form a sol. 
id cement in the pores of the wool, as it is 
soluble by the moisture of the ain 


Receipt \39 th. OF BROTVM 

BROAVN is one of the primary or material 
colours ; it is fourth in rank, and it has a great 
iiumberof variable shades, and is dependent on 
the power of the corrosive, from the darkest to 
the lightest shades, let the subjects be of what 
rank they will, either inclining to blue or yellow, 
red or black, they must be corroded, before it can 
be a real colour, otherwise it would be a mixture 
audit would be no colour in itself, yet there is no 

dyer's companion. 253 

colour that has so great a connection with the 
mixture of colours as the brown, as will be 
shown in the sequel ; it has a variety of sub- 
jects as will be shown, and its corrosive powers 
is copperas; the subjects are so numerous I 
shall only mention the principle ones. Brown is 
placed in this rank, because it enters in the com- 
position of a great number of colours, as you 
may see in the preceding work, in the receipts 
for browns, &c. ; the working is different from 
others, for commonly no preparation is given to 
the wool to be dyed brawn, and like the blue it 
is only dipped in hot water. The rinds or barks 
and roots of the butternut, walnut and hickory, 
the barks of white oak, of chesnut, of maple, of 
alder, nut galls and the gulls of all oaks, santal, 
sumac, roudoul or sovie, soot, &c. are used in 
this dye : butternut bark is the one most in use, 
and may be ranked as the first, it produces a 
great variety of shades and if rightly used its co- 
lour is permanent, and is one of the greatest co- 
louring substitutes in the Northern States ; it is 
good in all browns mixed with brown and yel- 
low, or brown, red and yellow, as you may see 
by my former work. As the bark of butternut 
is so common, aiid so well explained in the re- 
ceipts in the preceding, I shall say no more of it 

Browns are all saddened or darkened with 
copperas in proportion to the shade required ; 
the other colouring subjects for brown will be 
noticed hereafter. 


Receifit 140M. OF BLACK. 

BLACK is the fifth primary or material co- 
lour ; its principle subject is logwood ; it is gov- 


eriied by the power of the corrosi\e, in v/hich aU 
colours and shades are absorbed and corroded 
in darkness. The barks, galls, sumac, &c. serve 
to make a body yviththe g^odsfor the logwood to 
act upon, the acid of argal and the alkali, corrects 
the vi^iolic acid, that it receives by the green vi- 
trioi or copperas ; this vitriolic acid rouses the 
logwood and gives it a purple brown for which it 
must be corroded either by acid or alkali, or both. 
Black has but one shade; that of black or darkness, 
yet it is denominated as having four, blue black, 
because the blue is not absorbed ; grey black, 
the pores or bodies are not filled ; brown black, 
for want of a neutral to correct the vitriolic acid 
and the slightly parts ^of the logwood ; and the* 
Coal black, that is, perfectly fine and velvety o 

Receijit 14 Is^ FOR BLACK. 

FOR one hundred pounds of cloth, fill youii 
copper with water, then add sixty pounds of 
logwood chips, thirty pounds of sumac and three 
pounds of nut galls, or white oak bark as pre- 
pared for tanners may be substituted for nut 
galls ; heat and boil well one hour, then run 
your cloth one and an half hours ; then take up 
and cool, boil again, and run as before ; cool, 
and take two pounds and a half ofpearlash, dis- 
solve it in six gallons of warm water, then pul- 
verize one pound and a half of verdigrease, and 
add one gallon of the pearlash liquor ; let it 
simmer over a moderate fire wuth often stirring, 
but not boil ; then take thirty pounds of cop- 
peras and put w'ith the remaining pearlash li- 
quor, and dissolve it, then add it to the dye, run 
your cloth one hour, take out and cool; then add 
the verdigrease solution, run again with the dye 
boiling, run and air as before ; then add three 
pounds and a half of blue vitriol, run again and 

DYER S C0MPANI02>r. 2oO 

yoti will have a fine black. The verdigreasc 
and blue vitriol, stand as neutrals in this dye ; 
the verdigrease is a mineral of copper, and is 
much finer than iron, of course has a small- 
er quantity of earth with it ; it is an assistant in 
saddening, and rouses the logwood :^ blue or 
a Roman vitriol, is a mineral of a vitriolic sub- 
stance, and they both serve to assist and correct 
the logwood and the vitriolic acid of the copper- 
as, they are both corroding and acid powers in 
this dye and all other dyes where used. 

Jleceifit 142r/. Aiwikcr form for Black, in which the 
brictleness and ^j)eakness of the goods is com/iletdij 

FOR one hundred weight of cloth, fill your 
boiler with fair water, take twenty pounds of 
yellow oak bark ground as for tan, or twelve 
pounds of fustic chips as a substitute for the 
bark, boil well one hour ; then add twenty -five 
pounds of copperas, rake the dye well, then run 
your cloth one hour, take out, air and return 
again, and reel w^ith the dye boiling as before ; 
then air and rince your cloth clean, shift your 
liquor from your boiler, clean well, fill w^ith wa- 
ter and add forty-six pounds of logwood chips^ 
twenty pounds of sumac well dried, and three 
pounds of nut galls pulverized, or twelve pounds 
of white oak bark as for tan may be sub- 
stituted for galls ; boil one hour, then run 
your cloth two hours ; then take up and cool^ 
boil again a few minutes, run as before and 
air ; then add three pounds of pearlash or potash 
dissolved, and two pounds of blue vitriol, boil 
well, run your cloth tw'o hours with the dye 
boiling, and your black will be fine and affixed, 
not superficial and smutty : the black will be 
soft and velvety. I shall now proceed to give 


the reasons why blacks are so tender, brittle and 
smutty ; goods are not brittled altogetJier by 
the vitriolic acid that the copperas contains, as is 
the general opinion ; first, copperas is made up 
of three parts, earth, iron and acid, and when 
applied to the dye of black, according to com- 
mon form after the vegetable astringents of log- 
wood, sumac, galls, &;c. ; the earth of the 
copperas being the lightest part first enters the 
bodies; the pores and fibres of the wool are clos- 
ed by the astringents, and the vitriolic acid has 
not power to f 3rce out the earth and gain admis- 
sion for the iron, because it is so inclosed, and 
the fibres shut by the astringents that it never 
enters and preys on the bodies, but remains 
only superficial. Galls are the most astringent 
of any vegetable, and when any of these vegeta- 
ble astringent substances are first used without 
a preparation, the sahs after they are applied, 
remain superficial and never enter the bodies of 
the wool ; and further it binds all the fibres and 
bodies of the wool with all the resin and glu- 
tinous substance that remains of the animal in 
the bodies of the wool, and that resin becomes 
aifixed and causes it to crock. The wool is brit- 
tle because the earth has entered the pores of the 
wool, and is bound by the astringents ; for that 
reason the iron and acid remains on the outside 
and never enters the bodies of the wool, and it 
cannot be affixed, but remains superficial. It 
may be asked, why do not blacks lose all theit 
colour '? I answer it is not the affixity, but being 
loaded with such a mass of colouring substances 
that the rays of light cannot reflect upon it, and 
after it has lost half the colour, that it first re- 
ceived, there is a sufficient body to resist the 
rays of light ; for example, take oneitenth part 
of the colouring ingredients and apply them ex- 
actly in the same form as for black, and you will 

dyer's COMPANI02;. 257 

find it will admit the rays of light, and will soon 
lose all its colour ; this shows that the colour 
is not affixed but superficial : these are the 
reasons why blacks in general are tender and 
liable to be smutty ; in short not to tire the 
patience of the reader, I have endeavoured to 
show the cause of the tenderness and liability 
of blacks to crock ; I will endeavour to give 
the process (by differently applying the goods 
and colouring subjects) to prevent their be- 
ing tender and smutty. By first preparing the 
goods with copperas and fustic or bark, a por- 
tion of the acid of the copperas evaporates, and 
the earth principally unites with part of the acid 
and the colouring subject and drives out the 
colour of this subject, and leaves the astringen- 
cy ; and when the goods are entered, the iron and 
colouring substance, with a small portion of the 
acid enters the vvool and becomes affixed, and 
the air drives it into the pores and crystalizes it, 
that the iron and acid cannot be dissolved by 
air and water ; by rincing in cold water it 
removes all the useless substance, and part of 
the earth and acid, and is divested of all the su- 
perficjous matter ; by emptying the copper j'ou 
are divested of the whole of the earth, that the 
copperas contains ; now it is prepared for the 
logwood, sumac, galls, &cc. ; these astringents 
take immediate hold of the bodies of these pre- 
pared goods, and becomes affixed in all the 
pores and fibres of the wool. The alkali of pe<irL 
ash, &c. does not bind the colour, but only 
corrects and takes off the light and fleery part of 
the logwood ; the verdigrease and blue vitriol, 
rouses the colouring substances; as acids, 
they are more so than copperas, and the mineral 
mucti finer. The blue vitriol is pvossessed of a 
large portion of earth, much more tlian copperas 
lor verdigrease, and is very astringent and ought 

258 APPENDIX 10 THE, &C. 

never to be used in a preparation, only in the last 
of a dye after the goods have had a preparation 
and the fibres of the wool closed by the astrin- 
gents, then the earth of the vitriol remains super- 
ficial and is all dissolved or washed away by 
water; but as an astringent, it is the most so 
of all vitriols, it binds the colouring substances, 
but corrects none. 

The cleansing and scouring of the blacks 
ought to be noticed : the ancient form of cleans- 
ing black is, after the loose dye is rinced off, 
then fill them with fullers earth, it only works 
through the cloth in the mill, and by this fritting 
it swallows up all the superficial part of the dye, 
and rince with clear water : but this is not the 
best way, after you have rinced off in the mill 
the loose dye hang the cloth out and dry, and 
to every hundred pounds of cloth take two pound 
of hanl soap, dissolve it in warm water sufficient 
to wet them, say twelve gallons, then take three 
pints of beef gall, mix it with the soap water 
and sprinkle on the cloth, let it run m the mill 
fifteen minutes, and then rince well. The soap 
removes all the loose parts of the dye stuff, and 
the beef gall makes them all affixed and binds 
the whole, as it is an astringent. Some errone. 
ously use soap only, but that is the reverse, anc! 
leaves the wool too openj like other alkalis. 


L 259 ] 





On the mixture of Colours, 

ON the five principle colours in this and the preceding 
work, I have endeavoured to point out the best methods tor 
practice, both in the greater and lesser dye. I shall now 
endeavour to show the connection these colours have by 
twos, and by threes, but it will be generally on the great or 
good dye ; it will be needless to have a repetition in this 
work, as there is iu the former work above fifty receipts 
which give a variety of shades of the lesser dye, and it is 
well explained iii the essay on the properties and effecthi o£ 
dye stuffs & their dependin:r powers. 

On mixing Colours tJiree by three. 

Blue, yellow and black, produce all d-irk j^'eens to a 
black — Blue, red, and yellow, produce olives, grecnisli greys 
and other colours of the same kind ; when the mixture con- 
tains blue it is usual to begin with that colour. — I^lne, red 
and brovvn, produce from the darkest to the lightest shades. 
Blue, red ar.d black, produce a numerous variety of shades. 
Blae, yellow and brown, produce greens and olives of all 
kinds.-^Blae, brown and black, produce olivts and greenish 
greys— Red, yellow and brown, produce, orange, gold 
colour, burnt cinnamon and snuff colours of all kinds.— Red, 
yellow and black, produce a colour which resembles a 
withered leaf. — Lastly, from yellow, brown and biack, you 
obtain hair colour, nut brown, 8cc. Four of these colours 
may be mixed together, and sometimes five, bi.n this is not 
usual. It vis needless to enlarge upon this subject, I shall 
only observe that a variety of different shades may be ob- 
tained from each of these colours ; the design of this enume~ 
ration is only to give a general idea of the iRvredients that 
are proper for the production of coloirs, co^^post;d of sev- 
eral others. As it respects the lesser dye of grass gret- n ob- 
tained from chymick, it is well explained in the former 


work ; I shall only mention the process for pea-green, and 
vefer to receipt No. 6» for the preparation of liie ciiymick for 
the blue: the goods being well scoured me to be allutned, 
ror every twenty pounds weight, two pounds of ulluin is to 
be put into a copper with fair warer, and the goods boiled 
gently an hour and a half; whilst 'his is i)erforniing, ano- 
ther copper is got ready. In which tu:;tic chips are put to 
boil ; if there are anv to dye pea-yjreen it is best to dye them 
Srst, not as practised in soaje dye-houses, for this great 
yeuson, that when several parcels of goods have been 
through the sanne liquor, tht re re«nains a scurf which the 
acid extracts, and that is sur^^ to stick to the next parcel 
thdt goes in ; and if pea-green was the last,, the colour would 
he dulled therebv. The greens ()jea-grten excepted) are 
to be turned about ten minutes in the allum liquor after they 
are dyed, in or«ler to clear them of the stuff, and render the 
C(Mour brighter. The allum liquor is not to be hotter than 
that the hand m.ybe borne in. Observe, if the allum was 
put m (as is customary in sonie dye-houses) with the fustic, 
it would retard its working so well ; for allum, being an acid, 
would discharge if used with, as well as prepare for fustic. 

IN the first ages of the world this was esteemed the rich- 
est of all colours. Purple was the colour o1 the garments 
that designated men who were distinguished by their civil 
and ^ehginus ^tllti. ns This beautiful colour was obtained 
from a shell fish resembling the oyster ; it is taken on the 
without any other ingredient this fish coast of Palestine; 
a>lours the purple ; it gives a bright and lasting coh ur to all 
goods that have received its impression ; this dye stuff 
comes so highly charged that it has never been much used 
in any part of Europe or An^erica. 

The Grecians found a sul>stituie for purple in a plant call- 
©<1 amorgis ; it is probable neither of these will be used in 
this part of the world, as both are very expensive. 

THE brightest orange is raised by first colouring the cloth 
scarlet, and then dipping it m a yellow dye of turmeric and 
fustic ; it may be obtained by colouring the cloth crimson 
and then yellow, or first dipping it in a red- wood or madder 
dye, then in the yellow dye, &c. 

0/ tJie mxture of the Colours three by three. 

I will again repeat the primitive colours three by three, 
to impress on the dyers mind what he ought to begin 
with, and the preparation to govern the dye. 

From blue, red, and yellovv, the red olives and j^reenish 
greys are made, and some otlier like shades of little use 
only for spun wool designed for tapestry. It would be a 

dyer's companion. 261 

repetition to giv^ the method of using; these colours, having 
sufficiently explained it in the preceding pages. 

In the mixture, where blue is a shade, it is usual to begin 
with it; the stuff is afterwards boiled to give it the other 
colours, in which it is dipped alternately one after the other ; 
notwithstanding they are sometinies mixed together, and 
are as good, provided they are colours which require the 
same preparation ; for example, the madder-red and the 
yellow. As to the cochineal and kermes, tiiey are seldom 
used in these common colours, but only light colours which 
have a bloom or vinous hue, and which must be bright and 
brilliant, and then they are not used in th< la^t liquor, that 
is. the stuff is only dipped in when it has received the other 
colours, unleas they are to be greyed a little, which is lastly 
done by passing them through the br<>wning. it is impossi- 
ble to give any precise rules for this work, and the least 
practice of these rules vvill teach more than 1 could say ia 
many volumes. 

Olives are made from blue, red, and brown, from the 
deepest to the lightest, and by giving a little shade of red, the 
slated greys, the lavender greys, and such like. 

From the blue, the red, and the black, an infinite number 
of greys of all shades are made, as the sage grey, the pigeon 
grey, the slate grey, the lead grey, the king's and prince's 
colour, browner than usual, and a variety of other colours 
almost innumerable. 

Receipt I43t/. For Faim Colour and Silver Grey, 

FAWN is a hghtish sand\ brown, being very permanent. 
For twelve pounds of wool, take half a bushel of walnut 
husks, put them in the copper of clean water, let tliem boil 
one hour; then dip your wool three hours ; take up and 
cool, and add four ounces of crude or red tartar, dip again 
tv/o hours ; take up and cool, and you have a durable co- 
lour for silver grev. 

Receipt l44i/t. FOR SILVER GREY. 

FOR twenty pounds of cloth or worsted? eight ounces of 
alium and twelve pounds of fenugreek must boil with the 
goods half an hour ; then take it up, and add one pound of 
pearlash and eight ounces of Brazil wood ; boil them gently 
with the goods half an hour ; rince it and you have a beau ^ 
tiful colour. 

• From yellow, blue, and brown, are made the greens^ 
goose dung, and olives of all kinds. 

From brown, blue, and black, are produced the brown 
olives, and the green greys. 

From the red, yellow, and brov/n, proceed the orange, 
gold colour, marigold, feule.riort, old carnations, burnt cin 
Jiamon, and tobacco of all kinds. 
Z 2 



Receipt 145 M. For Tobacco or Snuff Co^oli): 
FOR every hundred pounds ot wool take twenty pounds 
ol good ground camwood, boil well, run or dip vour wool 
tliree hours ; then have another liquor prepared of eighty 
po.inds of fustic and ten bushels of butternut bark, boil well 
till the strength is well out; takeout the chips and bark; 
stir or dip the wool six hours ; then air, and add ten pounds 
of copperas and three gallons of sig, immerse again, and 
keep It in with the dye boiling, till you obtain the shade re- 
vjuired This is a most excellent and permanent colour. 

1 offer these suggestions that workmen may suit them- 
selves in mixing colours. Europeans apprised of our in- 
creasing manufactories, attempt to baffle out attempts by 
imposing on us mixed cloth as fashionable ; they are sensi- 
ble that the younger look to the older nations for the pat- 
terns of their garments, and for fashionable colours of their 
cloths ; for this reason the Europeans frequently change or 
mix their colours to retain our adherence to their markets. 
Of Colours -which ivill endure milUng. 
DEEP blue with all its shades black» red brown, smoke 
and snuff browns, cinnamon, crimson, madder-red, pink, 
purple, chiret with red-wood, all browns and drabs. I in- 
sert thee observations to accommodate those people that 
\vould wish to mix any of these colours in the wool for cloth 
that is to be milled. 


A few remarks on Dye Drugs^ Woods, and Barks^ and 
Salts /ire/iaratory to them 
THERE are various qualities, and many dyers fail in their 
iudgment of the indigo ; the best is imported from Spanish 
America, it is generally soft, and will swim on the surface ctf 
water, and is called flotong, this is the best kind of indigo 
for blues, and no other o\ight ever to be used for saxon 
greens. French indigo is much harder and in lamps about 
two inches square ; if good, when broken it will appear a 
fine purple, this will make a fine blue. Carolina indigo will 
ansv/er for almost all colours, where indigo is used, if it will 
mix well with oil of vitriol, it will answer forlall blues ; iliis 
kind of indigo is in lumps about the size of French indigo ; 
you may break a lump and find its quality by cutting or 
scraping it with the edge of a knife, and wetting and rubbing 
it on the nail : if the colour adheres to the nail it may be 
pronounced good ; but if it appear of a purple, and something 
mouldy as if the air had passed through it, or puts on a sad, 
dirty, dull colour, breaks hard and flinty, and is full of small 
round white specks, it is fit for no iTse, aird wrll answer no 
purpose in dying* 


COCHINEAL is an insect cultivated in South America^ 
it is shipped to Spain, from Spain to England and from 
thence to Amerca at a high price on account of its accumu- 
lated and heavy duties. It is a strong and good dye drug, 
and will return a handsome profit to the dyer when used in 
scarlets, pinks and crimsons. That which is good will ap- 
pear plump and look as though a light sprinkling of flour 
had been cast upon it. If you keep it dry in a glass bottle* 
stopped tight, it will remain good many years. There is a 
kind of cochineal wild and uncultivated, it is small and 
shrivelled, will make a good colour, but will require three 
times the weight of the other. Some cochineal is damaged 
by salt water ; this appears of a dirty crimson cast, and iB 
fit for no use. 

CAMWOOD is with pro])riety called the best of dyC 
woods; I think it must be a species of saunders ; its colour is 
permanent, and will resist the influence of the air and al- 
most all acids. It is not many years since the use of it was 
first known in the United States ; it is in logs of wood from 
six inches to a foot through ; it splits freely and when good is 
heavy ; on opening it, the first appeai'ance is a bright r^^d- 
dish orange, on being exposed to the air it turns reddish ; 
its smell is pungent It is much more convenient for the dy- 
er to have it ground, or you rrmst chip it fine ; it being a very 
close wood it will require much boiling : that which is 
ground, if good will appear of a yellowish red ; if you wave 
it a hot dust will arise, which irritates the nose and the 
glands of the throat; that which is mild and of a darkish 
red has been leeched and will produce no good colour. 
RED- WOOD makes fineculours and is useful in many 
dyes, whether used alone or with logwood ; if used with log- 
wood it will produce violet lilac, andv is useful in browns 
"where red is required; it is good for a pink, claret, 8cc, ; it is 
better to use nut galls with it Brazil comes in small sticks; 
if good, looks bright, of a little yellowish red, smells agree- 
able, and chips freely. The colour obtained from this wood 
is not lasting if obtained hastily ; the liquor ought to sour, 
then the colour will be permanent; that which has hten 
damaged by the sea- water or otherwise, afford a dull red 
chip, and is cohesive and clingv. 

NICARx\GU A is in sticks of various sizes ; these sticks 
b^ve a number of concaves m them, which have the appear- 
ance of art. This wood splits fceely, and is of a reddish 
©range colour, it gives a bright colour, and is used much the 
same as braxil ivood, but is preferable in browns, S;e, 



SOME have mistaken barwood for camwood, and not 
knowing the use, both have been condemiied. Barwood will 
dye chocolates and darkish browns ; it commonly comes in 
clefts, it is of a re Idish brown, splits freely one way of the 
grain, the other hard and rough. 

Chymical History of Saunders y audits difference from her Red- 

RED saanders is a hard, compact ponderous wood, of a 
dark blackish red on the outside, and a light red colour 
■within ; of no particular smell or taste It i^ brought from 
the Coromandel coast and from Golconda. Of the tree we 
have no certain account* Its principal use is as a colouring 
drug Those whose business it is to rasp and grind it into 
powder, probably employ c- rtain saline or oth r additions to 
improve the colour; whence the remarkable differences 
in the colour of powdered saunders prepared in different 
places That of Strasburgh is of the deepest and liveliest red. 
Some sorts are of a dead dark red, and some of a pale brick 
red ; some incline to purple or vinlet, and some to brown. 

The c<^l()ur ot this wood resides wholly in its resin, and 
hence is extracted by rectified spirit, whilst water, though 
it takes up a portion of mucil iginous matter, gains no tinge, 
or only a slight yellowish one From two ounces of the 
wood were obtained by spirit of wine three drachms and a 
half of resmous extract, and afterwards by water, a scruple 
of mucilage. By applying water at first, I obtained from 
two ounces two drachms and six grains of a tough mucila- 
ginous extract, which could not easily be reduced to dryness. 
The remainder still yielded, with sj.irit, two drachms of 
resin* The indissoluble matter weighed, in the first case, an 
ounce and a half aud fifteen grains; in the latter, nineteen 
grains less. Neither the distilled water nor spirit had any 
remarkable taste or smell. 

The red colour if saunders appears to be no other than a 
concentrated yellow, for by bare dilution it becomes yellow. 
A grain of the' resinous extract, dissolved in an ounce of rec- 
tified spirt, tinges it red, but this solution, n^ixt with a quart 
of fresh spirit, give only a yellow hue- Hoffman reports that 
this resin does not give a tincture to any kind of oil. i have 
tried five oils, those of amber, turpentine, almonds, anni- 
seeds, and lavt nder. It gave no colour to the two first, but 
a deep red to the last, and a paler red to the other two. 


OF these 1 shall make but tew remarks as they have been 
well explained in the preceding. 

Of Weld.— Weld is a plant that may be cultivated among 
ws; it is two seasons coming to maturity and m«ct be cut 


and cured when in the bloom or blossotn, and dried without 
wet and put up in castas for use : this gives the best and 
most permanent yellow. 

FUSTIC is the wood or species of mulberry-tree» groW- 
ing in Jamaica and Brazil, called by Sir Hans Sloane^ 
Morus Fructu Viridi L^gno Sulfihurco Tmctorio, It ib (^f a 
deep sulphur yellow coiuur, which it readily gives out both 
to water and spirit. The watery decoction dyes prepared 
woollen of a very durable orange yellow : the colour is im- 
bibed by the cloth in a moderate warmth without boiling. 

The fustet or fustel of the French is a yellow wood or 
yoot very different from our fustic It gives a fine orange 
dye to woollen, but the colour is extremely perishable in the 
air. The plant grows wild in Italy and Frovence, and is 
cultivated with us in gardens on account of the beauty of its 
firswers. It is called Venice sumach^ cotinus cotiaria^ cocci* 
gria ; cQftnus matthioli, C B. 

As to yellow wood, green wood, turmeric, &c.I shall mak^ 
np further remarks. 

Of Log-wood (U a colonring drug. 
LOGWOOD or Campeachy wood (Lignum Brazil^- 
simile, caruleo tingens, J B, id the wood of a low prickly 
tree, which grows plentifully about Campeachy or the Bay 
of Honduras, and has of late been introduced into some of 
the warmer of the British plantations, particularly Jamaica. 
It is a native of the low marshy places. The wood comes 
over in pretty large logs, cleared from the bark. It is very 
hard, compact, heivy, and of a red colour. 

Logwood gives out its colour both to watery and spir- 
ituous menstrua, but not readily to either without boiling; it 
requires to be chopped fine or ground, and damped with 
water a month iTC two before use, when it gives more co- 
lour and is easitM' extracted. Rectified spirit extracts the 
colour more easily, and from a larger proportion of the wood 
than water does. 

The tinctures both in water and in spirit are of a fine red, 
with an admixture, particularly in the water)^ one, of a 
violet or purple. Volatile alkaline salts or spirits incline 
the colour m^ore to purple. The vegetable and nitrous 
acids render it pale, the vitriolic and marine acidsdeepen it. 
The watery decoction, wrote with on papen loses its red- 
ness in a few days and becomes wholly violet. 1 his colour 
it communicates also to woollen cloth previously prepar- 
ed by boiling with a solution of allum and tartar. The dye 
is beautiful, but very perishable. It is often used by the 
dyers as an ingredient in compound colour, for procuring 
certain shades which are not easily hit by other materials. 


With chalybeate solutions it strikes a black Hence it is 
employed in conjunction with those for staining 
-wood black for picture frames, &c. and with the addition of 
galls for dying cloth and hats black. The black dyes in 
which this wood is an ingredient, have a pnrticular lustre 
and softness, far beyond those made with vitriol and galls 
alone. The beauty however which it here imparts is not 
permanent, any more than its own natural violet dye. 

On the same principle it improves also the- lustre and 
blackness cf writing ink. Ink made with vitriol and galls 
does not attain to its full blackness, till aft^^r it has lain 
some time upon the paper. A due addition cf logwood ren- 
ders it of a deep black as its flows from the pen especially 
when vinegar or white wine is used for the menstruum 

Dococtions and extracts made from logwood have an 
ngreeable sweetish taste, followed by a slight astringency. 
They have lately been introduced into medicine, and given 
with success in cases where mild restringcnts are required. 
Ihey often tioge the stools, and sometimes the urine of a 
red colour. 

Of Copperas or Green Vitriol. — Copperas is an extract of 
iron corroded by acids, commonly old rusty iron and vine- 
gar, this is the reason of its containing so great a prnportioji 
of earth, and congeals into a salt; as a substitute for copperas 
take of the filings of iron, and put them in vinegar and let it 
stand a m.onth, you will have a much purer darkeriing sub^ 
stance. Tl«e bestcopperasis the brown, orthat which appears 
to be mouldy, it is the cream of the mineral ; the deep green 
will make the brightest blues and browns, but is not so 
strong as the other, and will not make so good a black ; 
that of a pah; greei» colour is worth but little. The iron is 
corroded with diiferent acids, as oil of vitriol, kc. and will 
answer no ])urpose in dying : copperas ought to be kept in 
a celler where it is not very damp nor open that the acid 
may evaporate. 

Oi Nut Galls —Nut galls are of great use in dying black 
and greys ; galls are the basis in the ground preparatory to 
all cotton dying, except blue, the astringency of the galls 
becomes affixed on the body of the cotton, and the colouring 
substance immediately adheres to it. The galls come from 
Aleppo and Smyrna ; the Aleppo galls are generally the 
best, they come highly charged, and are not so much used 
as they ought to be in dying : some barks may be substitut- 
ed, as v/ili be mentioned ; our oak galls gathered and cur- 
ed in their season will answer nearly the same pur- 
pose, and it is wished that those who have oak groves would 
gather them, that they may be brought into use. 

Of Sumac — Sumac is a crooked hhrub with spreading 
branches of different heights^ and grows spontaneously in 


many parts of the country. It is !ised in three different 
•ways; when the wood is used only, the bark and sap must 
be shaved off, as there is a glutinous balsam in the sap and 
bark which will adhere to the cloth and will form a res.n, 
that will have a bad effect on the goods; the other methods 
are to cut the sprouts and branches with the bobs or berries 
of one season's growth, make or cure them as you would hay, 
without wet, and put them up for use ; in the' third method 
the process is the same in cutting and curing, it is then con- 
veyed to the sumac factory, where it is manufactured and 
put in casks ; this is the best for common use. It never 
ought to be used green, on account of the gum, which evapo- 
rates or disappears in the curing and manufacturing. The 
-wood is useful in drabs; and the manufactured in blacks, 
browns, 6c c 


BUTTERNUT bark is the best colouring substance in 
North America, it will give a variety of shades, and if used 
right its colour is durable ; it is good in many browns but 
not in black. It is best to use it when green, through 
the autumn and winter seasons ; the wood ought to be cut 
in the last of November, for the winter's use, and housed, 
and the bark shaved off as you want to use it ; in using it, it 
should be cut fine, put it in the boiler and put a fire under 
it the day before you begin vour colouring, that the liquor 
may be warm ; immerse the goods when it is as hot as you 
can bear the hand ; never suffer it to boil, and the colour 
will be permanent, but it it boils the colour will not be so 
bright, the shade will be differt*nt and the colour will not be 
lasting In the Spring when the bark will slip, peel the 
bark from the trees, for the Summer's use. and house it im- 
mediately after peeling ; never cure it in the sun ; after it is 
dry it may be boiled, yet the colour will not be so lasting; 
by using it ^reen and dry , boiling and not boiling, and by cut- 
ting it at difft*rent seasons of the year, you may produce a 
number of shades, from a dark smoke to an orange and flesh 
colour. It is good in smokes, olives and snuff colours. 

Of Yellow Oik bark. — This bark gives a lasting colour and 
is good gre^en or dry. bit better if prepared as f«r tanners, 
or rasped and ground ; It is excellent in black, very good in 
olives, and is a cleau subst'iuce. 

Of Walnut orH cliorv bark —This is much the same as 
the oak bark, but its colou*- is brighter, the dye of this bark 
is durable and will answer the sariie rmrpcse as the oak: the 
rind or husks of the nut are n^ost excellent. 

Of White Oak bark — This is a most excellent bark on 
account ^-f its astringencv, its colour i? lasting and may be 
used in anv dye that galls are used in as a substitute aftej* it 
is dry and ground ab tor tanners. 


Of Alder bark. — This bark is good and its impression is 
durable ; it is good in black and alnn';'St all dark colours ; 
by filling up the ground of the colour it leaves it bright. 

Of Hemlock bark. — Hemlock is a very good bark for 
colouring; thf^ rap should be taken off; it is good green or 
drv ; in light browns it gives a colour of a reddish cast 

Ot Yellow Birch, V/hite Ash and Sassafras barks —These 
are good in light browns and ash colours, if us»d right ; the 
colours will be clear and beautiful, and they will leave the 
cloth soft and nice. 

Of Chesnut, Maple and White Birch barks. — These 
produce beautiful browns very much alike ; they answer in 
greys, biit the colour soon fades. It is to be ob^erved that 
bark of the roots and the rinds of the nuts, give much mfjre 
colour than the barks of the bodies and may be used the 
same as their respective trees. 

To preserve Dye- Stuffs J rom injuri>. 

STRICT uttention oughi to be paid to this branch of busi- 
ness, as s me dye-stuff will loose all its valuable qualities, 
and s >me by collecting filth and dirt become useless. Wood 
if the stick of all kinds ought to be kept in a di7 celler, 
rasedfrom the ground and kept from dirt ; all yellow wood 
when chipped or ground ought to be put in casks and ex « 
eluded from the air. Camvvood and logwood whether chip- 
ped or ground ou^ht to stand open in casks, and be kept 
clean as it improves by the air in a dry celler ; copperas 
may be treated the same way. Madder, woad, indigo, and 
all aieotics should be kept in a celler and excluded the 
air, as it destroys all their active volatile substances. All 
preparatory salts and colouring drugs ought to have close 
boxes, to keep out the dirt and air. All liquid substances 
must be put in glass bottles, stopped close with glass or wax 
stoppers Galls and all rinds and birks require to be kept 
in some dry place, or they will bt liable to mould and mil- 
dew, which will destrov all their colouring substances, ike 
The Cxdtivation of Teaales. 

TEASLES are the most useful and necessary to dress 
fine cloth well, and without them cloth cannot be well nap- 
ped, or a good pile or b')dy raised. Among common cloth- 
dressers they are but little used or their value known, I may 
say they are not used the tenth part of what they ought to be. 
This plant is very productive both in burs and se- ds, and 
is easily cultivated; the seeds ought to be sown or jjlanted 
early m the spring ; they are two seasons growing to ma- 
turity ; when the plants becomes large enough to transplant^ 
set them in moist rich ground, about eighteen inches apart, 
h(^ them, and keep them clear from weeds ; during the 
su nmer they will have fifteen or twenty long rou^h leaves; 
before winter, before it freezes hard, cover the plants with 
brush, and spread straw over ihem, as soon as winter breaks 

l^YER^S COMPANIO:^* 269 

take ofF the brush and straw, and when the weeds arise, 
hoe them twice or thrice, by June they will begin to stalk 
and branch out in various branches ; from the stalk 
out long leaves within six or eig;ht inches of each other, and 
form around the stalk, resembling a dish with two long han- 
dles, and standing erect ; in this bowl or bason spring two 
other stalks; it supplies itself with water by rains and 
dews in this bowl ; upon the end of each branch is a bur, 
•some one and a half inches diameter, and four inches long-p 
Eo in different grades, some not larger than the end of the 
linger: a plant frequently produces one hundred and fifty 
burs, of which fifty will be fit for use; they rise from three 
to four feet ; the bur is curiously set, resembling the 
honey-comb, with very sharp points, hooking towards the 
fctalks. After the blossoms have fallen off, is the time to 
cut them, within about six inches of the stalks, dry tkenri 
%vell, and keep them from wet, as the water will ruin them 
after they are cut and laid dov/n ; the bur slieds its water 
while on the stalk: by this method the factories and cloth- 
dressers may supply themselves with the most useful imple- 
ments for dressing cloth : the mode of using them is well 
known, and how they ought to be used v/iil be explained in 
the sequel. It is but a short time since they have become 
a matter of note and speculation among us. I know of a 
man, who raised one crop of teasles on lialf an acre of 
ground, which he sold at wholesale to the dealers for Four 
Hundred Dollars : now my friends use economy^ save your 
jnoney and raise your own teasles, and you will have thena 
when you want them : if you once get in the use of thena 
and have any desire to have your work look well, you will 
never be without them ; they ai^e nature's cards, and nature 
lias provided more than we can by art. 


Of Sorting Wool 
THIS 13 an important branch in manufacturing woolleh 
-;cloth, as there are more than one hundred different qualities 
^f wool : every fleece ought to be divided in four parcels, that 
on the neck and fore shoulders of the sheep, is the finest ; 
that on the back and partly on the sidess the next ; on the 
bellv, the vhird; on the legs and hinder parts, the fourth: 
in this form, the w^ool ought to be assorted, from all species 
of slieep. Among the different species of -Jieep, are the 
merino, full and part blood, the Enghsh, the common, the 
Vienna, the cape sheep, &c.; from these sheep v^e have al- 
most innumerable qualities of wool, which ought to bv well 
assorted, and kept separate for their several usts. The best 
v/or.l for superfine broad cloth, is the thick set, fine and curly 
--T/coh and is the worst to work ; the second pick of the i^. 

4 ^ 


blood is proper to match witli the first pick of the half blood > 
followini^ this rule, except that what is on the legs and rump 
of the sheep, which is only fit for listing, carpeting and 
coarse cloth- There is another quality of wool, long, silky 
and open, Uiis ought to be combed into worsted ; from this 
proceeds a variety of qualities, that may be wrought into 
cloth for light weaving' : there is still another very coarse 
and hairy wool, this ought to be wrought into cloth, for bear- 
skin, lion-skin andbaises. Lamb's wool should be made in- 
to cloth for flannels, of various qualities, it v, ill be much 
whiter, will felt better in the mill and nap much easier. It 
requires strict attention and good judgment to assort wool; 
on the assorter depends all the beauty or ground of manu- 
facturing cloth ; by mixmg coari>e and fine together you 
have no distinction in the quality ; one pound of coarse wool 
is enough to destroy the quality of ten pounds of fine, 6cc. 
Of Scouring or IVasJung of Wool. 

This is another very important branch, and very much ne« 
■glectedfor three reasons: first) the wool in its natural state is 
possessed not only w^ith the animal oil, but a sort of gum which 
preserves the wool on the animal, it keeps out the inclemen- 
cy of the weather, the heat of the sun, 6cc. If not divested 
of this before use it gums and gluts the wool and cards, it 
forms with the oil that is applied for carding, a sticking 
glutinous gum ^^^hich destroys the active life of the wool ; 
it will spin slubby and you cannot have good yarn Second, if 
the wool is to be coloured it is veiy injurious to many dyes, and 
it requires strict attention from tlie dyer, as it will soon over^ 
set the blue dve, and that is one thing why so many fail 
in their blues. And thirdly, to admit it never injures any 
dye ; there is another objection, if the wool is coloured 
v/ith any part of the gum and animal oil, it forms a sort of 
resin that becomes affixed in the bodies and fibres of the 
wool by the hct 1 quor, and never can be removed ; and the 
colour will remain only superficial. Froni this the dyers, and 
inanufacturers may I6arn the cause of their. cloths crocking. 
There are different modes of scouring wool in prac- 
iice, 1 shall describe all those worthy of noiice; but first 
point out the way I conceive to be the best, and the mode 
geuerally practised in Europe and in the best manufac- 
tories in tlie United Stales of America. 

In the first place you oueht to provide yourself with a 
boiler that will hold three barrels-, it is better to have it of 
cast iron, as tlie alkali and aniiral oil will corrode the 
tx^pper ; have this set near your stream of running water, or 
y<'ur large cistern that will contain two hundred hogsheads 
of wateri for the convenience of rincing ; reference ought 
to be had for convenience ot working and heating, and fur- 
ther they both ought to be set with a roof over the sap and 
open to the sides, that the air may pass through ; otherwise 

dyer's eoMPA^MON. 271 

tlie volatile substance of the urine will nearly take the breath, 
let it htand adjoining the wash-house, or rincint^ place ; then 
have a wash-box made four feet deep and four feet square, 
v.ith a sieve or strainer about one foot from the bottom, with 
agate or sluice way to take the water out at pleasure. Some 
use a basket for rincing this is not as good or convenient. 
Have your box placed so you may easily let the water into it, 
have another box like a 'sieve at the bottom to cast the 
wool in, to drain after rincing. If you wish to make des- 
patch in drying, have a press with a screw to squeeze the 
■water all out and spread it out immediately to dry. The 
scouring of wool is prrrperly the care of the dyers, let it be 
for what colour it vvill, the tilth and natural oil of tiie wool 
ought to be extracted audit divested of all the gum The na- ^ 
tural oil which adheres to the wool preserves it in the ware- 
houses and also from moths. The process is as follows, to 
eighteen pails full of water put six pails full of fermented 
sig or urine, mix them together in the boiler, heat as hot as 
you can bear the hand in it without scalding; take tweiUy 
pounds of wool stir this gently to and fro with sticks for that 
purpose about fifteen minutes, keeping the heat the same ; 
take it up in a basket, squeeze the liquor from the wool into 
the boiler, then cast it while warm into the wash-box, set 
the cold water to it, stir it backward and forward with 
sticks so as to keep the vvool open ; then drain off this wa- 
ter, fill the box again with fair water, stir as before till the 
■wool isall open and clean; then with apole takethe wool out 
and cast it in the other box to drain ; while this is rincing 
another draught may be put in the boiler and thus proceed 
till the whole is scoured: as the liquor wastes fresh is to be- 
added of one part sig and two parts water, but if the urine 
is strong and old you may add three parts water. A man will 
in this way generally scour a bale of wool in a day, if it 
■weighs two hundred and fifty pounds in the fat; it generally 
less looses sixty pounds in scouring, but the diminution of 
•weight varies in proportion to the wool being more ov 
scoured, and in proportion to the more or less fat contain- 
ed therein ; too much attention cannot be paid to scouring 
as it is better disposed for the reception of the dyes. This 
5s the best method in scouring and is followed in the manu- 
factory of Audley in Normandy, where cloths are beautifully 

A solution of soap and water cleans the wool of the filth 
and oil; there is one objection to this, it felts the wool. 
Another method comes nearest to the urine, to twenty-four 
pails full of water take four ounces pearlash and two ounces 
oil of vitriol, the vitriol neutralizes the pearlash and gives life 
to the wool and leaves it clean ; following the same processiri 
cleaning as before mentioned, the vitriol is a mineral oil, and 
fQrmins ^ solution with the vegetable alkali, of these ic 


icvms a connection near in substance to the ammal alka'ii 
of fermented urine^ 2cc. 

0/ ^MJLinufaciuring' Chl7i. 
BUT little remains to be !>aid on this subject, more than 
Vnat is given in the precedinj^ work. After the wool is 
scoured and dyed, have it looked over, take from it all the 
burs and dirt, and clip all the dead ends ; to sixteen pounds 
of wool take two pounds of sweet or gotwi sperm oil ; then 
pick with-the picker or hand, to mix the oil with tlie wool 
to leave it open ; then card it into rolls with a nnachine, or 
by hand cards, your cards require to be in fineness to youp 
^vool ; from thence have it spun into yam, the waff or filling 
slack twisted ; then weave it into cloth ; have it sleighed 
according to the fineness cf the yam, and closed to make it 
sq^olre as much waff and warp. Be cautions in ha\ing good 
list yam, and make a good list two inches wide for br^ ad 
cloth : this list is of no use only to the mill man, dyer and fin- 
isher, and cloth that is to be milled cannot, be handsomely 
finished without the list ; after the cloths are wove, if they 
are not ready to mill they must be overhauled every week 
or ten days, to give them air and keep them from mildew ; 
the oil and size ccilects^ dampness and causes a heat or fer- 
mentation which will mildew without air, aiid destroy the 
life cf the wool ; when the cloth is wove have it burled or 
picked of all the knots, burs and doubiers carefully, then it 
"vriM be fit for the mill. 

Of MUBng Claih. 

OF the fulling mill — ITiere are various fcrriiS in use. and 
the most of them badly constructed, yet I shall give no form, 
but let every miilman follow his own choice; I will only 
remark that the falling mill rightly constructed, makes the 
firmest and best cloth, and is the most diflBcult mill to tend ; 
the crank mills are the best to scour and wash, are less lia- 
ble to damage and are easier tended* On the whole, the 
crank mill ought to have the preference. There are differ- 
ent forms cf milling and scouring, and some of them are so 
bad that the mill man ought to be brought to the seat of jus- 
tice and prosecuted for fraud, or barred the privilege of mill- 
ing. They will fall their cloths in lies, because this method 
is cheaper than scap : this is a pernicious way cf doing busi- 
ness ; the clcth will be rough, brittle and will not do half 
the service, as f fulled in soap ; the lie will start the grease; 
he only saves to himself a few cents while he robs the com- 
munity cf Tiany dollars. Some full the cloth in the grease, 
till it is sufficiently milled ; this is a bad practice, it \viIJ leave 
the cloth loose, and it does not uniformly unite in felting; you 
cannot have firm, well milled chths in this way, althr ugh it 
will appear thic'^v. Some leave ereae in c1 th» Cnftt-r they 
^e .milled ; this is a piece cf insufferable deceit and ^ove;!- 


ness ; when in the cold air, such cloths will appear to be 
thick, and firm, when warm they will be limsy and emit a 
foetid nasty smell; you cannot make a bright colour on 
them ; they will snuit, and never can be finished handsonne. 
will always be catching dirt, and will not do half the service 
as when cleansed from the grease. 

I shall now give the mode I practise, and the general 
mode practised in England and France. The stock of cloth 
ought to be in proportion to your mill, and the mill so con- 
structed as to turn the cloth 'gradually, every time the ham- 
mer fetches up to the stock For the first milling' or scour- 
ingthe filth and grease out of the cloth, to fifty yards of broad 
cloth or eighty pounds weight, take two pounds of pearlash, 
dissolve in one gallon of warm rain or river water ; then 
take eight gallons of well fermented urine, mix it together, 
sprinkle it carefully and evenly over the cloth lill the liquoi? 
is all on, then lay it in the mill, let run one hour, take out, 
handle over and speedily lay it in again, iet it run one and an 
half hours ; take it out and stretch the cloth all over; lay it 
in again» run till it forms in a proper body ff r millinyi ; then 
turn into the mill gradually five or six pails full of warm wa- 
ter, as warm as you can bear the hand in ; when it is all in a 
lather, let the cold water run on the cloth, till all the sig, 
filth and grease is washed out : if the cloth tv/istsand bincls 
up, so that it does not run regular, hand over, lay it in again 
and rince till clean ; then take it out on a scray, hang it out 
to dry ; when dry, take it to the barling board, look the 
stock of cloth all over, pick all the knots, burs, and cotton 
or linen specks, that remains in the cloth of the second 
burling; at this time after scouring may be seen all the 
defects, that will be injurious in finishing, as no burling ever 
ought to be done after the milling is finished: this is the first 
milling or scouring it, and divesting it of the filth and 

Jlnother method about as good for scowincf. 

TAKE for a stock as before, eight gallons of good soft 
soap, eight gallons of hot water, and eight gallons of sig, 
mix them together; sprinkle it over the cloth, when as warm, 
as you can bear the hand, sufficient to wet the cloth, let run 
in the mill, till all has received the liquor equally, say ten 
minutes; take out, hand over, double up close and let lay 
eight or ten hours; then lay it in the mill, run one hour, ani 
manage as in the preceding, and it will divest the cloths of 
their filth, grease, &c. : when it is dry and burled, it is ready 
for the stcond milling. Take for a stock as before describ- 
ed, white hard soap as made at Roxbury without rosin, as 
the rosin is mjurious to the cloth ; it gluts aiid hardens the 
wool, that it will not appear fine Take of white soap, six 
pounds shaved up fi' e, i;ut in a tub, add seven gallons of 
hot water, (but not boiling;, stir till the soap is ail dissolved ; 



Avhen it is as warm as you can bear the hand, sprinkle k 
caretully over the cloth by little and li tie ; lay it in the milU 
let it run one h( iir ; if not wet enou^h add' a little more 
soap, but be cauticus and not have it too wet as it retards the 
miUing and the cloth will not be as firm : have it so wet that 
you may easily wring out the soap with th thumb and finger ; 
as it dries and requires soap, add n.ore ; Irequently hand- 
ling over and stretching the cloth, that it may not grow or 
adhere; have your eye at tht mill, handle over whenever 
it does not turn well, sti etch once in an hour and a half or 
two hours, and add siap as it is wanted, till all the soap that 
is prepared is on if required : manage in this manner till you 
have brought your clnth to a right thickness and it is well 
milled, or to the length and brt-adth required. When it is 
milled to your l-king pour a few pails of warm water gently 
on the cloths, then rince with cold water till all the soap is 
extracted and the water runs clear and clean from the mill 
and cloth ; take it out, stretch and lay it smooth: when it is 
^'fiady for dressin.?- or finishing. 

Some use soft soap for milling, but this is a bad practice, 
is it is to<i hharp and fiery, and raises the wool too much ; 
the cloth will bu loos^- and spungy ; the white hard soap is. 
the reverse, it will maice the doth firm, use as much as it 
v^ill bear and the cloth will be much better and firmer. 
Of Fimshing Cloth 

NOT much more remains to be said, than what has 
been said in the former work ; there are various forms \r\ 
practice, the same may be said with respect to tools and 
luachinery. Let every workman fix on his own form ; but 
this much may be said,the beauty of the cloth much depends 
after it is well milled in raising the nap, and that ought to 
be done with teasels with the cloth wet. It ought for a su- 
perfine cloth to have three good nappings, so as to have the 
pile cover the thread every time after shearing ; have it 
sheared even and close twice ; every time you raise on the 
face side, alwavs raise the nap one way of the cloth, that is 
leading toward the mark ; when it is sheared and raised tha 
third or last time with teasels it is ready for dying. If not 
dyed in tlie wool, all the pile should be raised before the 
oloth is dyed, as colouring brittles the wool and you can 
iiever get a good pile. after it is dyed ; when dyed and 
cleaned from the dye stuff, lay the nap with good limber 
jack^ out of warm water straight and smooth, or with a gig 
as a substitute for jacks, teasels may be used in a gig also; 
then stietch it on the bars straight and smooth, and lay the 
nap with a brush when wet, then sheer again twice or three 
iiuies on the face as it requires ; observe never to shear the 
lists heading and footings, shear once on the back side, look 
it over and se^ it is free from specks and defects ; then 
-'»rusii It thoroughly wuh a brosh and s^4 board, or omery' 

dykr's coMPxiNioN. 275- 

board with it a little damped, roll it hard on a roller, let it 
remain six hours then fold for the press. If fine cloth put 
it in good smooth press papers and press cold, screw it very 
hard ; if coarse, press hot and do not screw hard. It iu best 
for a factory to have plates of cast iron about three-eighths 
of an inch thick to place between each draft, have them 
made in size to the papers ; put between each di'aft halt 
the bize of the papers, heat these plates in a stove for that 
purpose, let it remain in the press twenty-four hours, thea 
shift the fold ; press as before, take it cut of the papers antJ 
pack fit for market. 

Of Sulphuring and Whitening Woollen Cloth. 
A TIGH'i' convenient room is necessary for this purpose, 
it should be prepared with shutters or scupper holes which 
may be thrown open when necessary ; and drive tanter 
hooks in the Joyce within six or eight inches of each 
other; for every hundred weight of woollen cloth take ^ix 
pounds of sulphur, have a number of chafing-dishes or other 
vessels for that purpose, place them at an equal distance 
from each other on th floor, put about half a found of sul- 
phur in each vessel; then have your goods prepared, wet 
evenly but not so as to drip, with weak soap-suds of white 
hard soap, then hang it by the lists straight and smooth 
on the hooks, with one edge hanging d(wij and the spaces 
between each piece three inches. When thus prepared 
sprinkle ashes on the sulphur and set fire to it, shut the roonn 
tight for six or eight hours, then throw open the shutters ov 
scupper holes to let the sulphureous vapour blow off, foB 
was any person to enter such a room before it is ventulated 
he would be in danger of suffixating : by this procf dure 
woollen cloth may be rendered as white as India shirting, 
i will give a few reasons for this effect, the sulphur is'a 
mineral possessed of a great share of acid, and the acid 
evaporating by the heat sc izes immediately on the body of 
the wool and makes it uniform by addmg to those parts thafc 
have not sufficient fife and taking from those that have too 
mucli, andby utiiting in all the body of the wool equahy when 
it enters it immediately drives out tlie alkali of soap, and all 
the glutinous gum of the animal; as the alkali and acid 
form no connection, and the acid will corrode the alkali^; it 
is so powerful it will remove all dirt, spots and defects in 
the cloth. Wool may by whitened or st .ved in the same 
manner, by preparing perches to suspend the wool loose, 
and it is wished it was put in general practice, as it divests 
it of all the crusty def^d gum which retards the dying by 
glutting the fibres of the wool, and wlien it is thus stoved it 
divests the wool of all its dead substance and gives it a unij 
form life : the wool has equal life in all the bodies if you 
ij^vest it ci this dead gum whicU is jaot equal and uniJlbrip ;• 


it is not soluble in water although it may be reinoveci 
by a preparation of the alkali, as the alkali will dissolve 
the gum, but if too powerful will destroy ihe bodies and 
animal life of the wool, instead of giving life ; the acid 
if too powerful will have near the same effect ; but by 
applying ithem >n this weak and mild way they neutrahze 
each other, and for the same reason it may be used by 
a solution of the same qualities and avoid the smell of 
brimstone after this proportion, to every thirty gallons of 
water take one pound of white hard soap, or two ounces of 
pearlash heat the water boiling hot ; then add four < unces 
of oil of vitriol, run your goods thirty minutes and ru^ce 
clean in the mill. Another method of solution for whitening 
and cleaning woollen goods take of the compound as for 
Prussian blue and green, only add double the quantity of 
vitriol you do for green ; to sixteen pounds take two tea- 
spoons full of compound, add warm water near scalding 
hot, mix it well with the water run your cloth one hour, if 
it does not blue your cloth too much you may add a little 
more, observe not to blue it so that it is hardly perceptable. 
This is the best method for flannels and all other white wool- 
len goods that are to be worn white* as it remains white 
much longer, and does not yellow as the stoved. The 
reason of this is the fibres are a little filled with the colouring 
atom ; while on the otht^r hand, the bodies are all open and 
exposed to the vapours of the air and becomes affixed 
the same as on the animal, and are not soluble by water,, 
but must be removed the same as at first, 6cc 

To knoiv -when Cloth has been ivell Milledy Finished and Dyed. 

WHEN cloth has been well milled nd finished in a prop- 
er manner it will be soft and firm ; being shorn even, it will 
present you a short thick nap which lies smooth in one reg- 
ular direction ; by drawuig the hand the way the nap in- 
elines it will feel sleek and smooth ; move th-. hand the re- 
verse the nap will feel rouii^h and prickly : if the clorh will 
bear this inspection, you may concluue the workman has 
done his duty. The workmanship on cloth, that is designed 
for handsome dressing may be discovered by the eye ; if it 
is pressed stifFlike buckram, if the nap be irregular and the 
face of the cloth be rough, the workman has not perforn^ed 
his duty, but has endeavoured to hide his failure by the 
press. The press on thick cloth is of no importance ; cloth 
should be so dressed as to wear as neatly without as with 
pressing : the only reason that thick cloths are pressed is 
to settle the bodies of the wool, and make the threads uni- 
formly smooth and firm, conipact and finished How- 
ever, if the cloth has not been regularly manufactured 
before it is dehvered to thed\er, millnian and finisher, it 
■will be beyond their power to fijuiish it neatly, Wiio«Yf» 


':jvUl inspect eloth in conformity to the foregoing directions 
if^ay easily know wiiether the worknnan finisher has pel'-- 
formed or neglected his duty. 

Did the people of this country thus inspect their cloths* 
unfaithful and ignorant cloth dressers would not be en^ploy- 
©d ; while the well inforuied, and faithful workman (it must 
be acknowledged we have some as good and able workmen 
as in any country progressing rapidly in the improvenu nts 
of useful arts,) would be enabled to do business upon a more 
extensive scale, than has been yet attempted in America. 
If cloths were manufactured and dressed as well as our' 
v/ool will admit, gentlemen in general would prefer the 
productions of their own country to those of Europe : but 
greatly to our injury, cloths of this country too generally 
have not been properly treated in dying and dressing : one 
reason is, because many who pretend to be workmen are 
entirely ignorant of colours, their combinations, and the phy- 
sical qualities of dye stuff; another reason that rnay be ren- 
dered for this imposition is, because many attempt to dress 
cloth before they are acquainted with the business, and con- 
sequently never acquire a suitable knowledge of it It would 
greatly promote the interests of the nation as well as that of 
individuals were no person to attempt the dying and finish- 
ing of cloths, until he had acquired a suitable information by 
instruction and experience : gentlemen of literary acquire- 
ments who have turned their attention to chymical anal) sis, 
acknowledge that the arc of dying is as difficult as it is 

A great proportion of the people being unacquainted with 
the clothiers and dyer's art, have been satisfied with the 
workmen they employ, though their goods have suffered 
through the ignorance or fraud of the dyer, millman and 
finisher. If the goods present a fla^iiy and fanciful colour, 
and come stiff from the press, many people suppose they 
are well dressed ; but the stiffness which the cloth has ac- 
quired from a hot and ckse press is designed merely to con- 
ceal the faults of the finisher. The populace will find on 
•wearing such goods, that the colour will soon fade, and the 
cloth soon become rough and appear course, whereas if the 
cloth had been well coloured and dressed, it would have 
%vorn smooth as long as the garment remained whole and 

For general information it may be necessarv to point out 
some further directions that any person, on viewing a piece 
of cloth may determine whether it be well coloured or not. 

Of Colours. — Some reflect a beautiful lustre from the ex- 
tremities of the nap, that is raised on cloths ; oth^ rs present 
a beautiful body from the grains of the clcth, but afford no 
lustre ; those which afford a lustre or refl« ct tie rays of 
light that incidentally fall upon them, are the deep blues, all 


greens, black, red browns, purple/ cinnamons, claref^ 
smoke, snufF and olive browns; these are full colours; li 
well dyed, by casting the eye towards the light level with 
the cloth, the hearts of vvoolthat rise up on it will appear 
bright and lively, as if the rays of light shone thronxh them : 
those colours which by this experiment appear fiint and 
languid, you may de':ermine have not received their com- 
plement of dve stuiT and are not well coloured. Scarlet 
affords no lustre, but if well dyed tlie body of the cloth will 
look glaring, beanng slightly on the orange; crimson pre- 
sents no lustre, but if well coloured gives a beautiful body: 
some reds produces a lustre and glare full of the blaze. 
There are many shades of different colours which give no 
lustre, yet they appear clear and bright. 

It is necessary that the dve should equally penetrate the 
pores of the wool, then the cloth will with few exceptions 
as to colour, if well dressed appear handsome ; but if the 
cloth has not well received the dye, or i appears daubed, it 
%vill discover the fraud or ignorance of the dyer ; but if it be 
poorly finished, however good tiie colour, the clotb \vll^ 
soever afford even a deeeot appe^snc^. 





■CGiitaining Many Useful Receijits* 

1. *To Jack or harden Leather for Horseman^ s Caps, IJohters, &€\ 
i HAVE found ijy experitiic , thai saddle luaUier is the 
best for caps and holsters. -In this case, let tlie cap, ^c. be 
perfectly dry ; and on the block when jacked ; take melt- 
ed rozin, as hot as is convenient, rub it on with asnjall swab, 
then pass the cap back and forth through alight blaze, and 
hold it to the tire till it strikes in ; repeat it u second time. 
It is a repellant to water, and k< eps the work in its place. 
For leather that has not been oiled, add to three ounces of 
rozin, one ounce of bees-wax, and halt a'n ounce of tallow. 
2d. To make Varnish for Leaifier, 
TAKE three ounces of ^un. sht Hack made fine, and one 
ounce and a half of Venice turpentine put them into one 
pint of double rectified spirits of wii e, place the bottle in hot 
sand or water for six hours, it often, and apply it 
Tvith a soft brush or the fingers when blood warm. Repeat 
it three or four times in the course of twelve hours. If you 
•wish it black for boots or sl.oes, add halt an ounce of ivy 
black &c. 

3d. To make Liquid Blacking for Boots and Shoes, 
TAKEone ounce or oil of vitnoi, one ounce sweet oil, three 
ounces of copperas, three ounces of molasses, nnx them 
together, let it stand one hour ; tiien add one pint of vinegar 
shake them well ttgether and it will bt fit f(ir use. 
hth. To prepare Feathers, Fur and Hair, to receive Med, Telloiu or 
THIS preparation is necessary as the oil must be extract- 
ed previous to colourjni;. For one ounce of feathers, take 
©ne quart of water, :idd to it one gill of sour wh. at bran wa- 
ter, one ounce of cream of tartur. and half an ouuce of 
allum ; simiiier this together ; then after the feathers are 
wnshed and nnced, put them in, let it stand twelve hours. 
iLeeping the liquor hot. "^ 

K. b. White only will receive the above colour^ 


5th. To Colour Feathers, Fur, ^c. Jlcd. 
TAKE half an ounce of cochineal niade fine, mix it Willi 
an ounce and an half of creann of tartar to one quart of wa- 
ter ; vyhen simmering hot, add a tea-spoon-full, let it stand 
ten minutes, then put it in the feathers, and so on each teu 
minutes, until exhausted. In all colouring, the dye must 
not be crowded, and soft water must be used. After the 
•whole of the colouring is in, let it stand fifteen minutes, then 
^'ince them in clear water; whilst in the dye, five or six 
drops of aquafortis may not be amiss as it sets the colour 
jr.ore on the scarlet. 

^th. To due Brussels, Red. 
^ TAKE one ounce of Brazil wood ground, half an ounce of 
raliiMo quarter ounce oF vermillion, and one pint of vinegar, 
boii well, put \n the brussels when hot and keep them in till 
eooi, and you will obtain the colour required. 
7ih. To Colour Feathers, Fur, Hair, and Woollen or Silk, Blue, of 
any shade. 
NO preparation is necessary except washing and rincing; 
To eight ounces of oil of vitriol, add one ounce of inxligo 
made fine, a tea-spoonfuU of each six or eight minutes, 
shake it often ; it must stand two or three days before it is 
fit for use ; indeed the longer it stands the better : one tea- 
spoonfull of thistoonequartof water,wheii hot as is convenient 
for flesh to bear, make an azure blue ; by adding or diminish- 
ing, any shade is produced. It is not recommended for 
woollen, except for women^s light ^vear, stockings, Sec. aa 
the colour is not very durable on the wool. Those light ar- 
ticles being easily re-coloured, it will be found the most con- 
venient and expeditious method of colouring, as ten or fif- 
teen minutes is sufficient for any of the above articles to co- 
lour. It is also very useful to revive old dye that has decay- 
t5d ; also, a few drops put into rincing water for silk, stock* 
ings, ^c givi'S the primitive clearness. 1 am sure, if the 
use of this was known, that scarce a family would be found 
T^Mthout a phial of it in their house ; when cold let it be stop- 
ed tight with a glass or wax stopper. 

?M. For Blue on Bvjissels^ 
TAKE one ounce of girjd indigo, and one ounce of bis§, 
ft small fiub of allum the size of a hazlenut, one quart 
of gum water, simmer tliem all together and dip the brussels 
\\rhenhot ; you may substitute one qiiarter of a pound of gum 
arable dissolved in one quart of hot water in iieu of gum wa- 
ter, let them lay in tht- dye two hours ; then take them out, 
cl cp them well with the hands, that in dying you may im- 
bibe the colour, hang them up to dry ; if different shades are 
required you may change the order of tlie dye.s, always 
\]vi,ig gum water or gum arabic dissolved as before ; tor 
hLic'k, use logwood, nutgalls, copperas, &c. For pui-pte 


fe-^e Inke and indigo. For carnation colours, use vermillion 
and smalt. For yellow, use berries, saifron and tartar, ail 
mixed and dissolved in gum water ; use your judgment try 

€ind see. 

9/^. To Colour Feathers, &c. Fellow and Green, 

TAKE two pounds of lustick, chip it line, bjil it in two 
gallons of water four hours, keeping the quantity of water ; 
then take out the chips, and add oae ounce of ciirht^n^y root, 
and an ounce of allum ; boil the two gallons totv/c quarts, kt 
the feathers lie in the dye one hour to make them green ; 
add two tea-spoonfuls of the oil of vitriol and indigo- They 
require to be only rinced aft^r colouring. 

lOih. For Green on Brussels and Feathers. 

TAKE one ounce of verdigrease, one ounce ^f bees- wax, 
-one ounce of tartar, one gill of vinegar, one quart of gum 
■water or four ounces of gum arabic dissolved in 7;ater ; mix 
them all together and heat them, then take the brassels and 
feathers and dip them v/ater, then in the dve,clap them 
T/ith the hand, let them lie two hours and hang them to dry. 
iith. For Lirfht Green on Woollen. 

TAKE of the juice of the herb called hirsetail to which 
add one ounce copperas, one ounce of verdi;<rease, and half 
an ounce of allum, heat it hot and handle till your colour 

\2th. To coUur Hats Green on the under side. 

TAKE two poimds of fustick, cb ip it fine, put ?t into two 
f^allons of soft w^ater, boil it four hours in brass, keeping 
nearly the quantity of water ; takeout the chips, add two 
ounces of curkemy root, and one ounce of allum ; boil this 
to three pints, brush this on the hats twice over, then add to 
one quart of this yellow liquor, three tea-spooniuls of the 
indigo and vitriol, (as mentioned in a former receipt) this 
^vill make it green, brush this on the hat two or three times, 
leaving time between for the hat to be nearly dry. 
13^;*. 7'o Colour Feathers, &c. Black. 
THIS is the most difficult colour to set. The feathers 
must lay in a preparatory liquor twelve hours ; as follows — 
To each quart of water add one tea-spoontul of aquafortis, 
it must be kept hot the whole of the tiaie : then, for three 
ounces of feathers, take two pounds of loc/vood chipped fine, 
and one pound of common sumac, put these into three gal- 
lons of water in an iron kettle, boil it four or five hours, take 
out the chips, and add two ounces of English nutgalls 
pounded fine ; boil the three gallons to thiee quarts, then 
put in the feathers, let them be twelve hours ; then take 
thr*ee ounces of conperas,and one ounce of verdigrease made 
line, put them into half a pint of urine, and stir it on a mod- 
erate fire ten or twelve minutes ; put thia to the dye, it will 
set the colour ; let them be in twelve hours more> then they 
must be washed or rinced terfectiy clean, it is posbiblte 


that hatters and others who deal in black, may find some* 
thind in this to their advantage. 

N. B The preceding receipts for feathers, fur, &c. are in- 
tended for hatters as well as dyers. 

14M. To Lacker Brass and Tin-Ware. 

TAKE gum gamboge one ounce, make it fine, put it into 
four ounces spirits of wine, let it be kept warm four hours : 
the method of using it for small ware, such as buckles for 
harness, 3cc. put them on a piece of sheet iron, heat them 
hissing hot, then dip them in the lacker one at a time, as 
last as you please. For lar^e work, let the ware be heat- 
ed, a])ply the lacker with a fine brush ; it gives a most 
beautiful yellow. 

15^/i. To soften Steel— for engravings &c, 

MAKE a very strong lie,of unslacked lime and white oak 
ashes, of each an equal quantity ; put in the steel, let it lay 
fourteen days — it will be so soft aseasilv tobe cut with aknife. 
l6//i. To make Oil-Cloth for Hats] UinbrellaSy &c. 

TAKE one pint of linseed oil, add one ounce spirits of 
•wine, one ounce of litharge of gold, and one ounce of sugar of 
lead, simmer them together half an hour ; take Persian or 
sarsnet, tack it within a frame, a common case knife is used 
in laying on the oil ; twice g^ing over is sufficient. 
iTih To make Oil-Cloth for Carpets. 

To one gill of dissolved glue add one gill of honey, and 
one pint of water, simmer these together, stir in it five or 
six ounces of Spanish white ; the cloth being tacked as 
above, rub this on till the pores are filled. If the paint be 
properly prepared, it will i 'either break nor peal ( ff 

IS th. The Chinese inetJiodfor rendering Cloth -water proof. 

TAKE one ounce of white wax, (melted) add one quart 
cf spirits of turpentine ; when thoroughly mixed and cold, 
then dip the cloth into the liquid and hang it up to dry till it 
is thoroughly dr}-. 

By the above cheap and easy method, muslin, as well as 
the strongest cloths, will be rendered quite impenetrable to 
the hardest rains ; and that without the ingredients used 
either filling up the pores of the cloth or injuring, in the 
least, its texture, or damaging, at all, the most brilliant co- 

19/A. To boil Oil for Paijxting. 

To one gallon of oil, add one ouncr <;f white vitriol, and 
an ounce of sugar of lead, a quarter at a time ; boil one hour. 
Or this, put i!i"four ounces of htharge of geld, one quarter 
of a pound of red lead, one quarter of a pound of sugar of 
lead and < ne ounce of rosin made fine ; heat over a mode- 
rate fire (but not burn), stir it two hours ; let stand and set- 
tle ; turn it off with crire. and leave the Ipcs. 
20/A. To make Stone Colour. 

TO fourteen pounds ofwiutelead, add five pounds of yel- 
low ochre, and one ounce of ivory black ; you may vary 


the shades, by adding with the lead, stone yellow and Ver- 
million, and mix it with oil to your liking. 
2isi, Ta make Pearl Colour. 
To twelve pounds of white lead, add one pound of stone 
yellow, half an ounce of Prussian blue, and two ounces of 
white vitriol to dry the paint* Vitriol is used in all paints 
for drying. 

22 J. To make deep Blue. 

TO three pounds ot white lead, add one once of Prussian 
blue. You may make your colour light or dark, by vary- 
ing your lead and blue. 

23 J. To make Sea green. 

To two pounds of stone yellow, add one ounce of Prussian 

24M. Verdlgrease Green. 
TO one pound of verdi grease, add tv/o ounces of white 
lead. Prime your work with white lead, and lamp black 
ground with oil in proper order. 

25//i. Orange Colour for Carpets. 
TO four pounds of stone vcllow . add two pounds of red lead* 

2Gth. Jo Paint Flesh Colour or Peach liloiv. 
TAKE Vv'hite and red lead, grind tUem together : you 
inay v.ake any shade you please by varying the rod and 
white lead. 

^7th. To Paint a Red Brown. 
TAKE two pounds of Spanish brown, and one pound of 
red lead, and grind thei!\ with oil. 

28//t. To Paint Black. 
TAKE lamp-black, and a small quantity of Prussian blue, 
and grind them with oil. 

29^A. To Slack Verdigrease. 
TAKE a kettle of hot wet sand, wrap four or five ounces 
of verdigrease in a cabbage leaf, put as many of ihose par- 
cels in the sand as is convenient, leaving two or three inches 
between ; let them be in four hours, keeping the sand hot. 
The verdigrease being thus slacked, a man may gnnd three 
times the quantity in a day as of unslacked. 
30^/z. To make Vermillion. 
TAKE of quick-silver eighteeii pounds, of flour of sul- 
phur six pounds ; melt the sulphur in an earther* pot, and 
pour in the quick-silver gradually, being also gently warmed, 
and stir.them well together with the small end of a tobacco 
pipe. But if from the effervescence, on adding the latter 
quantity of quick-silver, they take fire, extinguish it by 
tlirowing a wet cloth (which should be had ready) over the 
vessel. When the mass is cold, powder it, so that the sev- 
eral parts may be well mixed together. But it is not neces- 
sary to reduce it, by nicer levigation, to an impalpable state. 
Having then prepared an oblong glass body, or sublimer, 
by coating it well with fire, lute over the whole surface of 
the glass, and working a proper rim of the same around it. 


by which it may be hung in a furnace, in such a manner thp.t 
one hah of it may be exposed to Ihe fire, fix it in a proper 
far:.ace. and let the powdered mass be put into it, so as to 
nearly All I the part that is within the furnace, a piece of 
broken tile beiu^ laid over the mouth of the glass, Sublime, 
then, tlie coutents, w ith as strong a heat as may be used 
without blowing the fumes of the vermilhon out of the mouth 
of the si'blimer. VVhtn the subllvration is over, which may 
be perceived by the al^aternent of the heat towards the top 
of the body, discontinue the fire ; and after the body is cold, 
take it out of the furnace, aiid break it ; then collect together 
uli the parts of the subU^iied cake, separating caref-iUy from 
them any dress that ma;^. have been left at the bottom of the 
body, as also any lighter substance that may have been 
formed in the neck, and appears to be dissimilar to the rest. 
Levi^<ate the mo-e perfec't part; and when reduced to a 
line powder, it will be vermilhon proper for use ; but on the 
periectness of the levigation depends, in a great degree, 
the brightness and goodness of ihe vermillion. In order, 
therefore, to per^nriu this, it is necessary that two or three 
mills, of different closeness should be employed, and the last 
should be of steei, and set as finely as possible. 

S\st. Of Rose Lake, commonli^ called Rose Pink, 

TAKE Brazil wood six pounds, or three pounds of Brazil 
and three pounds of peachy wood. Boil them an hour with 
three gaHons of w^ater, in which a quarter of a pound of 
allum is dissolved. Purify then the fluid by straining through 
flannel, and put back the wood into the boiler with the same 
quantity of alhim, and proceed as before ; repeating this a 
third time. Mix th^n the three quapitities of tincture to- 
gether, and evaporate them till only two quarts of fluid 
remain. Prepare in the mean tune, eight pounds of chalk, 
by washing over ; a pound of allum beji'g put into the water 
used for tliat purpose, which, after the chalk is washed, 
must be poured off, and supplied by a fresh quantity, till the 
chalk be freed from the salt formed by the allum ; after 
^vhich, it must be dried to the consistence of stiff clay. The 
chalk and tincture, as above prepared, must be then well 
mixed together by grinding, and atterwards laid out to dry, 
•where neither the sun nor cold air can reach it ; though if it 
can be convenif^ntly done, a gentle heat may be used. 

The goodness of rose pink lies chiefiy in the brightness of 
the colour and fineness of the substance ; which last quality 
depends on the washing well the chalk. The more the hue 
of rose pink verges on the true crimson, that is to say, the less 
purple it is, the greater its value. 

32r/. For Prussiaji Blue. 

TAKE of blood anv quantity, and evaporate it to perfect 
dryness. Of this dry blood powdered take six pounds, of the 
best peariash two pounds ; mix them well together in a 


glass or stone mortar, and then put the mixed matter into 
large crucibles or earthen pots, and calcine it in a furnace, 
the top of the crucible or pot beintr covered with a tile, or 
other such convenient thing, but not luted. The calcination 
should be continued so long as any flame appears to issue 
from the matter, or rather till the flame becomes very slen- 
der and blue ; for if the fire be very strong, a small flame 
would arise for a very long time, and a great part of the 
tinging matter would be dissipated and lost. When the 
matter has been sufficiently calcined, take the vessels which 
contain it out of the fire, and as quickly as possible throw it 
into two or three gallons of water ; and as it soaks there, 
break it with a wooden spatula, that no lumps may remain ; 
put them in a proper tin vessel, and boil it for the space of 
three quarters of an hour or more. Filter it while hot 
through paper, and pass some water through the filter when 
It is run dry, to wash out the remainder of the lixivium of 
the blood and pearl ash: the earth remaining in the filter 
may be thrown away. In the mean time, dissolve of clean 
allum four pounds, and of green vitriol t r copperas two 
pounds, in three gallons of water : add this solution gradual- 
ly to the filtered lixivium, so long as any efl'ervescence ap- 
pears to arise on the mixture ; but when no ebullition or 
ferment follows the admixture, cease to put in more. Let 
the mixture then stand at rest, and a green powder will be 
precipitated ; from which, when it has thoroughly subsided, 
the clear part of the fluid must be poured off" and fresh 
>vater put in its place, and stirred well about with the green 
powder ; and after a proper time of settling, ili.s water musfe 
be poured off like the first. Take then of spirits of salta 
double the weight ot the green vitriol, which was contained 
in the quantity of solution of vitriol and allum added to the 
lixivium, which will soon turn the green matter to a blue 
colour ; and after some time, add a proper quantity of 
•water, and wash the colour in the same manner as has been 
directed for lake, 6cc. and when properly washed, proceed in 
the same manner to dry it in lumps ot convenient size. 

It is necessary, in all painting, that all paints when mixed 
together with the oil, to grind it till it is a perfect salve, so 
as when you rub it between your fingers you cannot feel any 
Tough.iess with it, but feel perfectly smouth as oil ; then it is 
ground fit for use — then add oil, ai^d stir it together what is 
necessary, or according to your liking. Oil must be boiled 
m all painting. 

S3d. To lay Gold Leaf on Carved, or Moulding' Work. 

TAKE btont. v^^low, and white ieua an tqaal quantity; 
grind it fine with old oil: brush ^his smooth over the work 
twice; let stand twenty-four hours, and then cut your leaf 
in proper form on a leather cushion v/ith a sharp knife, 
Uke up your leaf on cotton-wo(il, and put it to your work 5 


a light brush over the work after the gold is on Will add 
its beauty. 

On a method of Painiing -with JMilk — by A. A. Cadet de Vaiix : 

Member of the Academical Society of Sciences. — From tJie " DC' 

cade PUiosophlqucy 

I PUBLISHED in the " Feuille de Cultivateur," but at a 
time when the thoughts of every one were absorbed by the 
}Dubhc misfortunes, a singular economical proce-s for paint- 
ing which the wa^it of materials induced me to substitute 
instead of paintirig in distemper. Take skimmed milk, two 
quarts; fresh slacked lime, six ounces; oil of carraway, or 
linseed, or nut, four ounces ; Spanish white, five ounces. 
Put the 11 mQ into a vessel of stone ware, and pour a suffi- 
cient quantity of milk to make a smooth mixture ; then add 
the oil by degr^^^s, stirring the mixture with a small wood- 
en spatula ; then add the remainder of the milk, and finally 
the Spariiah white. Skimmed milk, in summer, is often 
curdled ; but this is of no consequence to our purpose, as its 
fluidity is soon restored by its contact with hme. It is, how- 
ever, absolutely necessary that it should not be sour ; for in 
that case it would form with the lime a kind of calcareous 
acetite, susceptible of attracnng moisture. 

The lime is slacked by plun.^mg it into water, drawing it 
out and leavin;^ it to fall to pieces in thtr air. It is indiffer- 
ent wliich of the three oils above-mentioned we use ; how- 
ever, for painting white, the "il of carraway is to be pre- 
ferred, as it is colourless. For painting the ochres, the 
conamonest lamp oH mav be nse^h Ti.e oil, when mixed 
-with the milk and lime, disappears ; being entirely dissolv- 
ed by the lime, w'th which it forms a calcareous soap. The 
Spanish white must be crumbled, and gently spread upon 
the surface of the liquid, which it gradually imbibes, and 
at last sinks ; it must then be stirred with a slick. This 
paint is coloured like distempf-.r, witii charcoal levigated in 
water, yellow ochre, 5cc. Itisusedin tlie same manner 
as distemper. The quantity above ♦i^entioned is sufficient 
lor painting the first laver of six toises, t)r fathoms. 

One of the properties of my paint, wh'th we may term 
milk distemper paint, is, that it will keep for whole months, 
and require neither lime nor lire, nor even manipulation ; 
in ten minutes we may p»'epare enough of it to paint a 
v/hole house. Ore may sleep in a chamber the night after 
dt has been painted. A single coating is sufficiert for places 
that have alieaciy been painted. It is net necessary to lay 
on two, unless where grease spots repel the first coating ; 
these should bt rem >vecl ov washing them with strong lime 
>Tater or a lie of - oap, or scr-iped fF. 

New wood requires two coatincrs One coating is suffi- 
cient for a stair-ccise, pas^sage, or ceiiing. 1 havQ suice air: 


en a far greater degree of solidity to this method of paint* 
ing : for it has been my aim» not only to substitute it in the 
place of painting in distemper, but also of oil paint. 
35th. Resinous Milk Paint, 
FOR work out of doors 1 add to the proportions of the 
milk distemper painting, two ounces of slacked lime, two 
ounces of oil, and two ounces of white Burgundy pitch. The 
pitch is to be melted in oil by a gentle heat, and added to 
the smooth mixture of milk and oil In cold weather the 
milk ought to be warmed to prevent its cooling the pitch 
too suddenly, and to facilitate its union with the milk of 
lime. This painting has some analogy with that known 
by the name of encaustic. 

I have employed the resinous milk paint for outside win- 
dow shutters, that had been previously painted with oil. 
The cheapness of the articles for this paint, makes it an 
important object for those people that have large wooden 
houses and fences.— An experiment has been made with 
this paint in this country, and it at present appears to an- 
swer perfectly the description of the inventor. 

Z^tk An easy and cheap method to Stain Cherry a Mahogany 

TAKE common whitewash of lime and water, white 
■wash the wood, let it stand perhaps twenty-four hours, then 
rub it off, after polishing the wood apply linseed oil. By using 
a small piece oi: wood you may find when the colour suits, 
37M. To mahe CJierryioood the Colour of Mahogany. 
TAKE two ounces of Spanuh brown, one of r d lead, a> 
qu?.rter of an ounce of vermillion and half an ounce of 
s]3ruce yellow, all ground fine and strained or sifted in 
clean water ; mix it well and as thick as it will pour ; then 
take a woollen cloth and dip it thereto, and rub your work, ' 
the more it is rubbed the better it will appear ; wipe off the 
"Work, varnish and pdish it. 

38 M. For a Dark Mahogany Colour. 
TAKE two pounds of logwood chips, boil well till thft 
strength is well out; take one pint of the liquor and put it 
in a bottle : then take two ounces of dragon's blood, make it 
fme and put it into a bottle, and add a pint of spirits of wine, 
■which should be well steeped, when settled it is fit for use. 
Tirst brush the wood with logwood liquor twice over, then 
-with the dragon's blood and you will obtain the colour, then 
varnish or polish &c. 
39 M. To Stain 1 flute Wood the colour oj Mahogony, or JSlaclc 

TAKE two pounds of logwood chips, boil three hours in 
water, have two quarts of liquor; then add lo one gallon of 
■water eight ounces of madder, let it stand twelve hours, 
keeping it warm, strain it off. then mix it with an equal 
-quantity of the logwood liquor ; it is applied a§ other stains; 


when hot brushing it over, and letting it dry each tinie till it 

4,0lh. To Stain any kind of JVhite Wood a Dark Red, or Ligh$ 
JManogany Colour. 

TAKE two ounces of drugs called dragon's blood, make 
it fine ; put it into a pint of double-rectified spirits of wine ; 
let it stand six or seven days, shake it often, bruhh it on the 
"wood till the shade suits. 

41 5^ To make a C/wrry Re J, on White Wood of any kind. 

TAKE of the brightest of logwood two pounds, boil out 
the strength, take out the chips, add a table spoonful of the 
rasping of gallant gill root, boil this. one hour, strain the dye 
and boil it down to one quarter of the quantity ; brush it on 
the wood when hot. reoeat it till the colour suits. 
42J. The best Red Stain for Wood. 

THIS is made by boiling two poTinds of red-wood in two 
gallons of water, in the same manner as logwood, 6cc. is 
boiled; it is necessary to boil this in brass: ^vhen boiled 
down to a proper quantity, add one ounce of cochineal, and 
two ounces of cream of tartar made fine ; boil this half an 
hour? or till there is but one quart of the liquor ; apply it 
warm, and add a tea-spoonful of aquafortis. 

43//. To maka Green, on any kind of TJTiiie Wood. 

TAKE a yellow liquor as described in receipt 9th, add the 
vitriol and indigo, less or more, to make what shade is want- 
ed. In all shades, it is necessary to repeat colouring three 
or four times, leaving time for the wood to dry betwixt each 
colouring ; the colour grows darker by standing. — The wood 
•will not do to varnish short of six or seven days after staining. 
44^^. To Stain Greeth 

TAKE three ounces of verdigreaee powdered ; put it ia 
a glass bottle with a pint of good vinegar ; let stand two 
days with often shaking, and kept warm ; brush it on the 
wood till you obtain the colour required. 

^5th. To Stain a Light Orange Colour. 

TAKE two ouiices of curkemy root pulverized and put ii> 
a glass bottle ; add to it a pint of spirits of wine, steep it 
twenty-four hours, shake it, and brush over till it pleases* 
46iA. To Stain Wood Black. 

TAKE logwood liquor to give the ground work, then take 
two ounces of English nut galls made fine, put this in -one 
quart of water, let it stand four days, shake it often, then 
brush it on, three or four times ; when almost dry, rub it 
over two or three times with strong copperas water; like 
other stidns it cf'-ows darker bv stand ng. 

^7th. Varnish for Wood either Stained or Painted. 
f THLS is iiia-k' the same as in receipt ;3d, except, mstead 
of three ounces ol gum shellack, take of it one ounce and a 
half, a.^d ore ounce and a half of gum sandrick ; it must be 
laid' With a soft brush, and several times repeated ; atttr it 
has stood three or four days, take rotten stone made fine and 


sifted, mix it with water, then with a sponge or soft linen, 
rub it on till sufficiently polished, 

N- B. If the varnihh should be too thick, you may soften 
it with spirits of turpentine. 

Uth. Varnish. 

AN excellent varni^^h has recently been discovered, made 
of one part of sandrac not pulverized, and two parts of 
spirits of wine, made cold and the solution promoted by 
frequent shaking. 

AS the method of preparing Copal Varnish, is generally 
kept secret by those who are acquainted a\ ith it, and as a 
tradesman who is desirous of knowing it, is obliged to give 
some tinriCs an hundred dollars to another, to let him into 
the secretf and that upon condition of not imparting it to any 
body else — the follmvirir to some mr^y Dot be unacceptable. 
A9ih. To make Amber or Copal Variiish. 

TAKE of white rosin four drachms, melt it over a fire in 
a glazed vessel, after which put m two ounces of the whitest 
amber you can get, finely powdered : this last is to be put in 
gradually, stirring it all the while with a small stick over a 
gentle fire, till it dissolves ; pouring in now and then a bttle 
oil of turpentine, as you find it growing stift', and continue 
this till your amber is melted. VVhen the varnish has been 
thus made,pour it into a coarse linen bag,and press it between 
two hot boards of oak, or flat plates of iron. Great care 
must be taken in making the varnish, to not set the house on 
lire; for the vapour of the oil of turpentine will even take 
fire by heat. — If it should happen so to do, immediately 
cover the pot with a board or any thing that will suffocate 
it ; by which means it will be p)ut out. 

iOth. A Composition for giving a Beautiful Polish to J\fahogany 

DISSOLVE bees- wax '^ equal parts) in oil of turpentine, 
until the mixture attain the consistency of paste. — After the 
■wood intended to be polished is well ckansed, let it be thinly 
covered with the above composition, and well rubbed with a 
piece of oil carpet, until no dirt will adhere to its surface. 
5\st. To Prepare Glue for Use. 

TAKE one ounce of isinglass, pounded fine, dissolve four 
ounces of good glue, in one quart of water and strain the 
isinglass with the glue into a small pot or vessel for that 
purpose, and put in half an ounce of allum, and boil them all 

52(i. To make an excellent Black Ink Porvder, &c, 

TAKE four ounces of nut galls powdered, two ounces of 
copperas calcined, half an ounce o: allum, and half an ounce 
of gum arabic, aJl powdered, and kept close from the air. 
To make Ink — The above is sufficient to make three 
pints of hik Take of rain or river water one quart, one 
pint of vinegar, or sour beer ; put in the powder and shake 
well and kept warm, and frequently shook together. 


53d. For Making Black Ink. 
TAKE one quart ot ram water, or water with ripe walnut 
sbooks soaked in it, or the water soaked with oak saw dust ; 
strain it off clean, then add one quarter of a pound ot the best 
bhie galls, two ounces of good copperas, and two ounces of 
gum arabic ; put it in a bottle, stop tij;ht, then shake it well 
every day till the ink is fit for use — but the older the better. 
The above articles must all be pulverized, before they are 
applied to the water. 

To keep ink. from freezing, apply a little spirits of any 
kind. To keep ink from moul in;j. apply a little salt therein. 
54M. For Red Ink, Uc. 
TAKE three pints of sour beer i^ratlitr than vinegar) and 
four ounces of ground Brazil-wof d; simmer them together 
for an hour; then strain off and bottle, well stopped, for use. 
Or you may dissolve half an ounce of gum Senegal, or 
arabic, in half a pmt cf water ; then put in a penny worth of 
Vermillion ; put into a small (.-arthen vessel and pour the gum 
■water to it, and stir it well till it is well Tr;ixed together, and 
it wDlbe fit for use in twenty-four hours — but requires stir- 
ring before using. In the same manner and form, you may 
make any other coloured ink, as blue, green, yellow, purple, 
^c. For blue, use indigo or Prussian blue ; for green, take 
verdigrease and vinegar; for yellow, use curkemy root and 
allum ; for purple, use Brazil and logwoods, with alhim and 
a little pearlash. It is necessary to steep these substitutes; 
strain and bottle off, add the gum and shake well together^ 
and kept warm. 
55 M. Wonderful Cure of the Dropsy, by Btvarf Elder, From 

the Massachusetts Magazine. 
SOME years ago, when the invalids from Chelsea were 
ordered to garrison at Portsmouth, there was among them 
a man greviously afflicted with the dropsy. He had already 
become so unwieldly as to be rendered incapable of doing 
any thing whatsoever, and was at last so corpulent that ho. 
could procure no clothes to fit him. 

In this critical situation, an herb doctor chanced to come 
by. and seeing the man in that situation, said, * Well, friend, 
what will you give me if I cure you .^' The poor object, 
(who had already spent nearly the sum of forty pounds on 
the medical gentlemen, without relief) eyeing the doctor 
with a look of contempt, scarce vouchsafed to return him 
for ansv/er, that his cure was impossible — and was prepar- 
ing to leave him, when the doctor, stopping him, offered to 
cure him for a glass of rum. So extraordinary a proposal 
did not fail to awaken the attention of the man, who consid- 
ered the extreme reasonableness of the deiuand, followed 
the doctor without speaking a word, into his laboratory, who 
taking out a bottle containing a black liquid presented it to 
his patient, teUing him to drink it olT that day, and when 
gone, to fetch his bottle for more. 
Upop a curious exjamiaation of the contents of the bottle, 


fielding it not unpleasant to the taste, the dropsical man 
ivisely concluded there could be no harm in it, if there was 
no good ; and accordingly, taking the bottle, he at night 
(though despairing of success) ventured to drink before he 
went to bed about one half of the liquor, and immediately 
composed himself t6 rest. But he had scarcely been a 
quarter of an hour in bed, before the ^physic operated so 
strongly that he was obliged to get up and search for the 
necessary utensil, 'i'his was presently filled — upon which 
he groped about for the one belonging to his comrade, 
which, having found, he also filled^ — and (strange to tell) a 
tub which was in the next room, was nearly filled. —So 
strong an evacuation of urine produced, as we may well sup- 
pose, a very material alteration ; for the next morning he 
was abl'^ to buckle his shoes, which he had not done for a 
long time. 

He Gid not fail to call on the doctor for a fresh supply, 
which having obtahied, he continued drinking at meals, &c, 
with such good effects, that he was completely cured in 
less than a week. 

A matter of such importance could not fail to attract 
the attention of the whole regiment, among whom I chanced 
to be an eye witness of it ; and asked him what the liquid 
v/as — he informed me that it was a decoction made of th^ 
leaves of dwarf elder. Yours. &c. 

56^^. Cure for the Dropsy, 
TAKE a six quart jug of old hard cider, put therein a 
pint of mustard seed, one double-handful of lignum vitas 
shavings, one double -handful of horse reddish roots; let 
them simmer together, over a slow fire, forty-eight hours, 
when it will be fit for use. Take a tea-cup full of this liquid, 
three times a day ; and it .vill work off the disorder by urine, 
without any trouble to the patient. 

A most surprising instance of the efficacy of this simple 
medicine, has lately taken place in the case of Mr Wm. 
Wray, of Lunenburg, who, from the worst state of the 
dropsy, has by it been restored to perfect health. 

The Editor having received f' urn a friend the follo-ivin^ Uecipe for 

tlie Cure of a Cancer, is induced from the veracity of the -writer ^ 

and the importance of such a remedy to many ajh'cted individuals. 

to lay it bcfure the puhUc. 

57th. ^ Ji Safe and Ejffimcioiis remedy for the Cancer. 

TAKE the n.iirow leafed dock- root, aiu. buil it in water 
till It be quite soft then bathe the part affected in the decoc- 
tion as hot as can bt born t!iree or four times a day ; the 
root must then be marshed and applied as a poultice. 

This root has provf-d an efftctual cure in many instances; 
It was first introduced by an Indian woman, who came to 
th^^ house of a person in the country vvho was much affiicted 
with a cancer in her mouth; the Indian perceiving some- 
ting was the matter, inqun-ed what it was, and on being in- 


forntied, said she would care her. The woman Consent- 
ed to a tri^il, though with little hopes of success, having 
previously u^^ed rnany things without receiving any benefit. 
The Indian went out and soon returned with a root, which 
she boiled and applied as above, and in a short time a cure 
was effected* Tlie Indian was very careful to conceal what 
these roots were, and refused gi\ingany inforn\ation res- 
pecting them ; but h'lppening one day to lay some ot them 
down, and stepping out, the woman concealed one of the 
roots, which she planted, and soon discovered what it was, 
Not long after a person in that neighbourhood being afflict- 
ed with the same complaint in her face, she informed her 
of the remedy, and in two weeks she was cured. Some 
time a'ter, a man was cured of a confirmed cancer upon ihc 
back ot his hand ; after suffering much, and bemg unable to 
get any rest, being told of this root, it was procured and 
prepared for him ; he dipped his hand in the water as hot 
as he could bear it for some time ; the root was then applied 
as a poultice, and that night he slept comfortably, and in 
two weeks his hand was entirely cured. 

Daniel Brovvm's father, ha\ ing had a cancer in his head, 
had it cut out, and apparently healed ; but some of the 
roots remaining, it again broke out : his doctor then inform- 
ed him that nothing more could be done, except buniing 
it out with hot irons ; this being too harsh a i^medy to sub- 
mit to, he was much discouraged. The dock i^oot was soon 
aft^r recommended, and it cured him in a short time. 

In the beginning of the winter of 1798, a hard lump ap- 
peared in the middle of my under lip, and in a short time 
became sorv^. : it contiiiued ui tnat situation till spring, when 
it increased and became painful : I then shewed it to a per- 
son of skill, and soon found he apprehended it to be cancer- 
ous ; after two or three different applications, the com- 
plamt increased and spread rapidly. Lot Trip, having 
heiird of my co^nplaint, mentioned this root — I called on 
hv.n to know the particulars of it ; he ^-ave me the necessa- 
ry information : the root vvus procuied, and used in the man- 
ner above-mentioned, taking a mouthful of water in which 
the roots were boiled, and let it d»'op over aiy lips as hot as 
I ct»uld bear it ; this i did three or four times a day, and 
then kept the root t) it a day and a nighi ; and in two days 
the pain entire' v If ft me. and in twc weeks it was cured. 
5^ih. Bemedy for Cancers. 

BURN half a bush-J or ibi oe pecks of green old field red 
oak bark to ashes ; bvW these ashes in three .'^■ill-'US of wa- 
ter until reduced to one ; strain that one gallon off, and boil 
it away o a substance similar to butter-milk or cream; 
apply a snnll quantity on a p^ece of silk or lint to the can- 
cer, but no larger r.han the plac- or part affected. I have 
known t>vo plaisters to effect a cure, where the cancer lay in a 


Jsropef position for the medicine immediately to penetrate 
to the roots of it ; otherwise, it may takt^ several plaisters, 
as the medicine must be repeated t very two hours until the 
roots of the cancer are killed ; then apply healhig, salve, 
%vith a little mercurial ointment mixed thereon, and dress 
it twice a day until cured, which will certainly be the cas:e 
in twenty or thirty days at farthest 1 have kno^yn seve- 
ral persons entirely relieved bv the above prescription : and 
one in particular, after two attempts by a skilful physician 
to remove the cancerous parts by exusion. 

After being greatly ahirmed myself from a cancer about 
three years ago, and having followed some time the direc- 
tions of an experienced physician I, contrary to his orders, 
and notwithstanding the fears of my family, happily applied 
two plaisters of the above medicine, and no symptoms of it 
have appeared since. 

59th. Receipe for the Cure oj the Hydrophobia^ or the Bite of a 

Mad Boj. 

[By a Physician of respectability in "NTew-York.] 

PLACE a blister on the wound immediately, the sooner 
the better ; and even if this has been neglected till the 
■wound has healed, it is necessary to apply it ; also, appl^ 
blisters to the inside of the ancles, wrists, and between the 
shoulders of the patient, keeping two running at a iimt* 
Keep the patient in the free use of vinegar, either in food or 
drink ; and if he has not got a tight room, make it so by 
hanging up blankets ; then boil a quart or two of vinegar, 
place it in the room of the patient on a chafing-dish or ket- 
tle of coals, and let the patient continue in the room fifteen 
minutes at a time morning and evening, and often wet his 
ancles, feet and wrists with it. 

Give him three or four doses of the following medicine in 
the course of three weeks, that is as often as one in five or 
six days: — Calomel eight grains, native cinnabar and salt o£ 
amber each four grains, to each dose, to be taken in the 
moining in molasses ; also, give him a decotion of tea, made 
of sarsapharilla root and guiacum chips, (commonly callect 
lignum vhx dust). If the patient is actually labouring un- 
der the symptoms of the hydrophobia, give the several rem^ 
edies more frequently ; if soon after the bite as above, Itl 
the patient actually has the disorder, when first attended to, 
repeat the remedies until he recovers; if immediately af« 
ter the bite, it will be necessary to attend him for three 
weeks, which generally, clears him from infection. His. 
diet must be light and easy of digestion generally, though he 
may make a moderate use of animal food ; but he must 
strictly avoid the use of spirituous liquors. The above is the' 
general plan I follow. LOT TRIP. 

GOih. Curejor the Bite of a Mad Dog. 

THE roots af elecampane, (the plant stav-worth) poui\3'- 


ed soft, boiled in new milk, and given plentifully to any thing 
that is bitten, during forty-eight hours, (keeping the subject 
from all other food have been found an effectual remedy for 
this dreadful and frequently fatal maladv. — jV Y. F fier, 
61 5/. Cure for the Bite of a Mad Do^. 

THE following reniedy for the bite of a mad dog is re - 
commended in the French papers : — A new laid egg is to 
be beaten up and put into a frying-pan, with oil of olives, 
cold drawn, and dressed, but not too dry. Into this is to be 
put a great quantity of powder of calcined oyster shells, 
Avhich is to be sprinkled in such quantities as the -mixture 
will absorb. This is to be given as a dose which is to be 
repeated for nine days fasting; and the wound is at the same 
time to be washed with salt water. The author of it pro- 
fesses to have tried it with repeated success, on man, dogs, 
and other animals. 

FROM A chahleston paper. 
%1d. The Infallible Cure for the Dt/sentery. 

1 HAVE been acquainted with it nearly forty years, and 
i^ever knew it to fail, i have cured all that ever had it on 
my plantation, and myself several times. Not forty days 
past, I was afflicted with the dysentary, and cured myself 
•with the receipt under written. x\bout thirty years ago, I 
cured two persons in Charleston, who had been under the 
care of three physicians, and it had baffled their art and 
skill ; yet this receipt cured them in a few days. The pub- 
lic may rely on the efficacy and infalibility of the receipt, 
viz — As soon as you find the flux is bad if possible before 
it comes to the dysentery, drink three or four tea-cupfuls of 
melted suet daily, say a cup full every three or four hours; 
let the food be the fiour of well parched Indian corn made 
into a pap with new milk, and sweeten^ with loaf sugar ; 
and let the drink be nothing else but a sfBlig tea made with 
chiped logwood, or red oak bark, and sweetened with loaf 
sugar, though it will do without sweetening. When you find 
it is checked, mak< the tea weaker ; should it stop too sud- 
den, take a little salts. With the above simples, I can cure 
thousands without the loss of one. The cure will be effect' 
ed in five, six or seven days. 

6Sd. Cure for the Dysentery. 

TAKE of the roots of the low-running blackberry vine, 
one large handful ; make a strong tea cf them in the same 
manner as you would make other tea, only let it stand on the 
coals a little longer. — Give two tea-cups full to an adult, and 
one to a child. After it has operated, give the patient a 
plenty of low balm tea, or CfUd water if preferred. Be care- 
ful when the appetite returns, to give them but a little to eat 
at a time, and that as often as the appetite calls, and no 
oftener This blackberry root tea operates as a thorough 
but gentle purge in this complaint, and as soon as it operates, 


it changes the nature of the stools ; that is, instead of blood, 
^c. the stools will be of a greenish froth, and so will continue 
to be until they become natural. 

64r^. Cure for the Dytentei^* 

TAKE new churned butter without salt, and just skim- 
ining oil' the curdy part, when melted over a clear fire, give 
two spoonfuls of the clarified remainder, twice or thrice 
within a day, to the person so affected. This has never 
failed to make almosi an 'nstant cure 

&5th. For the Dysentery & Colera, or Vomiting'. 

TAKE oil of pen; ly royal, two drops to a table-spoonful of 
molasseSi syrup or honey ; after being well stirred up, let 
one tea spoonful be adininistered every hour until it has the 
desired effect, which from experience, I can safely assure 
the public, will be found in every case of the above disorder, 
to be a speedy and Cf^rtain cure. For a grown person, the 
dose maybe doubled, and given in the sa^^ie maner. 

From an Old Lady, 
66 ^A. An Infallible Cure for the St. Anthony's Fire. 

I AM neither pUysician, surgeon, apt)thecary nor nos- 
trum-monger, (says a correspondent) but totally ignorant of 
the materia medica, except that I have swallowed large 
draughts of it, to cure me of painful returns of St. Anthony's 
Fire at spring and fall. In vain, alis! did I swallow; for 
the samt was constant in his visit at the accustomed time, 
notwithstanding the repeated prophecies of my doctor and 
apothecaries to the contrary. Fortunately for me, ten 
years since, I was favoured with a visit from a good ladv, 
during the spring confine? ent, who told me, if I would at the 
time, take the i^\(\Q.T tree blossoms and in the spring of the 
year, at e ich seas ju, for a month, drink every morning 
fasting, half a pint of elder flower tea, and the same in the 
afternoon, that it would drown the saint. The next season 
of the elder tree blossoming. I followed her advice, as also 
the spring following, and have done so these nine years; 
since whidi time, the saint has not tormented me in the least. 
I have recommended this tea, from my experience of its 
efficacy, to ten of my fellow- sufferers since my own case, 
every one of whom has found it a specific remedy. 

When the elder tree is in blossom, a sufficient quantity of 
the flowers should be gathered, in a dry day, and dried with 
great care for the spring use. The tea is made, by pouring 
a quart of boifing water on two handfuls of elder flowers, 
ivhen green ; a less quantity will do when dry. It may be 
drank hot or cold, as best suits the stomach. Each single 
blossom is not to be picked off, but the heads from the main 

67//z. For St. Anthony'' s Fire. 
TAKE a purjre ; and anoint with he marrow of mutton. 

68M. An admirable Recipe for a Consumption. 
TAKE of Madeira, (or good generous mountain) wine, 


two quarts; balsnm of Gilead, two ounces; albanum in 
tears, (gro>sly powdered) two ounces, flowers of Benjamia 
half an ou'^ce, let the nr-ixture stand three or four days neav 
the fire, frequei.tly shakii^^ ; then add thereto, of Narbonne 
honey four -uiices. extract of Canadian nr.diden hair eight 
ounces, shake the bottle well, and strain off the liquor The 
dose two tea-spoonfuls, to be taken once in four hours, in 
colt- foot tea or water, ^weeiened with capillaire. 

N. B. The Canadian n>aiden-hair, which we now import 
from thenct in great plenty is infinitely superior to that 
xv^hich grows in England. A strong infusion made of this 
kerb, sweetened ith honey or sugar candv, is the best 
ptisan which can possibly beVlrank by consumptive people., 
and will of itS'. If cure anv rect- nt cou. h. 

6DM. Cure for the Heart Bum. 

EAT two cr three osears ot peach-stones, of any kind of 
peach, and it will effect a cure immediately. Those which 
aj-t dry are preferable. 


70th. hifalhble and Effectual Cwe for the Stone. 

THROUGH the chynnel ot your paper I request a publication of 
the following cure for tiie stone by djssokition. The gentleman by 
•whose consent aud desiie, and upon whose authority tlie subsequent 
facts are offered to the pubhc, is a Mr. Richard Major, of Loudoa 
count}^, in this state, minister of the bapiist society ; a man of integ- 
rity, aiid much respected. B^ing in coni])any with him a few days 
hgo, 1 had the following relation from his own mouth :— - 

That having for a number of years been afflicted with that painful 
disease, he was at length ;ntoimed that a certain physician, his name 
unknown, labouring under the same disease, being at Berkley spring, 
a ne.i^ro man there proffered to cure him : This heat first disregarded, 
but expecting a speedy dissolution unless some aid could be obtained, 
afterwards sont for the negro, who agreed to cure him for three 
pounfls. He accordingly undertook, and in a short time effectually 
eradicated the disorder. The ])hysician then gave him his choice otf 
freedom by purcljasein lieu of the contract })etwi\'tthcm,on condition 
he would disclose the means of the cure ; to which the slave agreed. The 
receipt is the expressed juice of the horse-mint and red onions ; one 
g'ill of each to be taken morning and evening till the complaint be 
removed. That he, ^Ir. Major, being urged to a trial of the above- 
mentioned remedy, sid^mitted to it, though with some reluctance, as 
he conceived liis term of life to be but short at most. Not having it m 
)iis power to pj'ocure green mirjt, so as to get the juice, he used instead 
thereof, a strong decoction of the dried herb : in other respects strictly 
adhereingto thejprescrlption, which had the desired effect. He began 
the experiment in Atig^ust, and within a week he had ocular demon- 
stration of dissolution by the slightest touch of a particle that had 
passed from him, which continued so to do without ])ain or the least 
obstruction, until the stone was entirely dissolved, an-* the cure com- 
pletely effected before the ensuing sprinp:. That from the time the dis- 
order began to yield as aforesaid, he daily reco^ ered his health, strength 
»nd 6esh, and was in as good plight as ever, age excepted, being at the 
4ime seventy two years of age, with an appearance corresponding^ 
iWJth his own account ; and as he farther said^ witUeut the slighte&J' 


srftack of the disorder from the time he began to use the above means 
of cure. This, at his request, is communicated to the public by 

TUt. Indian Method of Curing Spitting of Blood. 
[Com unicated in a letter to the late Doctor Mead.'j 

THE foliowing case is a very extraordinary one ; but I know the 
gentleman to be a man of veracity, and had this account from his owu 
mouth. He was of a thin, hectic constitution, and laboured under a 
troublesome pulmonary cough for son. e years ; at last he was taken 
with an haemoptoe, for which he had the best advice he could get in 
Maryland, but he grew rather worse under the care of two physicians 
who attended him for several months; and at lust he was prevailed 
upofi to put himself under the care ota negro fellow, who is the Ward 
of Maryland : for he has the reputation of performing some extraor- 
dinary cures, though nature has the chief claim to them : but indeed 
this was not the case here. — In short, he advised the gentleman to go 
into a warm bath twice a day, and sit up to his chin in it, for two or 
three minutes at a time, and as soon as he came out to dash cold wa- 
ter several times on his breast, and to wear flannel next his skin. This 
method soon relieved the gentleman ; and when I lelt Maryland, which 
was about seven or eight years after the cure, he remained fne liona 
his h -moptoe, eased very much of his cough, and went through a good 
deal of exercise. 

72 J. A Receipt for Bitters to prevent the Feve' and Ague^ and all 
other Fall Fevers. 

TAKE of common meadow calamus cut into small pieces, of rue, 
wormwood and camomile, or centaury, or hoar-hound, of each two 
ounces, add to them a quart of spnng M'ater, and take a wine glass full 
of it every morning fasting. This cheap and excellent infusion is far 
more effectual than raw spirits, ir preventing fevers, and never sub- 
jects the person who uses it to an offensive breath, or to the danger of 
contracting a love for spirituous liquors. 

7Sd A certain C we for Corns. 

TAKE two ivy leaves and put them inte vinegar for twenty-four 
hours ; apply one of them to the corn, and whenVou find its viriue 
extracted, apply the other, and it will effectually and speedily remove 
the corn without the least [)ain. 

7\th. To make the most cheap and simple Electric JSlachine. 

TAKE a piece of plank eighteen or twenty inches square, place 
two small posts ata distance that will take the length of a bottle that will 
hold perhaps a quart; the bottle must be rouiid, and of flint j^lass, 
(they may be had at the apothecaries for 3s. or 3s. and 6d.) put 
in a hard wooden stopple, at the other end stick on a pice of hard 
wood with any glutinous matter, such as shoemaker's wax or the like; 
make a small hole in the center of this wood, and the stoj)ple, to re-, 
ceive two points which come thro' the posts ; thus the bottle being 
hung in a rolling position, let a band go round the neck, and be con- 
veyed to a wheel, eight or nine inches over which turhs with a crank. 
'J'hen take an eight ounce vial, coat it inside and out with tin foil ; 
this may be stuck on with stif!* glue or candied oil ; the viai must 
have a large nose, or it will be difficult to coat the inside; cork it 
tight, having a wire run through the n)iddle of the cork vith a cora- 
mon leaden bullet on the top ;' bind the wire so that thQ ball may 
come within half an inch of the cylinder or large bottle ; place it in 
the center of the cylinder, then having a piece of deer-skin leather 
sewed up and stuffed in form of a pincusion, having amalgarr rub))ed 
on ouc side, hold it to the cvlinder opposite to the ball j put the ma- 
C c2 


<ihine in motion, and the fire will colleci and fill the small vial. T« 
take a shock, hold the viai where it is coaled w»ih one hand, touch 
the ball with the other. It' a number ot persons wish to take a shock 
at once, the person at one end of tlie circle holds the vial, whilsi tl»at 
on the other touches the ball ; the vial must not be coated within one 
ifnch of the top. 

To make amalgam, ttko half an ounce of speltar, melt it, mix with 
it half an ounct of quick-silver ; whilst warm, grind it to a powder. 
This machine is very useful where a stagnation of blofKl or any kind 
of numbness has taken place ; for sudden pain, ^c. The writer has 
reason to speak well of thiS machine, as it was one lime the means 
of saving his life. It is sincerely wished that a {)hysician or sonieothei* 
person would ket-p one in each town ; the expence is no more than 
-seven or ei'^ht hilinit^^s. 

75 th To Cure Children in the -worst stage of Intoxication. 
THHl. wi iter hrtS twice known the mstance of children, msensible 
of the effect ol spjiituoiis liquor, drinking to that degree that life was 
despaired of. On their being placed in a tub of warm water over their 
hips and a tea-kettle of cohi water being poured on their head, they 
immediately recovered, and are now in perfect health. If this recei])t 
may be the means of saviogtht Id'e of but one child in the course 
of time, the writer will thirik hiiiself r.chiy paid for his trouble. 
76.Vi. Cure for the Ague. 
DRINK the decoction, (that is tlie hoiLm,, of any herb) of camo* 
iiaile, and sv^eeten it wit)» treacle ; which drmk when warm in bed- 
ojK sweat two hours. Or, to the wrists apply a mixture of rue, mus- 
tard, and ciiidiney soot, hy way of piaister. 

11 th. Curefor'Almondsof the Ears fallen doim. 
TAKE a litile boie arn.eniac in powder, and with it mix some 
Teiiice turpentine, and spread it on sheep's leather, as broad as a 
Slay, and apply it under the thr'iat from ear to ear. 
78M. A Cure for Frost Bitten Feet. 
TAKE the fat of a dung-hill fowl, and rub the place or places af- 
fected with it, niorning and evx"nir»g, over a war^n fire ; at the same 
time wr:ipping a piece f»f woolen clolii, well greased with the s:<i<l Pat, 
round the frost bitten parts. I;, two or three days they will feel no 
ijain, an<i »!i five oi- six days will bt quite cured. 

jsTote. — If the inner bark of llie elder, or the leaves of plantain, are 
ffrst simmered in sail, fat it wi!l !>e the better. 

7Sith. To Cure theA^thma^ or shortness of Breath 
TAKE a quart of acnia vitse, one ounce of anniseed bruised, one 
ounce of liquorice sliced, arid halTa pound of stoned raisins ; let them 
eep ten dc^ysin the above-mentioned, then pour it off into a bottle, 
v'lh two spoonfuls of fine siigir, and stop it very close. 

8()M. To rnuk^ Itch Oint?7umt, a certain Cure for the lick, 
TAKE owe ou-ce of «jum arahic, dissolve in twogils of water ; then 
ake one pour-d of fre^h butter, put it in with gum water, melt and try 
I together till the wftter is out; then let stand till no more than blood 
vvarm, then af'd two ounces of spirits of turpentine and two ounces of 
i:ed preciv)itate, stir and mix them with the butter and gum, and box 
it up to keep it ft om the air, an i fit for use. By carrying a box of it, 
it will be a preventitive a^rninst the disorder : it gives no disagreeable 
snicU from the use of it. A'ou may rub a little round your knees and 
eli^ows, and you may sleep w^tii a person actually afflicted with the 
-.tells without dangfr of cstching the disorder : to cure the itch, take 
'iiis ontment. rnb ofr the ^^irnples, warm the ointment if the weather 
*? cpltl, and Fub it oyeif ^eip, aud coatinuc il three tUftQS la a vcekj 


till the skin becomes smooth, which will be in a week or ten days j 
oint whe\i gomg to bed : it is well to have clean linen, &cc. 
81s^ Cure for the Salt Rheum. 

TAKE one ounce ot salts of tai tar, dissoUe it in twenty-six spoonfuls 
of fair water ; then take one spoonful or pure lime juice and add a 
lump of loaf sugar as large as a walnut, let it dissolve ; then add a 
spoonful of the tartar liquor dissolved as above, and give it the patient 
before eating, twice in twenty -four hours. 

82rf. An effectual Cure for the Rheumatism. 

WHEN the patient js aiiiicted with this pamfui disease, take the 
tow of flax, and twist a large slack cord, and fasten it round trie part 
affected and contnme wearing it next the skin ; it will effect a cure ; 
have faith try it and see. 

83//i. Good Cider as easily made as bad. 

TO make cider of early or late fruit, that will keep a length of^ 
time, without the trouble of frequent drawing off— Take the largest 
cask you have on your farm, from a barrel upwards ; put a few sticks 
in the bottom, in the manner that house-wives set a lye cask, so as 
to raise :\ vacancy of two or three niches \\ om the bottom ol the cask ; 
then lay orer these st'cks either a clean old blanket, or if that be not 
at hand, a quantity of swindling flax, so as to make a co-a of about a 
quarter of an inch thick, then ])ut in so much cleaned washed sand, 
from a beach or road, as will cover about six or eight inches m dcptU 
of your vessel ; pass all your cider from the press through a table 
cloth, suspended by the corners, which will take out the pummice ; 
and pour the liquor gently upon the sand, through which it must be 
suffered to filter gradually, and as it runs off by a tap inserted in youB 
vessel, in the vacancy made by the sticks at the bottom, it will be 
found by this easy method, as clear cider can be expected by the most 
laborious process of refining; and all the mucilagmous matter, which 
causes the fermentation and souring of cider, will be separated so as 
to prevent that disagreeable consequence. 

N. B. Other methods may be easily invented fo. passing the cidei? 
tlirough the sand, which is the only essential part of the above piocesSk 
84^/i. Method ofinaking Apple Brandy. 

The following receipt for makinij Apple Brandy, was communicat- 
e«l by Joseph Cofjper, esq. of Gloucester county, New-Jersy, accom- 
panied with a specimen of the liquor, made ni the manner he re- 
presented. The liquor is mild, mellow and pleasent ; and greatly 
superior to a])ple spirits procured by the common process 

Put the cider, previous to ilistillin.^, into vessels free from must OB 
anell, and keep it till in the state which is commonly called good, 
sound cider ; but not till sour, as that lessens the quantity and injures 
fchequahty of the spirit. In the distillation, let it run perfectly cool from 
the worm, and in the first time ofdistilhng, not longer than it will 
flash when cast on the still head and alighted candle applied under it 
In the second distillation, shift the vessel as soon as the spirit runs be- 
low proof, or has a disagreeable smell or taste, and put what runs af- 
ter with ihe low wines. By this method, the spirit, if distilled from 
good cider, w II take nearly or quite one third of its quantity to bring 
it to proof; for which purpose, take the last running from a cheese 
of good water cider, <lirect from the press, UMfermente<!, and m forty- 
eight hours the spirit will be milder and better flavoured than in seve- 
jal years standing if manufactured in the common way. When the 
spirit is drawn off, which may be done in fi e or six days, there wdl 
"ke a jelly, at the bottom, which may be dlstillf^d again, or put into the 
lest «hla- 9r WS«j U>r: xaakiog «iUeK royal, i^ b^iDg better to ihe poy^- 


pose that the clear spirit, as it will greatly facilitate in refinin* the 

S5 th. A Receipt to make an excellent American iVine : commu' 
mealed to the UurUngton Society far promoting Agriculture and 
Doiriestic jyianufactories ; by Joseph Cooper, esq. oj Gloucester 
county^ JVew-Jersy. 

I PU r a quantity of the comb, from which the honey had been 
drained, into a tub to which 1 added a barrel of cider immediately 
from the press : This mixture was well stirred, and left to soak for 
one night. It was then strained, before a fermentation had taken 
place ; and honey was added until the strength of the hquor was suffi- 
cient to bear an egg. It was then put into a barrel ; ai»d after the 
fermentation commenced, tlie cask was filled every day, for three 
or four days, thai the filth might work out the bung hole When the 
ferinentatiou moderated, I put the bung in loosely, lest stopping it tight 
might cause the cask to burst. At the end of five or six weeks the 
liqu'ir was drawn ofl^into a tub, and the white of eight eggSj well beat 
up, with a pint of c can sand, were put into it— T then added a gallon 
of cider spirit ; and after mixing the whole together, I returned it into 
the cask, which was well cleansed, bunged it tight and placed it in a 
proper situation for racking off when fine. In the month of April fol- 
lowing, I drew it off into kegs, for use ; and found it equal, in my opin- 
ion, to almost any fort-ign wine. In the opmion of many judges, it was 

This success has induced me to repeat the experiment for three 
years ; and I am persuaded, that by using the clean honey, instead of 
the comb, as above described, such an improvement might be made, 
as would enabh' the citizens of the U States to supply themselves with 
a truly federal and wholsome wine, which would not cost one quarter 
of a dollar per gallon, were all the ingredients procured at the market 
price ; and would have this peculiar advantage over every other wina 
hitherto attempted in this country, that it contains no foreign mixture, 
but is made from Ingredients produced on our own farms. 
By order of the Society, 

Wm. Coxe, jun. Secretary, 

^6M. A J^ethod of making Currant JViiie^ -which had been practised 
hymany and found to be genuine. 

[Extracted from the Transactions of Me Philosophical SocK-ty of 

GATHER your currants when full ripe ; break them well in a 
tub or vat ; press and measure your juice ; add two thirds water, 
and to each gallon of mixture, (juice add water) put three pounds of 
muscovado sugar, the cleaner and drier the better ; very coarse su- 
gar, first clarified, will do equally as well : stir it well till the sugar is 
•well dissolved, and then bung it up. Your juice should not stand over 
night if you can possiblv help it, as it should not ferment before mix- 
tiire. Observe that your cask be sweet and clean. Do not be prevail- 
ed on to add more than one third of juice, as above prescribed, for 
that wouM render it infallibly hard and unpleasent : nor yet a greater 
proportion of sugar, as it will certainly deprive it of its pure vinous 

87M. Currant Wine. 

PICK the currants (when they are f'dl ripe) clean from the stalks, 
th- n put them into an earthen vessel, and pour on them fair and clean 
hot water, that is, i qunrt of water to a gallon of currants; then 
brqjse or marsh ihcm Wgether, and let them stand and fennent j 


then cover them for twelve hours, strain them through iine lin^ 
into a large earthen crock, (as they say in Sussex) aiid then put the 
liquor into a cask, and thereto put a little ale-yeast ; and when work- 
ed and settled, bottle it off. This is exceeding pleasant, and very 
wholesome for cooling the blood. In a weak's time it will he fit foi» 

SSth. Artificial Claret 
TAKE six gallons of water, two gallons of the hest cider, and 
thereto put eight pounds of the best Malaga raisins bruised ; let thena 
stand close covered in a warm place for two weeks, stirring them eve- 
ry two days well together ; then press out the liquor into a vessel 
again, and add to it a quart of tlie juice of barberries, (which perhaps 
is best) to whicli put a pint of the juice ot" black chernes : work it up 
witli mustard seed covered with bread past for three or four days, by 
'the fire side ; after which, let it stand a week ; then bottle it off, and 
it will become near as good, if not so as to exceed, common claret. 
89 ^^. Gooseberry Wive. 
The best way is to take for every three j>ounds of fruit, one pound of 
sugai-, and a quart of fair water ; boil the water very well, but you 
must put in the aforesaid quantity of sugar when it is boiled ; bruise 
the fruit, and steep it twenty -four hours in the water ; stir it some 
time, then strain it off, and put the sugar to it and let it stand in a run- 
let close stopped for a Tt;. tnight ; then draw it ofi^ and set it up in a 
Cellar, and in two months, it will be fit to drink. 
90 M. Haspberry Wine. 
TAKE the raspberries clear from the stalks ; to a gallon of which 
put a bottle of white-wine, and let them infuse in an earthen vessel 
two or three days close covered ; then bruise the berries in the wiue, 
«nd strain them through fine linen geatly ; then let it simmer over 
a moderate fire; skim off the froth, and then strain it again, and, 
with a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar to a gallon, let it settle ; then, 
in a half a pint of white wine boil an ounce of well scented cinnamon, 
and a little mace, and put the wine, strained from the spice, into it> 
and bottle it up. 

91 5?. Dcmison Wiiie. 
DRY the damsons in an oven after you have taken out your bread, 
then to every quart of damsons put three quarts of fair water, but 
first boil it very well ; then put the water and damsons into a runlet 
with sugar ; and having stooil a tinie sufficient, bottle it of. 
92J. Wine of Grapes. 
>\HE"Nr they are full ripe, in a dry day, pick off those grapes that 
are ripest ; and squeeze them in a vat or press made for that pur- 
pose, in which must be a fine canvass bag to contain the grapes, and 
when in the press do not squeeze them so hard as to break the seeds 
if you can help it ; because the bruised seeds will give the wine a dis- 
agreeable taste : then strain it well, and let it settle on the Ires in 
such a cask or vessel as you may draw it off without raising the bot- 
tom ; then season a cask well with some scalding water, and dry it 
or sent it with a linen rag dipped in brimstone,' hy fixing it at the 
bo:.'ue, bv the bung or cork ; then put the wine into it, and stop it 
close for forty-eight hours ; then give it vent at the bogue, with a 
hole made with a gir.iblet ; iit which put a peg or f wcet,'that mav be 
easily moved with the fingers ; t' en, in about two days lime, it will 
be fit for drinking, and prove almost as good as FrenchVine. 
93£/. Wine of Straiuberries or Basbernes. 
MASH the berries, -mu] put them into a linnen hag, as aforesaid 
tor the grapes and squeeze them into a cask, and then let it work' 


as in the aforesaid grape receipt, &c. In this manner may cherry- 
wine be made ; but then you muat break the seeds, contrary to what 
ivaa said betbre corjcerning the graj)es. 

94^/j. A shor ivay for Cherry Wine. 
SQUEEZE the juice of the clierries into a cask, and thereto put a 
small quantity of su^ar, corresponding to the quantity of juice ; and 
when stood a month, it will be a rdeusan^ liqur^r. 
95ih. B'ack C/ieiry fFi?ie, 
IX the same manner, take osie gallon or more of the juice of black 
cherries and keep it in a vessel close stopped till it works ; and after 
it is tine, add an ounce of sugar to each quart, and a pint of white 

96th. Mead 
TAKE six gallons of water, and thereto put six quarts of honey, 
stirring it till the hooey be thoroughly mixed ; then set it over the 
fire, and when ready to boi'. scum it very well : then put to it a 
quarter of an ounce of mace, and as much ginger, and half an ounce 
of nutmegs, some sweet marjoram thyme, and sweet briar, together 
a handfwl : then boil iheni in the liquid, then let it stand by till cold, 
and then barrel it up for use. 

97th. To make Beer, ivitlkout Malt. 
TAKE thirteen gallons of water, boil and scum it, put two pounds 
of brown sugar and two pounds of treacle.^ it; boil them together 
half an hour, strain the liquor thro' a sieve, snd put to it a penny 
worth or two of bauni, when cold ; work it a day and a night, then 
turn it : let it stand in the barrel a day and a night, then bottle it, 
and put into eacli bottle a tea-spoon fullof bmwn sugar. 
98 ?A. To make [^00 d common Beer. 
FOn ab:^rrel of thirty two gallons take half a pound of hops, steep 
in four gallons of water two hours, strain off, then take one pound 
essence of spruce, and one gallon of molasses ; mix (hem tOirether, 
and put it in the barrel, and two cents worth of yeast, and fill with 
water : if it is summer it need not be warmed, but warm it in winter ; 
when full shake it well, and stop it loosely and in four days it will be 
fit for bottling, and use. 

9'hh For preserving Apples thro' tJie ■u.-inter. ^ 
THE secret for preserving apples through the winter, in a sound 
state, is of no small importance. Some say that shutting them up in 
a tight cask is an effectual method, and it' seems probable; for ihey 
soon rot in open air. Rnt an easier method, and what has recom- 
mended itself to me by the experience of several years, is as folloM's: — 
I gather them about noon, at the full of the moon, in the latter part 
of September or beginning of October. Then spread thenri in a cham- 
ber or garret, where they lie till about the last of November. — 
Then remove them into casks ©r boxes, in the cellar, out of the way 
of tlie frost ; but I ])refer a cool part of the cellar. With this manage- 
ment I find I can keep them till the last of May, so well that not one 
in fifty will rot. 

lOOth. To pickle Cucumbers^ green. 
WASH them, and dry them in a cloth ; then take wnter, vinegar, 
salt, fennel tops, some' dill-tops, awd a little mace ; make it sharp 
enovigli for taste ; then boil it awhile, then take it off an<l let it stand 
till cold ; then put it in the encumbers and stop the vessel close, and 
within a week they will be fit for use. 

103 5 A To pickle French Beans. 
T.\KE them while young, and cutoff the stalks, then take good 
Viuegar and boil it with pepper and salt ; season it to your palate, and 


•let it stand till cold ; then take the beans and put them into a stone 
jar, placing dill between the layers, and then put in ihe pickle, and 
cover them close for three weeks ; then take the pickle and boil it 
again, and put it into tlie beans boiling hot ; cover them close, and 
Avheii culd they will be fit to eat. 

Or, French beans may be pickled thus : Take your beans and 
string them, boil them tender, then take them oft* and let them stand 
till cold ; then put them into pickle of vinegar, pep^jcr, salt, clotes, 
mace, and a little ginger. 

102(1. To pickle WahnKs, to eat like mangoes. 
TAKE green walnuts, before the shell has grown to any hardness in 
them; pick them from the stalk and put them in cold water, and set 
them on a gentle fire, till the outward skins begin to peel off; then, 
•with a coarse cloth, wipe it off"; then put them into a jar, and put water 
and salt thei-ein, shifting it once a day for ten days, till the bitterness 
and discolouring of the water be gone ; ihen lake a good quantity of 
mustarci seed, which beat up with vinegar, till it becomes coarse nuis- 
tard ; then take some clove of garlic, some ginger, and a little cloves 
and mace ; make a hole in each nut, and put in a little of this ; thea 
take white- wine vinegar, and boil them together, w Inch iJUt to the nuts 
boihng hot, with some pepper, gl ger, cloves and mace, as also, some 
of the mustard seed and garlick, which keep close stopped for use. 
103ri To pickle Mushrooms. 
FIRST blanch them o^er the crowns, and barb them beneath ; then 
put them into a kettle of boihng water, then take them fortli and let 
them drain ; when they are cold, put them into your jar or glass, and 
put to them cloves, mace, ginger, nutmeg a»)d whole-pepper ; then 
take white-wine, a little vinegar, and salt ; then pour tlie liquor into 
the mushrooms, and stop them close for use. 

104M. To Pickle Lemon and Orange Peel, 
BOIL them in vinegar and sugar, and put them into the same pick- 
le : observe to cut them into small long thongs, the length of half the 
peel of your lemon ; it ought to be boiled in water, before it is boiled ill 
vinegar and sugar. 

105^. To Preserve Fruit green. 
TAKE pippins, apricots, pears, plumbs, or peaches, when they arc 
green ; scald them in hot water, and peel then; ; then put them into 
another water, not so hot as the first ; then boii the m very tender, and 
take the weight of them in sugar, and put to them as much water as 
will make a syrup ta cover them ; then boil the syrup till it be some^ 
what thick, and when cold put them together. 

\06ih. To Preserve "Raspberries. 
TAKE good raspberries that are not too ripe, but verv whole ; take 
awa} the stalks, and put them into a flat bottomed earthen pan ; boil 
sugar, and pour it < ver your raspberries, then let ihtm stand to be 
cool; and when they are cold, pour them softly mto vour preserving 
kettle and let them bod till your syrup be boiled pretty thick; scum 
tliem very well in the boiling ; this done, put them in pots, and when 
oold, cover them up close for use. 

\07th. To Preserve Barberries. 
TAKE one pound of barberries picked fron. the stalks, put them 
in a pottle-pot, and set it in a brass pot full of hot water, anr' when 
they are stewed, strain them, and put to the burberries one and an 
half pounds of sugar, and to them put a pint of rosewater, and boil 
them a little ; then take halfa pMinci of the fairest clusteis of barber- 
ries you can get, and dip them in the syrup ivhiist it is a boihng j the» 


take tlie barberries out, and boil the syrup till it is thkJc, And wbeh- 
cold, put them in glasses With the syrup. 

108M. To Preserve Currants. 

LAY a layer of currants, and then a layer of sugar, and then boil 

them together as before prescribed for raspberries ; scum them ia 

jboiling till the syrup is pretty thick ; then take them off, and when 

they are pretty cold, put them in gaily i>ols or glasses closely stopped. 

lf)9/A. To Preserve f^V alnuts green. 

BOIL the walnuts till the water tastes bitter, then take them off, 
^nd put them in cold water ; peel off the bark, and weigh as much 
€ugar as they weigh, and a little more water will then wet the sugar : 
set them on the fire, and when they boil up, take them off; let them 
ctand two days, and then boil again. 

110^/i. To Preserve Cherries. 

FIRST take some of the worst cherries, and boil them in fair water^ 
>and when the liquor is well coloured, strain it; then take some of the 
best cherries, wjth their weight in beaten sugar; then lay one layer 
of sugar, and another of clierries, till all is laid in the preserving ket- 
tle ; then pour a little liquor of the worst of cherries into it, and boil 
the cherries till they are well coloured : then take them up and boil 
the syrup till they will button on the side of a plate ; and wheu they 
are cold, put thera up in a glass close covered for use. 
With. To Candy Cherries. 

TAKE cherries before they be full ripe, anj take out the stones : 
then take clarified sugar boiled to a height, and pour it on them. 
1 l2//j. To Candy Pears, PlumbSy apricots, &c. 

TAKE thera, and give every one a cut half through ; then cast 
sugar on them, and bake them in an oven, as hot as for manchet, close 
stopped ; let them stand half an hour, then lay them one by one upon 
glass plates to dry, and they will appear veiy fine and clear : in this 
manner you may candy any other fruit. 

USth, Of Jellies. 

LET them be of apples, currents, raspberries, &c. Take out the 
clear liquor when squeezed, and boil it with sugar till it is as thick as 
a jelly. Then put into glasses, and cover it close. 
li4M. Jt most excellent Method of making Butter, as noxo practised 

in England, -which effectually prevents its changing and becoming 


THE day before churning, scald the cream in a clean iron kettle, 
OTer a clear fire taking care that it does not boil over. As soon as it 
begins to boil, or is sufficiently seal led, strain it, when the particles of 
milk which tend to our and change the butter are separated and left 
behind. Put the \essel in which it was strained in a tub of water, in 
a cellar, till next morning, when it will be ready for churning, and 
become butter in less than a quarter of the time required by the com- 
mon method. It will also be hard, with a peculiar additional sweet- 
ness, and will not change. The labor in this way is less than the 
other, as the Wutt^^r comes so much sooner, and saves so much labor 
in working out the butttrmilk. By this method, good butter may be 
made in the hottest weather 

Wbth A method of Preserving Eggs. 

EGGS keep very well when jbu can exclude air; which is best 
done by placing a grate in anv running water, and putting eggs, as 
the hens lay them, on the upper side of the grate, and tliere let them 
lie, covered' with water, till you are going to use them, when you will 
find them as good as ifthev had beer* lain that day. This way answers 
tnuch better than greasing ; as sometimes one place is mi^etl whioa 


jpoils the whole egg : even those that are fresh never eat so well. In 
places where prople are afraid their eggs wili be stolen, they should 
make a chest witli a nusnber of slits in il, tliat the water may get la 
freely ; i.he top oi which being above the water, may be locked dowix. 
Mi!l-damsare the most proper for these chests or grates. 

N B. The wat«r luust coiitinually cover the eggs, or they wilt 


116^^ To Cure Hams, as is practise d in Virginia. 
TAKH six pounds of tine salt, three pounds of brown sugar, oc 
three pints of molasses, and one pound of salt-petre jjowdered ; mix 
id! these together, to serve for twenty-four hams : rub each ham well 
all over with this mixture, and pack "them down in a cask or tub, and 
iet them so remain for five or six days; then turn l!»em, and sprinkle 
some salt lightly over them, and so iet them remain fi\e or six days 
more, then add brine or pickle strong enough to bear an egg, and 
let them remain covered with it for a month, when tliey will be fit to 

With. A7ioiher mode, equally as good and simple. 
TO four gallons of soft river water, add one pound of brown sugar, 
four ounces of salt petre, and eiglit pounds of coarse salt. Boil all 
these together, and carefully take offthe scum as it rises ; when clear;, 
let it remain till cold, then pour it over the meat till covered, and the 
quantity of pickle must be increased according to the quantity of meat ; 
*he meat must not be pressed, but put hghtly into a cask, and remain 
in for six or seven weeks, when it will be fit to smoke. 
II 8M. For a tmter to Destroy Bugs^ Flies, Ants and other Insects^ 
on tender plants. 
[Invented by C. Tatin, Seedsman and Florist at Paris. "I 
THE receipt for this valuablfcvConj])osition, and which obtained foi? 
the ingenious author a reward froYri the Bureau de Consultarn, who 
desired it might be made as pubhc as possible, is thus given in the 
Qelebrated Annalesde Chimic — 

Take of black soap four ounces, flour of sulphur four ounces, mush« 
i'ooms of any kind four ounces, water wherein dung has been soaked,^ 
awo gallons; and thus in proportion. Divide the v/ater into equal 
parts ; pom' one part into a barrel, vat or any vessel of convenient 
size ; which should be used only for this purpose ; let the hiack soap 
he stirred in it till it is dissolved, and then add to it the mushrooms 
after they have been slightly bruised. Let the remaining half of tTie 
ivater be made to boil in a kettle : put the whole quantity of sulphur 
into a coarse linen cloth, tie it up with a thread in fiu'm of a parcel, 
and fasten it to a stone or other weight, to make it sink to the bottom. 
During twenty minutes, beiiig the time that the boiling should con*- 
tiiiue, stir it well with a stick, and let the pa<-:'*:et of sul])hur be squeez- 
ed so as to make it yield to the water all its power and colour. The 
effect of the water is not rendered more powerfid by increasing the 
quantity of ingredients. The water, when taken off the fire, is to b© 
poured into the vessel, with the remaining water, where it is to be 
stirred a short time with a stick ; this stirring nmst he rc])eated every 
day, till the mixture becomes feetid, (nr putrid) in the highest degree, 
Bvperience shews, that the older and more foetid the composition isj> 
the more quick is its action. It is necessary to take care to stop the 
vessel well every time the mixture is stirred. When we wish to 
make use of this water, we need only s])rinkle it on the plants, ot 
plunge their branches into it : but the best manucjl* Of USlDg it, is iff' 
^'ect it Qa them with a syringe, or squirt gun. 

J? a 


nWi. To Kdi LUe on Catile. 

TAKE a broad wooU. i, lisi, as bnm«] as your hand, that "wiil go 
rrjund about his i.cck; then wet the hsi wch'in train oil, and sew it 
itbout the beast's neck, and the hcc w li come lo il,and it will kdUhem 
if there were evt-r so raany ; daub somt about ti»e breast iu severai 
l^laces and they will come to it, and it will kill the*.:. No fii^s ia 
sumiuer will come near any wound or sore, whete this is api)Ued,for 
It will kill them. ' 

\2(Mh. Tq Destroy Btigs, and rid Houses of them. 

TO remove these noibome and troublesome vernnn, take oil of 
turpentine, wash over the walls and bedsteads with it, or pnrticulafly 
M here there are any crevices, cracks or crannies, and they will die 
away, and the room, after some time using it,wlll no more be pestered 
With them. 

The juice of wormwood and rue is very good to wash the bed- 
steads, crevices, or any place where you suppose they are, and if you 
would lie s^feamon^ thousan<ls in a room, rince your sheets in waier, 
ivhereJM sassafras has been wt 11 j^teeped, and ihey will not enter upon 
Ihe.! ; or you may !:;y thai wood n\ slices among your linen, and it 
■'.vill have the same effect. Keep your rooms airy and clean always. 


To Farmers. 
121s^ ^8n eapjj method to preserve Wheat and Rye from the Weavih 

AS you slack wheat, on every twe or three layers of shea\es, spread 
.^"Dme elder leaves and branches. This was communicated to me by a 
farmer, who tried the experiment witli success last year. 'I'he sa ue 
informant adds, that he has rend in liistory, that the same remedy has 
been apjjlied in Europe, when tiiey have occasion to lay up a seven 
year's store, kc. As ih( remedy is easy, it is to be hoped that farmers 
-will avail themselves of the adviimtape Exporters ol flour from the 
fjtates have noth i.j;- so niuch to f: ai\ Inspeeiors of flour ou^ht to be 
j^uarded agai»ist this evil ; no ^\^kU t?our ou^rht to be suffered to leave 
the states. The credrr of our fiuur abmad depends on the insi)ector&. 

N. B. Lime, applied asal>o»e, will produce the same effect. 
12^3 J. To preserve Jndion Corn from Birds, &c. 

TO pr. vent your Inijiau corn when plantrd, from being taken up 
hy biids oi' destrosed by worms or insects, take about one pint of tar 
to a bushel of seed corn, and in the like i>rouortion for a greater quan- 
tity, and si>r it well together till e\ery grain receives a part of the tar. 
This will effectually ansv^er the ]>nrpose required. 

1 -2.3 J. For LiQculatitig Fi mi Trees^ 

AUGUST and September are the pr^ tper months to inoeulate er 
bud most kinds of fruit trees; an operation that every landholder 
shotdd have some knowledge of. When a tree lias finished its growth 
for the year, a bud is formed at the very tip or end of the twig ; which 
di'Motes that it ^s in a proper state to bud or Inoculate. Some trees 
are imeed an exception, as they continue growing almost the whole 
season, and may be hudded through all July and August. 

With a sharp knife, slit the bark of any twig not moe than half an 
inch thick, and not less than a quarter of an inch. Carefully cut 
^irough the hark, hut Mot to wound the wood under it Let the slit 
Ibe rather more than an inch Ion ;. Tn like manner cut half an inch long 
^ros9 1^9 gUt^ at Uie teottQoa, so that th^ Wo ct^te tJvPOOgH tl^e- 1?^ 


Will resemble a x bottom upwards. Then take a bud of the fruit 
you wish to ppoi>agate, with its bark near an incl* long, taking care 10 
loosen It from the woody part of the stem, so as to put it off trom 
your timmb and finger, separating the bark and the eye under the 
bud from the wood. If the eye is left on the wood, you must throw- 
hy the bud and take another. Tlien insert the bud under the j^, he- 
fore described, and bind it down with woollen strings, or well soaked 
stnpsof bark of bass wood, leaving the eye of the bud to the air. In 
two or turee weeks, the bud will unite with the stalks, when the 
string must be loosened. The stocks, may be cut away the next 
spring. This method is on many accounts better than grafting. It 
gives the farmer another chance, provided his grafts fail in the spring. 
Stone fruits succeed ordy or best with inoculation. Small twigs, too 
small for common grafting, answer well — and above all in this way, 
very little injury is done to the stock. In a fruit country, this method 
ou^'ht to be well understood. A correspontient says, that cow-dung, 
with the addition of a veiy little salt, is a good plaister for the wounds 
oftVuit tiees. When large limbs are cut of, the stumps should be 
covered to keep out the air. Too much sa!t will spoil the tree. 
124/ A. To take a Film off a Morsels Eye. 

BLAOK Pepper, finely ground, and sifted thro' a piece of gauze; 
add thereto fine ground salt, of each as much hs will lay on the point 
cf,a case knife, mixing them well together ; then take as much dougb 
as will thinly cover an ounce ball, make it flat, place the pepper and 
salt thereon, and roll them up, making the same about the size of an 
ounce ball ; then put it as low down as possible in the off ear fastening, 
the ear so as to prevent its falling out The above takes off the worst 
of films, and no way injures the horse. This receipt has been used 
many years iu this place with the greatest success. 

125^/1. A Cure for Sheep-Biting. 

AN intelligent farmerrin New-Jersey seized a dog which often wot- 
wed and bit his sheep. He tied the leg of the dog by a tether to the 
leg of a strong active ram, and placed them on the top of a hill. The 
x-am immediately began to kick and butt the dog, who after a little 
snapping, attempted to fly. The tether held him, so that the ram 
easily overtook, kicked and butted him. After a short time the ram, 
excited to exertion, raced down the hill, and forced the do;4 after him. 
When the dog was so punished f>s not to forget it, he was let loose, and 
vould neyer touch a sheep afterwards. 

126^^. An easy and sure Method to find due JVorth and South. 

TAKE a smooth piece of boanl, draw on it four, five or six circles^, 
Osten it on the top of a post, stick a pin in the centre which the cir- 
cles are drawn on within each other ; observe in the forenoon on^ which 
circle the shadow of the head of the pin strikes, and make a mark; 
then in the afternoon observe when it strikes on the other side of the 
same circle ; then fiiid the centre on the circle, then strike a line iroffx 
'^e to lh« Gt^er^ viucb canaot fail of being north and south*